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Head and neck molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407653/differential-pattern-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-hnscc-cancer-stem-cells-after-carbon-ion-or-photon-irradiation-one-molecular-explanation-of-the-oxygen-effect
#1
Anne-Sophie Wozny, Alexandra Lauret, Priscillia Battiston-Montagne, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Michael Beuve, Micaela Cunha, Yannick Saintigny, Emilie Blond, Nicolas Magne, Philippe Lalle, Dominique Ardail, Gersende Alphonse, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are resistant to standard treatments, partly due to cancer stem cells (CSCs) localised in hypoxic niches. Compared to X-rays, carbon ion irradiation relies on better ballistic properties, higher relative biological effectiveness and the absence of oxygen effect. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the resistance to photons, whereas its role in response to carbon ions remains unclear. METHODS: Two HNSCC cell lines and their CSC sub-population were studied in response to photons or carbon ion irradiation, in normoxia or hypoxia, after inhibition or not of HIF-1α...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405244/clusterization-in-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinomas-based-on-lncrna-expression-molecular-and-clinical-correlates
#2
Pelayo G de Lena, Abel Paz-Gallardo, Jesús M Paramio, Ramón García-Escudero
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key players in a remarkably variety of biological processes and pathologic conditions, including cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics procedures predict the existence of tens of thousands of lncRNAs, from which we know the functions of only a handful of them, and very little is known in cancer types such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). RESULTS: Here, we use RNAseq expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and various statistic and software tools in order to get insight about the lncRNome in HNSCC...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351566/micrornas-in-human-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutic-implications
#3
REVIEW
Omer Faruk Karatas, Muhammet Oner, Alican Abay, Ali Diyapoglu
Being one of the most aggressive cancers of oral cavity, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) constitutes 41% of all oral carcinomas. Despite considerable improvements in multimodal diagnosis and treatment techniques, TSCC still remains to be one of the most lethal cancer types in the head and neck region. MicroRNAs are endogenously synthesized, small, non-coding RNAs, which are responsible for post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA expression. They are involved in regulation of almost all biological processes through their spatial and temporal expression...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325958/micrornas-involvement-in-radioresistance-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Parwez Ahmad, Jiri Sana, Marek Slavik, Pavel Slampa, Pavel Smilek, Ondrej Slaby
Resistance to the ionizing radiation is a current problem in the treatment and clinical management of various cancers including head and neck cancer. There are several biological and molecular mechanisms described to be responsible for resistance of the tumors to radiotherapy. Among them, the main mechanisms include alterations in intracellular pathways involved in DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. It has been found that regulation of these complex processes is often controlled by microRNAs...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325255/mucosal-melanoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#5
REVIEW
Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Remo Accorona, Gerardo Botti, Davide Farina, Piero Fossati, Gemma Gatta, Helen Gogas, Davide Lombardi, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai, Marco Ravanelli, Vito Vanella
Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a very rare and aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and oral cavity are the most common locations. One-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between 2000 and 2007 were 63%, 30% and 20%, respectively. Cigarette smoking seems to be a risk factor even though the evidence for this is very low. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. While surgery is considered the mainstay of treatment for most mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region, radiotherapy has a role in local control of the disease after surgery...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270740/repression-of-gprc5a-is-associated-with-activated-stat3-which-contributes-to-tumor-progression-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Shuli Liu, Dongxia Ye, Tong Wang, Wenzheng Guo, Hongyong Song, Yueling Liao, Dongliang Xu, Hanguang Zhu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Jiong Deng
BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 member A (GPRC5A), a retinoic acid-inducible gene, is a lung tumor suppressor. Previously, we showed that repression of GPRC5A expression was associated with pathologic differentiation grade of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and overexpression of GPRC5A gene inhibited the malignant phenotype in OSCC cells, suggesting that GPRC5A also functions as a tumor suppressor in oral cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GPRC5A deficiency in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still unclear...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192747/biology-and-patterns-of-response-to-egfr-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-cancers-of-the-lung-and-head-neck
#7
REVIEW
Rosalyn A Juergens, Scott V Bratman, Ming-Sound Tsao, Scott A Laurie, M Sara Kuruvilla, Albiruni R A Razak, Aaron R Hansen
The identification of common molecular aberrations that drive cancer progression has led to targeted therapies that improve treatment efficacy in many tumor types. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been used to treat both lung and head and neck cancers with squamous cell histology. These tumors often show high EGFR expression and/or increased gene copy number, but low incidence of the activating kinase domain mutations common to adenocarcinomas of the lung. In this manuscript, we review clinical trial data on EGFR-inhibitors in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung and head and neck (SCCHN), including both efficacy and biomarker analyses...
