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Head and neck molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613101/targeting-igf1r-pathway-in-cancer-with-micrornas-how-close-are-we
#1
Arathy S Kumar, Suresh K Rayala, Ganesh Venkatraman
Cancer of the head and neck are the most common cancers in India and account for 30% of all cancers. At molecular level, it could be attributed to the over-expression of growth factors like IGF1-R, EGFR, VEGF-R and deregulation of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressors. IGF1-R is an emerging target in head and neck cancer treatment, because of its reported role in tumor development, progression and metastasis. IGF1R targeted agents are in advanced stages of clinical development. Nevertheless, these agents suffer from several disadvantages including acquired resistance and toxic side effects...
June 14, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588149/tumor-metabolic-features-identified-by-fdg-pet-correlates-with-gene-networks-of-immune-cell-microenvironment-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#2
Kwon Joong Na, Hongyoon Choi
The importance of FDG PET in imaging head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has grown in recent decades. Since PET has prognostic values, and provides functional and molecular information in HNSCC, the genetic and biologic backgrounds associated with PET parameters are of great interests. Here, as a systems biology approach, we aimed to investigate gene networks associated with tumor metabolism and their biological function using RNA sequence and FDG PET data. Methods: Using RNA sequence data of HNSCC downloaded from TCGA data portal, we constructed gene coexpression network...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579578/the-t-box-transcription-factor-3-in-development-and-cancer
#3
Tarryn Willmer, Aretha Cooper, Jade Peres, Rehana Omar, Sharon Prince
T-box factors comprise an archaic family of evolutionary conserved transcription factors that regulate patterns of gene expression essential for embryonic development. The T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3), a member of this family, is expressed in several tissues and plays critical roles in, among other structures, the heart, mammary gland and limbs and haploinsufficiency of the human TBX3 gene is the genetic basis for the autosomal dominant disorder, ulnar-mammary syndrome. Overexpression of TBX3 on the other hand has been linked to several cancers including melanoma, breast, pancreatic, liver, lung, head and neck, ovarian, bladder carcinomas and a number of sarcoma subtypes...
June 4, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578852/radioactive-iodine-therapy-molecular-imaging-and-serum-biomarkers-for-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-2017-guidelines-of-the-french-societies-of-nuclear-medicine-endocrinology-pathology-biology-endocrine-surgery-and-head-and-neck-surgery
#4
Slimane Zerdoud, Anne-Laure Giraudet, Sophie Leboulleux, Laurence Leenhardt, Stéphane Bardet, Jérôme Clerc, Marie-Elisabeth Toubert, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Claire Bournaud, Isabelle Keller, Frédéric Sebag, Renaud Garrel, Eric Mirallié, Lionel Groussin, Elif Hindié, David Taïeb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531899/epidemiology-and-molecular-biology-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#5
Adriana Jou, Jochen Hess
Head and neck cancer is a common and aggressive malignancy with a high morbidity and mortality profile. Although the large majority of cases resemble head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the current classification based on anatomic site and tumor stage fails to capture the high level of biologic heterogeneity, and appropriate clinical management remains a major challenge. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular biology of HNSCC is urgently needed to support biomarker development and personalized care for patients...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513565/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-cell-proliferation-signaling-pathways
#6
REVIEW
Ping Wee, Zhixiang Wang
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation...
May 17, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503090/compounds-from-celastraceae-targeting-cancer-pathways-and-their-potential-application-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Camila Hernandes, Ana Maria Soares Pereira, Patricia Severino
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. It initiates on the epithelial lining of the upper aerodigestive tract, at most instances as a consequence of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options based on conventional therapies or targeted therapies under development have limited efficacy due to multiple genetic alterations typically found in this cancer type. Natural products derived from plants often possess biological activities that may be valuable in the development of new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment...
