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Head and neck molecular biology

Prosenjit Paul, Himangshu Deka, Arup K Malakar, Binata Halder, Supriyo Chakraborty
Among all cancers, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is quite high in the endemic regions. NPC is a head and neck cancer with poor survival rate, and is rare throughout most of the world but common in certain geographic areas, like southern Asia and some regions of North East India (Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram). A clear understanding of its etiology is still lacking, but NPC is widely suspected to be the result of both genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental factors or Epstein-Barr virus infection...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Ruud H Brakenhoff, Steffen Wagner, Jens P Klussmann
Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The large majority are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) that develop in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors develop either by exogenous carcinogen exposure (smoking, alcohol drinking) or by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly those in the oropharynx (OPSCC). HPV-positive (HPV+ve) and HPV-negative (HPV-ve) OPSCC are considered different disease entities. HPV+ve tumors are different at the molecular level and likely as a consequence have a much more favorable prognosis than HPV-ve tumors, despite their generally advanced stage at presentation...
2017: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Derek A Escalante, He Wang, Christopher E Fundakowski
Fusion proteins resulting from chromosomal rearrangements are known to drive the pathogenesis of a variety of hematological and solid neoplasms such as chronic myeloid leukemia and non-small-cell lung cancer. Efforts to elucidate the role they play in these malignancies have led to important diagnostic and therapeutic triumphs, including the famous development of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib targeting the BCR-ABL fusion. Until recently, there has been a paucity of research investigating fusion proteins harbored by head and neck neoplasms...
August 15, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Hongwei Liu, Jintao Li, Yubai Zhou, Qin Hu, Yi Zeng, Mohammadzad Mehryar Mohammadreza
Many epidemical and biological studies have proposed that human papillomavirus (HPV), primarily high-risk HPV16/18, is an etiological factor for a subset of head and neck (HN) cancers. On that premise, we systematically reviewed relevant articles and improved the understanding of HPV-related cancers. This article comprehensively described the characteristics of HPV-associated HN tumors according to demography, histopathology, molecular biology, and prognosis. Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the studies that reported the association between HPV status and these variables using Rev Man 5...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Machiko Teramoto, Tomomi Kudome-Takamatsu, Osamu Nishimura, Yang An, Makoto Kashima, Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata
Planarian's strong regenerative ability is dependent on stem cells (called neoblasts) that are X-ray-sensitive and proliferative stem cells. In addition to neoblasts, another type of X-ray-sensitive cells was newly identified by recent research. Thus, planarian's X-ray-sensitive cells can be divided into at least two populations, Type 1 and Type 2, the latter corresponding to planarian's classically defined "neoblasts". Here, we show that Type 1 cells were distributed in the outer region (OR) immediately underneath the muscle layer at all axial levels from head to tail, while the Type 2 cells were distributed in a more internal region (IR) of the mesenchymal space at the axial levels from neck to tail...
September 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Tara Spence, Jeff Bruce, Kenneth W Yip, Fei-Fei Liu
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where it can account for up to 60% of such cases. HPVs are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells; numerous HPV subtypes, including 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35, drive epithelial cell transformation and tumourigenesis...
2016: Cancers
Pierfrancesco Franco, Alba Fiorentino, Francesco Dionisi, Michele Fiore, Silvia Chiesa, Stefano Vagge, Francesco Cellini, Luciana Caravatta, Mario Tombolini, Fiorenza De Rose, Icro Meattini, Gianluca Mortellaro, Giuseppina Apicella, Lorenza Marino, Daniela Greto
PURPOSE: Combined modality therapy is a mainstay option for thoracic malignancies and head and neck cancers. The integration of different strategies is based on the multidisciplinary approach of modern clinical oncology. Radiation oncologists have to be educated, trained, and updated to provide state-of-the-art care to cancer patients and thus educational meetings are crucial. METHODS: The Italian Association of Radiation Oncology Young Members Working Group (AIRO Giovani) organized its 8th national meeting, focused on combination therapy in lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer (with a specific focus on larynx-preservation strategies for larynx/hypopharynx tumors), involving young professionals working in Italy...
October 13, 2016: Tumori
Siraj M El Jamal, Erin B Taylor, Zakaria Y Abd Elmageed, Abdulhadi A Alamodi, Denis Selimovic, Abdulaziz Alkhateeb, Matthias Hannig, Sofie Y Hassan, Simeon Santourlidis, Paul L Friedlander, Youssef Haikel, Srinivasan Vijaykumar, Emad Kandil, Mohamed Hassan
BACKGROUND: Tumor response to immunotherapy is the consequence of a concerted crosstalk between cytokines and effector cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is one of the common cytokines coordinating tumor immune response and the associated biological consequences. Although the role of IFNγ in the modulation of tumor immunity has been widely documented, the mechanisms regulating IFNγ-induced cell death, during the course of immune therapy, is not described in detail. RESULTS: IFNγ triggered apoptosis of CLS-354 and RPMI 2650 cells, enhanced the protein expression and activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and suppressed the basal expression of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)...