March 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149885/potential-biomarkers-for-radiosensitivity-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#8
COMMENT
Sherly Pardo-Reoyo, J L Roig-Lopez, Eddy S Yang
Radiotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for head and neck cancer. However, the morbidity of treatment remains a clinical challenge. Molecular profiling has provided further insight into tumor biology and tumor sensitivity to radiation, and this information could be used to personalize treatment. In this review, we discuss published signatures of radiosensitivity and discuss the pathways that may be important in dictating radiation sensitivity. Applications of these signatures could result in less morbidity if dose de-escalation efforts are successful...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101231/the-biological-significance-of-methylome-differences-in-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
Maria J Worsham, Kang Mei Chen, Indrani Datta, Josena K Stephen, Dhananjay Chitale, Alexandra Gothard, George Divine
In recent years, studies have suggested that promoter methylation in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a mechanistic role and has the potential to improve patient survival. The present study aimed to replicate key molecular findings from previous analyses of the methylomes of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC in an independent cohort, to assess the reliability of differentially methylated markers in HPV-associated tumors. HPV was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and the biological significance of methylation differences was assessed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079973/a-regulatory-bmi1-let-7i-erk3-pathway-controls-the-motility-of-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#10
Lobna Elkhadragy, Minyi Chen, Kennon Miller, Muh-Hwa Yang, Weiwen Long
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), whose biological activity is tightly regulated by its cellular abundance. Recent studies have revealed that ERK3 is upregulated in multiple cancers and promotes cancer cell migration/invasion and drug resistance. Little is known, however, about how ERK3 expression level is upregulated in cancers. Here, we have identified the oncogenic polycomb group protein BMI1 as a positive regulator of ERK3 level in head and neck cancer cells...
February 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061634/personalized-medicine-approach-for-an-exceptional-response-to-multiple-recurrent-and-metastatic-her2-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Nolan B Seim, Stephen Y Kang, Milan Bhandari, Riley G Jones, Theodoros N Teknos
INTRODUCTION: Advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck carries an overall poor prognosis, and survivorship gains have remained relatively stagnant compared to other malignancies due to its complex tumor biology and lack of proven effective targeting agents. METHODS: We present a case of an exceptional responder to molecular-targeted therapy for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using a chemotherapeutic agent FDA approved for breast cancer and targeting the HER2/Neu receptor in order to discuss the larger clinical implications...
April 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048906/su-f-t-666-molecular-targeted-gold-nanorods-enhances-the-rbe-of-proton-therapy
#12
A Khoo, N Sahoo, S Krishnan, P Diagaradjane
PURPOSE: In recent years, proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has gained significant attention in the treatment of tumors in anatomically complex locations. However, the therapeutic benefit of PBRT is limited by a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of just 1.1. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this limitation can be overcome by artificially enhancing the RBE using molecular-targeted gold nanorods (GNRs). METHODS: Molecular-targeting of GNRs was accomplished using Cetuximab (antibody specific to epidermal growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in tumors) conjugated GNRs (cGNRs) and their binding affinity to Head and Neck cancer cells was confirmed using dark field microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993569/a-genome-based-model-for-adjusting-radiotherapy-dose-gard-a-retrospective-cohort-based-study
#13
Jacob G Scott, Anders Berglund, Michael J Schell, Ivaylo Mihaylov, William J Fulp, Binglin Yue, Eric Welsh, Jimmy J Caudell, Kamran Ahmed, Tobin S Strom, Eric Mellon, Puja Venkat, Peter Johnstone, John Foekens, Jae Lee, Eduardo Moros, William S Dalton, Steven A Eschrich, Howard McLeod, Louis B Harrison, Javier F Torres-Roca
BACKGROUND: Despite its common use in cancer treatment, radiotherapy has not yet entered the era of precision medicine, and there have been no approaches to adjust dose based on biological differences between or within tumours. We aimed to assess whether a patient-specific molecular signature of radiation sensitivity could be used to identify the optimum radiotherapy dose. METHODS: We used the gene-expression-based radiation-sensitivity index and the linear quadratic model to derive the genomic-adjusted radiation dose (GARD)...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966459/the-transcription-levels-and-prognostic-values-of-seven-proteasome-alpha-subunits-in-human-cancers
