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Shahid Hussain, Prashant K Jamwal, Mergen H Ghayesh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While body weight support (BWS) intonation is vital during conventional gait training of neurologically challenged subjects, it is important to evaluate its effect during robot assisted gait training. In the present research we have studied the effect of BWS intonation on muscle activities during robotic gait training using dynamic simulations. METHODS: Two dimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed conjointly with another 2-D model of a robotic orthosis capable of actuating hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously...
May 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Pamela Durepos, Abigail Wickson-Griffiths, Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Sharon Kaasalainen, Vasilia Vastis, Lisa Battistella, Alexandra Papaioannou
CONTEXT: Families of persons with dementia continue to report unmet needs during end of life (EOL). Strategies to improve care and quality of life for persons with dementia include development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and an integrative palliative approach. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess palliative care content in dementia CPGs to identify the presence or limitations of recommendations and discussion pertaining to common issues or domains affected by illness as described by the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care Association "Square of Care...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Lauren C Benson, Thomas G Almonroeder, Kristian M O'Connor
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is common among runners and those recovering from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Training programs designed to prevent or treat injuries often include balance training, although balance interventions have been reported to coincide with more knee injuries. Knowledge of the effect of balance exercises on knee mechanics may be useful when designing training programs. High knee abduction moment has been implicated in the development of PFP, and imbalance between vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) may contribute to patellofemoral stress...
January 2017: Human Movement Science
Joshua I Warrick, Vonn Walter, Hironobu Yamashita, Eunah Chung, Lauren Shuman, Vasty Osei Amponsa, Zongyu Zheng, Wilson Chan, Tiffany L Whitcomb, Feng Yue, Tejaswi Iyyanki, Yuka I Kawasawa, Matthew Kaag, Wansong Guo, Jay D Raman, Joo-Seop Park, David J DeGraff
Discrete bladder cancer molecular subtypes exhibit differential clinical aggressiveness and therapeutic response, which may have significant implications for identifying novel treatments for this common malignancy. However, research is hindered by the lack of suitable models to study each subtype. To address this limitation, we classified bladder cancer cell lines into molecular subtypes using publically available data in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), guided by genomic characterization of bladder cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to non-isometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, i.e., joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Hironobu Yamashita, Vasty Osei Amponsa, Joshua I Warrick, Zongyu Zheng, Peter E Clark, Jay D Raman, Xue-Ru Wu, Cathy Mendelsohn, David J DeGraff
Genomic and transcriptional studies have identified discrete molecular subtypes of bladder cancer. These observations could be the starting point to identify new treatments. Several members of the forkhead box (FOX) superfamily of transcription factors have been found to be differentially expressed in the different bladder cancer subtypes. In addition, the FOXA protein family are key regulators of embryonic bladder development and patterning. Both experimental and clinical data support a role for FOXA1 and FOXA2 in urothelial carcinoma...
November 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Jens Ebing, Ulf Gast, Christoph Hauptmann, Dieter Felsenberg, Daniel L Belavý
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of vertical (Power-plate; POW) and side-alternating (Galileo; GAL) whole-body vibration exercise on muscle mass and lower-limb neuromuscular function. Forty-three sedentary male subjects (18-30yr) randomized into three groups underwent two upper-body exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. Two groups of subjects underwent additional squat exercises on the GAL (N=15) or POW (N=14) devices. The third group was control. On magnetic resonance imaging, volume of the thigh muscles was measured...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Javid Mostamand, Dan L Bader, Zoë Hudson
INTRODUCTION: Although measuring vasti muscle activity may reveal whether pain relief is associated with altering this parameter during functional activities in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), it may be necessary to determine whether the inherent properties of the dominant leg influences the reliability of measuring VMO/VL amplitude. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of leg predomination on reliability testing of the VMO/VL amplitude measurement during single leg squatting in healthy subjects...