2016: Cell Division
Haiquan Lu, Xinqun Li, Yang Lu, Songbo Qiu, Zhen Fan
Therapeutic targeting of ASCT2, a glutamine transporter that plays a major role in glutamine uptake in cancer cells, is challenging because ASCT2 also has a biological role in normal tissues. In this study, we report our novel finding that ASCT2 is physically associated in a molecular complex with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is often overexpressed in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Furthermore, we found that ASCT2 can be co-targeted by cetuximab, an EGFR antibody approved for treating metastatic HNSCC...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Letters
Luc G T Morris, Raghu Chandramohan, Lyndsay West, Ahmet Zehir, Debyani Chakravarty, David G Pfister, Richard J Wong, Nancy Y Lee, Eric J Sherman, Shrujal S Baxi, Ian Ganly, Bhuvanesh Singh, Jatin P Shah, Ashok R Shaha, Jay O Boyle, Snehal G Patel, Benjamin R Roman, Christopher A Barker, Sean M McBride, Timothy A Chan, Snjezana Dogan, David M Hyman, Michael F Berger, David B Solit, Nadeem Riaz, Alan L Ho
Importance: Recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer is usually incurable. Implementation of precision oncology for these patients has been limited by incomplete understanding of the molecular alterations underlying advanced disease. At the same time, the molecular profiles of many rare head and neck cancer types are unknown. These significant gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to rationally devise new therapies. Objective: To illuminate the distinct biology of recurrent and metastatic head and neck cancers and review implementation of precision oncology for patients with advanced disease...
July 21, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Kee Howe Wong, Rafal Panek, Liam C Welsh, Dualta Mcquaid, Alex Dunlop, Angela Riddell, Iain Murray, Yong Du, Sue Chua, Dow-Mu Koh, Shreerang Bhide, Christopher M Nutting, Wim J G Oyen, Kevin J Harrington, Kate L Newbold
OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of early assessment (after one cycle of induction chemotherapy (IC)) with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and DW-MRI for subsequent response to radical chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: 20 patients with stage III-IVa HNSCC prospectively underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) before and 2 weeks following each cycle of IC (1st cycle - IC1, 2nd cycle - IC2)...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Michael Abend, Matthias Port
The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention...
August 2016: Health Physics
Daisuke Sano, Nobuhiko Oridate
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Recently, the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) has increased markedly in comparison to that of HNSCC, which is associated with the use of tobacco or alcohol or both. This increase has resulted mainly from the global rise in the number of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancers (HPV-OPCs). HPV-OPC has several unique characteristics, including presentation in younger patients, better response rates to treatment, and better prognosis compared to alcohol- and smoking-related HNSCC...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jesper Grau Eriksen, Pernille Lassen
A dramatic increase in the incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer has been reported in some parts of the western world over the past 30 years. They constitute a clinically distinct subgroup of cancers in terms of molecular biology, patient characteristics, and treatment outcome. This chapter describes the molecular characteristics, epidemiology, and demographics of the HPV-related head and neck cancers and discuss available methods to detect HPV-related tumours. The impact of HPV-related biomarkers in clinical studies on radiotherapy only, altered fractionation, modulation of hypoxia, and concurrent chemo- or bio-radiotherapy are reviewed as well as the perspectives of de-escalation and immune-modulation are discussed...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Alexander T Pearson, Trachette L Jackson, Jacques E Nör
A large body of literature has emerged supporting the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancers. CSCs are a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that share the properties of self-renewal and multipotency with stem cells from normal tissue. Their functional relevance to the pathobiology of cancer arises from the unique properties of tumorigenicity, chemotherapy resistance, and their ability to metastasize and invade distant tissues. Several molecular profiles have been used to discriminate a stem cell from a non-stem cell...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mehmet Sen, Robin Prestwich
Salivary gland cancers are uncommon neoplasms of the head and neck that exhibit considerable pathological, biological, and clinical diversity, resulting in a paucity of prospective data regarding the use of non-surgical treatments. Chemotherapy has shown limited activity in patients with metastatic disease, and there has been little exploration of its use in definitive management. There is no standard recommendation for the use of systemic therapy, with palliative chemotherapy being considered on an individual basis for rapidly progressive or symptomatic disease...
2016: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
Paolo Bossi, Salvatore Alfieri
INTRODUCTION: In the treatment of advanced/metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-EGFR agents remains a major issue, and new molecular drugs are eagerly awaited. Over the last decade, knowledge of the genetic landscape of HNC has rapidly grown. However, no tailored therapeutic intervention targeting HNC molecular abnormalities is currently available outside from clinical trials. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors analyze new drugs in the HNC setting which have been investigated in recently published trials or are currently being investigated...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
C Cleary, J E Leeman, D S Higginson, N Katabi, E Sherman, L Morris, S McBride, N Lee, N Riaz
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the sixth most common malignancy globally, and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal HNSCCs are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Patients with HPV-associated tumours have markedly improved overall and disease-specific survival compared with their HPV-negative counterparts when treated with chemoradiation. Although the difference in outcomes between these two groups is clearly established, the mechanism underlying these differences remains an area of investigation...
July 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Wu Wu-chao, Wu Yafei, Zhao Lei
Substantial evidence supports the relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. Numerous studies suggest that chronic inflammatory disease, such as periodontitis, contributes to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the oral and maxillofacial regions. Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the most important pathogens in association with periodontal disease, might have a potential correlation with OSCC. Along with the development of molecular biological techniques, the association between Porphyromonas gingivalis and OSCC has been greatly emphasized in recent years...
December 2015: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
Rüveyda Dok, Sandra Nuyts
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC...
2016: Cancers
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