#14
Yunhai Li, Jing Huang, Jiazheng Sun, Shili Xiang, Dejuan Yang, Xuedong Ying, Mengqi Lu, Hongzhong Li, Guosheng Ren
Proteasome alpha subunits (PSMAs) have been shown to participate in the malignant progression of human cancers. However, the expression patterns and prognostic values of individual PSMAs remain elusive in most cancers. In the present study, we investigated the mRNA expression levels of seven PSMAs in different kinds of cancers using Oncomine and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. The prognostic significance of PSMAs was also determined by Kaplan-Meier Plotter and PrognScan databases. Combined with Oncomine and TCGA, the mRNA expression levels of PSMA1-7 were significantly upregulated in breast, lung, gastric, bladder and head and neck cancer compared with normal tissues...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959944/bemer-electromagnetic-field-therapy-reduces-cancer-cell-radioresistance-by-enhanced-ros-formation-and-induced-dna-damage
#15
Katja Storch, Ellen Dickreuter, Anna Artati, Jerzy Adamski, Nils Cordes
Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924064/toward-the-use-of-precision-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Wang Gong, Yandi Xiao, Zihao Wei, Yao Yuan, Min Qiu, Chongkui Sun, Xin Zeng, Xinhua Liang, Mingye Feng, Qianming Chen
Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of "big data", such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919336/tissue-reactions-to-ionizing-radiation-oral-mucosa
#17
Sylvia Gruber, Wolfgang Dörr
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment strategies for solid malignancies, including head-and-neck tumors (HNT). Oral mucositis is the most frequent, often dose-limiting early adverse event of radio(chemo)therapy for HNT. The oral mucosal response is - like that of typical turnover tissues - based on radiation-induced impairment of epithelial proliferation and cell production, in face of ongoing physiological cell differentiation and cell loss, consequently resulting in hypoplasia and eventually mucosal ulceration...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895714/early-detection-and-personalized-treatment-in-oral-cancer-the-impact-of-omics-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Ilda Patrícia Ribeiro, Leonor Barroso, Francisco Marques, Joana Barbosa Melo, Isabel Marques Carreira
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is one of the most common malignant lesions of the head and neck. This cancer is an aggressive and lethal disease with no significant improvements in the overall survival in the last decades. Moreover, the incidence of oral HPV-positive tumors is rising, especially in young people. This oral neoplasm develops through numerous molecular imbalances that affect key genes and signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of oral tumors are still to be fully determined...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891452/clinical-utility-of-serum-homocysteine-and-folate-as-tumor-markers-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Sridhar Reddy Erugula, Mahesh Kumar Kandukuri, Prasanna M Danappanavar, Kranti Kiran Reddy Ealla, Surekha Velidandla, Sangameshwar Manikya
INTRODUCTION: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy involving head and neck. Identifying the markers of molecular levels or biochemical markers involving the various metabolic reactions associated with the initiation and biological behavior of individual tumors are very important in diagnosis and prognosis. AIM: To measure and compare the levels of serum Homocysteine (Hcy) and serum folate in OSCC patients, smoking group and healthy subjects and also to assess the clinical utility of serum Hcy as a potential tumor marker in OSCC...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877135/metabolomics-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Jae M Shin, Pachiyappan Kamarajan, J Christopher Fenno, Alexander H Rickard, Yvonne L Kapila
Metabolomics is used in systems biology to enhance the understanding of complex disease processes, such as cancer. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is an epithelial malignancy that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract and affects more than half a million people worldwide each year. Recently, significant effort has focused on integrating multiple "omics" technologies for oncological research. In particular, research has been focused on identifying tumor-specific metabolite profiles using different sample types (biological fluids, cells and tissues) and a variety of metabolomic platforms and technologies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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