February 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474265/gene-expression-signatures-for-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-stratification-are-results-ready-for-clinical-application
#8
REVIEW
Luca Tonella, Marco Giannoccaro, Salvatore Alfieri, Silvana Canevari, Loris De Cecco
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cancer by incidence worldwide and considering the recent EUROCARE-5 population-based study the 5-year survival rate of HNSCC patients in Europe ranges between 69% in localized cases and 34% in patients with regional involvement. The development of high-throughput gene expression assays in the last two decades has provided the invaluable opportunity to improve our knowledge on cancer biology and to identify predictive signatures in the most deeply analyzed malignancies, such as hematological and breast cancers...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407653/differential-pattern-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-in-hnscc-cancer-stem-cells-after-carbon-ion-or-photon-irradiation-one-molecular-explanation-of-the-oxygen-effect
#9
Anne-Sophie Wozny, Alexandra Lauret, Priscillia Battiston-Montagne, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Michael Beuve, Micaela Cunha, Yannick Saintigny, Emilie Blond, Nicolas Magne, Philippe Lalle, Dominique Ardail, Gersende Alphonse, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are resistant to standard treatments, partly due to cancer stem cells (CSCs) localised in hypoxic niches. Compared to X-rays, carbon ion irradiation relies on better ballistic properties, higher relative biological effectiveness and the absence of oxygen effect. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the resistance to photons, whereas its role in response to carbon ions remains unclear. METHODS: Two HNSCC cell lines and their CSC sub-population were studied in response to photons or carbon ion irradiation, in normoxia or hypoxia, after inhibition or not of HIF-1α...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405244/clusterization-in-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinomas-based-on-lncrna-expression-molecular-and-clinical-correlates
#10
Pelayo G de Lena, Abel Paz-Gallardo, Jesús M Paramio, Ramón García-Escudero
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key players in a remarkably variety of biological processes and pathologic conditions, including cancer. Next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics procedures predict the existence of tens of thousands of lncRNAs, from which we know the functions of only a handful of them, and very little is known in cancer types such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). RESULTS: Here, we use RNAseq expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and various statistic and software tools in order to get insight about the lncRNome in HNSCC...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351566/micrornas-in-human-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutic-implications
#11
REVIEW
Omer Faruk Karatas, Muhammet Oner, Alican Abay, Ali Diyapoglu
Being one of the most aggressive cancers of oral cavity, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) constitutes 41% of all oral carcinomas. Despite considerable improvements in multimodal diagnosis and treatment techniques, TSCC still remains to be one of the most lethal cancer types in the head and neck region. MicroRNAs are endogenously synthesized, small, non-coding RNAs, which are responsible for post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA expression. They are involved in regulation of almost all biological processes through their spatial and temporal expression...
April 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325958/micrornas-involvement-in-radioresistance-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Parwez Ahmad, Jiri Sana, Marek Slavik, Pavel Slampa, Pavel Smilek, Ondrej Slaby
Resistance to the ionizing radiation is a current problem in the treatment and clinical management of various cancers including head and neck cancer. There are several biological and molecular mechanisms described to be responsible for resistance of the tumors to radiotherapy. Among them, the main mechanisms include alterations in intracellular pathways involved in DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. It has been found that regulation of these complex processes is often controlled by microRNAs...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325255/mucosal-melanoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#13
REVIEW
Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Remo Accorona, Gerardo Botti, Davide Farina, Piero Fossati, Gemma Gatta, Helen Gogas, Davide Lombardi, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai, Marco Ravanelli, Vito Vanella
Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is a very rare and aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. The nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and oral cavity are the most common locations. One-, 3- and 5-year survival rates between 2000 and 2007 were 63%, 30% and 20%, respectively. Cigarette smoking seems to be a risk factor even though the evidence for this is very low. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. While surgery is considered the mainstay of treatment for most mucosal melanomas of the head and neck region, radiotherapy has a role in local control of the disease after surgery...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270740/repression-of-gprc5a-is-associated-with-activated-stat3-which-contributes-to-tumor-progression-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Shuli Liu, Dongxia Ye, Tong Wang, Wenzheng Guo, Hongyong Song, Yueling Liao, Dongliang Xu, Hanguang Zhu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Jiong Deng
BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 member A (GPRC5A), a retinoic acid-inducible gene, is a lung tumor suppressor. Previously, we showed that repression of GPRC5A expression was associated with pathologic differentiation grade of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and overexpression of GPRC5A gene inhibited the malignant phenotype in OSCC cells, suggesting that GPRC5A also functions as a tumor suppressor in oral cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GPRC5A deficiency in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still unclear...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192747/biology-and-patterns-of-response-to-egfr-inhibition-in-squamous-cell-cancers-of-the-lung-and-head-neck
#15
REVIEW
Rosalyn A Juergens, Scott V Bratman, Ming-Sound Tsao, Scott A Laurie, M Sara Kuruvilla, Albiruni R A Razak, Aaron R Hansen
The identification of common molecular aberrations that drive cancer progression has led to targeted therapies that improve treatment efficacy in many tumor types. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been used to treat both lung and head and neck cancers with squamous cell histology. These tumors often show high EGFR expression and/or increased gene copy number, but low incidence of the activating kinase domain mutations common to adenocarcinomas of the lung. In this manuscript, we review clinical trial data on EGFR-inhibitors in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) of the lung and head and neck (SCCHN), including both efficacy and biomarker analyses...
