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Head and neck molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790687/expression-profiles-of-selected-genes-in-tumors-and-matched-surgical-margins-in-oral-cavity-cancer-do-we-have-to-pay-attention-to-the-molecular-analysis-of-the-surgical-margins
#1
Joanna K Strzelczyk, Łukasz Krakowczyk, Karolina Gołąbek, Aleksander J Owczarek
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are associated with an interplay between genetics and the environment; they account for 3% of all diagnosed malignant tumors in men and 2% of those in women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the significance of TIMP3, SFRP1, SFRP2, CDH1, RASSF1, RORA, and DAPK1 gene expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors, and in matching surgical margin samples. We also analyzed the association between clinical parameters and the expression of the selected genes...
April 24, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759330/-who-classification-of-head-and-neck-tumours-2017-main-novelties-and-update-of-diagnostic-methods
#2
REVIEW
Victor Sarradin, Aurore Siegfried, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Jean-Pierre Delord
The publication of the new WHO classification of head and neck tumours in 2017 brought major modifications. Especially, a new chapter is dedicated to the oropharynx, focusing on the description of squamous cell carcinoma induced by the virus Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and new entities of tumors are described in nasal cavities and sinuses. In this article are presented the novelties and main changes of this new classification, as well as the updates of the diagnostic methods (immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics or molecular biology)...
May 11, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723382/what-does-the-4th-edition-of-the-world-health-organization-classification-of-head-and-neck-tumors-2017-bring-new-about-mucosal-melanomas
#3
José Cândido Caldeira Xavier Júnior, Juliana Polizel Ocanha-Xavier
The recently published 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumors addresses the most relevant and updated aspects of tumor biology, including clinical presentation, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and prognosis of head and neck tumors. The objective of the present study is to compare these updates to the 3rd edition of that book with regard to mucosal melanomas and to highlight the potential factors that differ those tumors from cutaneous melanomas. We observed progress in the understanding of oral and sinonasal mucosal melanomas, which also present themselves, in the molecular scope, differently form cutaneous melanomas...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700887/cic-nutm1-fusion-a-case-which-expands-the-spectrum-of-nut-rearranged-epithelioid-malignancies
#4
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Paola Dal Cin, Christopher D M Fletcher, Glenn J Hanna, Christopher A French
NUT carcinoma (NC) shows very aggressive clinical behavior, occurs predominantly in the thorax and head and neck region of children and adults, and is defined by the presence of NUT (aka NUTM1) rearrangement, mostly BRD4-NUTM1 fusion resulting from t(15;19)(q13, p13.1). So-called "NUT variants" harbor alternate fusions between NUTM1 and BRD3, NSD3, ZNF532, or unknown partners. Rare cases of pediatric tumors with CIC-NUTM1 fusion were recently reported in somatic soft tissue, brain, and kidney. However, such cases have not been identified in adult patients and the presence of a fusion between CIC, characteristic of CIC-rearranged sarcoma, and NUTM1, a defining feature of NC - poses a diagnostic challenge...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692246/an-evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-and-anticancer-properties-of-complex-compounds-of-copper-ii-platinum-ii-palladium-ii-and-ruthenium-iii-for-use-in-cancer-therapy
#5
Anna Katarzyna Szczepanska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Ireneusz Majsterek
The incidence of head and neck cancer increases every year, and represents a significant problem for Molecular Biology at the beginning of the twenty-first Century. Despite advances in treatment, most studies still strive to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of cancerogenesis. In order to develop more effective methods of diagnosis and therapy, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of the neoplastic transformation process. Such findings obtained by research into Molecular Biology, Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics have brought significant progress in understanding the complex, multi-step process which takes place during tumor formation...
April 23, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676642/immunomethylomics-a-novel-cancer-risk-prediction-tool
#6
Karl T Kelsey, John K Wiencke
There is emerging evidence that the immune biology associated with lung and other solid tumors, as well as patient immune genetic traits, contributes to individual survival. At this time, dramatic advances in immunologic approaches to the study and management of human cancers are taking place, including lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, major obstacles for therapies are the profound immune alterations in blood and in the tumor microenvironment that arise in tandem with the cancer. Although there is a significant current effort underway across the cancer research community to probe the tumor environment to uncover the dynamics of the immune response, little similar work is being done to understand the dynamics of immune alterations in peripheral blood, despite evidence showing the prognostic relevance of the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for these cancers...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652014/bcl-x-expression-in-oral-cancer-comparison-between-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-verrucous-carcinoma
#7
Payal Shukla, Sudeendra Prabhu, Maji Jose, B H Sripathi Rao
Background: Verrucous carcinoma (VC) should be considered a distinct clinicopathologic entity different from the more common oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) because of its unique biological behavior. Best way to understand the behavior of these carcinomas is to study them by means of molecular methods, especially in tumor progression tests and Bcl-X is an important antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and is one of the newest and most useful markers to determine the aggressiveness of many carcinomas...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562960/mir-632-promotes-laryngeal-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-through-negative-regulation-of-gsk3%C3%AE
#8
Zhong-Xin Zhou, Zu-Ping Zhang, Ze-Zhang Tao, Ting-Zhao Tan
Laryngeal cancer, one of the most common head and neck malignancies, is an aggressive neoplasm. Increasing evidence hasdemonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) exert important roles in oncogenesis and progression of diverse types of human cancers. MiR-632, a tumor-related miRNA, has been reported to be dysregulated and implicated in human malignancies; however, its biological role in laryngeal carcinoma remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed at exploring the role of miR-632 in laryngeal cancer and clarifying the potential molecular mechanisms involved...