October 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Katie A Ewing, Justin W Fernandez, Rezaul K Begg, Mary P Galea, Peter V S Lee
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury can be a painful, debilitating and costly consequence of participating in sporting activities. Prophylactic knee bracing aims to reduce the number and severity of ACL injury, which commonly occurs during landing maneuvers and is more prevalent in female athletes, but a consensus on the effectiveness of prophylactic knee braces has not been established. The lower-limb muscles are believed to play an important role in stabilizing the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in lower-limb muscle function with prophylactic knee bracing in male and female athletes during landing...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Nathaniel T Pickle, Alena M Grabowski, Arick G Auyang, Anne K Silverman
Sloped walking is biomechanically different from level-ground walking, as evidenced by changes in joint kinematics and kinetics. However, the changes in muscle functional roles underlying these altered movement patterns have not been established. In this study, we developed a total of 273 muscle-actuated simulations to assess muscle functional roles, quantified by induced body center-of-mass accelerations and trunk and leg power, during walking on slopes of 0°, ±3°, ±6°, and ±9° at 1.25m/s. The soleus and gastrocnemius both provided greater forward acceleration of the body parallel to the slope at +9° compared to level ground (+126% and +66%, respectively)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Richard R Neptune, Craig P McGowan
The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is important for maintaining dynamic balance during human walking, which is particularly challenging in the frontal plane. Whole-body angular momentum is actively regulated by individual muscle forces. Thus, understanding which muscles contribute to frontal plane angular momentum will further our understanding of mediolateral balance control and has the potential to help diagnose and treat balance disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the frontal plane using a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation analysis...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Marjolein Margaretha van der Krogt, Lynn Bar-On, Thalia Kindt, Kaat Desloovere, Jaap Harlaar
BACKGROUND: Increased resistance in muscles and joints is an important phenomenon in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), and is caused by a combination of neural (e.g. spasticity) and non-neural (e.g. contracture) components. The aim of this study was to simulate instrumented, clinical assessment of the hamstring muscles in CP using a conceptual model of contracture and spasticity, and to determine to what extent contracture can be explained by altered passive muscle stiffness, and spasticity by (purely) velocity-dependent stretch reflex...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Ryosuke Ando, Aya Tomita, Kohei Watanabe, Hiroshi Akima
We compared vasti muscle electromyograms for two knee joint angles during fatiguing tetanic contractions. Tetanic contraction of the knee extensors was evoked for 70 s by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve at knee joint angles of 60° (extended, with 0° indicating full extension) and 110° (flexed) in eight healthy men. Surface electromyography was recorded from the vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Knee extension force and M-wave amplitudes and durations were calculated every 7 s, which were normalized by the initial value...
May 19, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Sarah H Ward, Alan Pearce, Kim L Bennell, Brian Peitrosimone, Adam L Bryant
BACKGROUND: Altered quadriceps corticomotor excitability has been demonstrated following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction, however only the single joint vasti muscles have been assessed. There is no current data on rectus femoris corticomotor excitability following ACL injury, the biarticular quadriceps muscle also critical for force attenuation and locomotion. The purpose of this study was to examine rectus femoris corticomotor excitability, intracortical inhibition and cortical motor representation in individuals with and without an ACL injury...
August 2016: Knee
Maria Fonte Petruzzelli, Maria Pia Vasti, Francesco Tramacere, Maria Patrizia D'Errico, Emilio A L Gianicolo, Maria Grazia Andreassi, Eugenio Picano, Maurizio Portaluri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients exposed to doses of radiation after radiotherapy could develop toxicity to lung. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is able to detect interstitial lung disease by the evaluation of B-lines. The aim of our study was to assess the number of B-lines to diagnose lung involvement after chest radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured LUS B-lines in the treated and contralateral lung of 20 breast cancer patients, 1-3 months after the end of radiotherapy and 1 year after previous LUS...
September 2016: Echocardiography
Prasanna Sritharan, Yi-Chung Lin, Sara E Richardson, Kay M Crossley, Trevor B Birmingham, Marcus G Pandy
This study quantified the contributions by muscles, gravity and inertia to the tibiofemoral compartment forces in the symptomatic (SYM) and asymptomatic (ASYM) limbs of varus mal-aligned medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and compared the results with healthy controls (CON). Muscle forces and tibiofemoral compartment loads were calculated using gait data from 39 OA patients and 15 controls aged 49 ± 7 years. Patients exhibited lower knee flexion angle, higher hip abduction and knee adduction angles, lower internal knee flexion torque but higher external knee adduction moment...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ryoichi Ema, Masanori Sakaguchi, Ryota Akagi, Yasuo Kawakami
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine whether muscle activation of the quadriceps femoris differs between single- and multi-joint exercises, and to explore the factors resulting in muscle and exercise specificity in activation. METHODS: Eleven adults developed isometric hip extension torque gradually while maintaining submaximal isometric knee extension torque (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, 15 men performed knee extension and leg press separately at intensities of 20, 40, 60 and 80 % of their one repetition maximum (1RM) load, and 14 men conducted leg press at intensities of 40 and 80 % of 1RM until exhaustion (Experiment 3)...
May 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alireza Motealleh, Elham Gheysari, Esmaeil Shokri, Sobhan Sobhani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immediate effect of lubmopelvic manipulation on EMG activity of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and gluteus medius as well as pain and functional performance of athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome. DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Twenty eight athletes with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received a lubmopelvic manipulation at the side of the involved knee while the other group received a sham manipulation...
April 2016: Manual Therapy
K Grob, T Ackland, M S Kuster, M Manestar, L Filgueira
The quadriceps femoris is traditionally described as a muscle group composed of the rectus femoris and the three vasti. However, clinical experience and investigations of anatomical specimens are not consistent with the textbook description. We have found a second tensor-like muscle between the vastus lateralis (VL) and the vastus intermedius (VI), hereafter named the tensor VI (TVI). The aim of this study was to clarify whether this intervening muscle was a variation of the VL or the VI, or a separate head of the extensor apparatus...
March 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Taku Wakahara, Ryoichi Ema, Naokazu Miyamoto, Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of this study was to examine whether inter- and intramuscular differences in hypertrophy induced by resistance training correspond to differences in muscle activation during the first training session. Eleven young men completed 12 weeks of training intervention for knee extension. Before and after the intervention, T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were recorded to determine the volume and anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) along the length of the individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris...
November 17, 2015: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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