March 21, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541566/surgical-interventions-for-advanced-parameningeal-rhabdomyosarcoma-of-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Emre Yilmaz
Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534625/cetuximab-for-treating-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Luca Mazzarella, Alessandro Guida, Giuseppe Curigliano
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in epithelial cancer biology, and dictated the development of several targeting agents. The mouse-human chimeric antibody Cetuximab was among the first to be developed. After about two decades of clinical research it has gained a significant place in the management of advanced colorectal and head and neck cancers, whereas its development in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not led to a place in routine clinical practice, because of marginal clinical benefit despite statistically significant Phase III trials...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531857/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-focus-on-heavy-ion-therapy-and-molecular-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520558/the-role-of-heavy-metals-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-the-oncogenesis-of-head-and-neck-tumors-and-thyroid-diseases-a-pilot-study
#12
V Petrosino, G Motta, G Tenore, M Coletta, A Guariglia, D Testa
Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs...
April 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497144/the-molecular-landscape-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
REVIEW
C René Leemans, Peter J F Snijders, Ruud H Brakenhoff
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arise in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract and are unexpectedly heterogeneous in nature. Classical risk factors are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and in recent years, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has emerged, particularly in oropharyngeal tumours. HPV-induced oropharyngeal tumours are considered a separate disease entity, which recently has manifested in an adapted prognostic staging system while the results of de-intensified treatment trials are awaited...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489434/targeting-the-dna-damage-response-in-oscc-with-tp53-mutations
#14
A Lindemann, H Takahashi, A A Patel, A A Osman, J N Myers
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460521/hpv-acting-on-e-cadherin-p53-and-p16-literature-review
#15
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416703/current-research-on-head-and-neck-cancer-associated-long-noncoding-rnas
#16
REVIEW
Wei Song, Yimin Sun, Jie Lin, Xiaoqin Bi
Head and neck cancers (HNC) are one of the ten leading cancers worldwide, including a range of malignant tumors arising from the upper neck. Due to the complex mechanisms of HNC and lack of effective biomarkers, the 5-year survival rate of HNC has been low and the mortality rate has been high in recent decades. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), noncoding RNAs longer than 200 bps, are a focus of current cancer research, closely related to tumor biology. LncRNAs have been revealed to be aberrantly expressed in various types of HNC, and the dysregulated lncRNAs participate in HNC progression and induce malignant behavior by modulating gene expression at diverse levels...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397631/development-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-targeted-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Liu Qing, Wang Qing
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family are a series of important cancer therapeutic targets involved in cancer biology. These genes play an important role in tumor biological characteristics including angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion and glucose metabolism. In recent years, progresses have been achieved upon the cellular and molecular biological characteristics of EGFR and its role in cancer development based on the study of tumor specimens and experimental animal model. EGFR(HER1/ErbB) is overexpressed in over sixty percent of triple-negative breast cancers and occurs in pancreatic, bladder, lung and head-and-neck cancers...
February 1, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389333/targeted-cancer-therapies-oral-health-care-implications
#18
Eleni Georgakopoulou, Justin Stebbing, Crispian Scully
BACKGROUND: Targeted treatments have been incorporated into oncology protocols, often with more traditional therapies, and are not totally free of adverse reactions, some of which affect the orofacial region. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the US Food and Drug Administration Approved Drug Products database to identify reported adverse effects of targeted agents in the orofacial region as well as other implications in oral health care...
February 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312563/trkb-promotes-laryngeal-cancer-metastasis-via-activation-pi3k-akt-pathway
#19
Liang Jiang, Zhihai Wang, Chuan Liu, Zhitao Gong, Yucheng Yang, Houyong Kang, Yanshi Li, Guohua Hu
Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the role of TrkB pathway in tumor occurrence and development for in order to provide theoretical basis to laryngeal cancer therapy. Materials and methods: Biological characteristics of the cells were studied by migration tests and colony forming assay. Gene and protein expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR or western blot. in vivo experiments were conducted in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Results: Significant changes in protein and gene expression, including higher expression level of TrkB, were found in cells and laryngeal cancer specimens...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217059/new-frontiers-in-our-understanding-of-lymphatic-malformations-of-the-head-and-neck-natural-history-and-basic-research
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan A Perkins
The future of head and neck lymphatic malformation (HNLM) evaluation and treatment is changing because of 2 decades of clinical research and recent basic science investigation. Basic science investigation using cellular biology and molecular genetics has revealed the genetic cause of some HNLMs, which has created the possibility of medical treatment specific to HNLM. This article summarizes the clinical and basic science research that will likely influence the future of HNLM assessment and treatment.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
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