March 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149885/potential-biomarkers-for-radiosensitivity-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#16
COMMENT
Sherly Pardo-Reoyo, J L Roig-Lopez, Eddy S Yang
Radiotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for head and neck cancer. However, the morbidity of treatment remains a clinical challenge. Molecular profiling has provided further insight into tumor biology and tumor sensitivity to radiation, and this information could be used to personalize treatment. In this review, we discuss published signatures of radiosensitivity and discuss the pathways that may be important in dictating radiation sensitivity. Applications of these signatures could result in less morbidity if dose de-escalation efforts are successful...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101231/the-biological-significance-of-methylome-differences-in-human-papilloma-virus-associated-head-and-neck-cancer
#17
Maria J Worsham, Kang Mei Chen, Indrani Datta, Josena K Stephen, Dhananjay Chitale, Alexandra Gothard, George Divine
In recent years, studies have suggested that promoter methylation in human papilloma virus (HPV) positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a mechanistic role and has the potential to improve patient survival. The present study aimed to replicate key molecular findings from previous analyses of the methylomes of HPV positive and HPV negative HNSCC in an independent cohort, to assess the reliability of differentially methylated markers in HPV-associated tumors. HPV was measured using real-time quantitative PCR and the biological significance of methylation differences was assessed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079973/a-regulatory-bmi1-let-7i-erk3-pathway-controls-the-motility-of-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#18
Lobna Elkhadragy, Minyi Chen, Kennon Miller, Muh-Hwa Yang, Weiwen Long
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), whose biological activity is tightly regulated by its cellular abundance. Recent studies have revealed that ERK3 is upregulated in multiple cancers and promotes cancer cell migration/invasion and drug resistance. Little is known, however, about how ERK3 expression level is upregulated in cancers. Here, we have identified the oncogenic polycomb group protein BMI1 as a positive regulator of ERK3 level in head and neck cancer cells...
February 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061634/personalized-medicine-approach-for-an-exceptional-response-to-multiple-recurrent-and-metastatic-her2-positive-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Nolan B Seim, Stephen Y Kang, Milan Bhandari, Riley G Jones, Theodoros N Teknos
INTRODUCTION: Advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck carries an overall poor prognosis, and survivorship gains have remained relatively stagnant compared to other malignancies due to its complex tumor biology and lack of proven effective targeting agents. METHODS: We present a case of an exceptional responder to molecular-targeted therapy for metastatic oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using a chemotherapeutic agent FDA approved for breast cancer and targeting the HER2/Neu receptor in order to discuss the larger clinical implications...
April 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048906/su-f-t-666-molecular-targeted-gold-nanorods-enhances-the-rbe-of-proton-therapy
#20
A Khoo, N Sahoo, S Krishnan, P Diagaradjane
PURPOSE: In recent years, proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has gained significant attention in the treatment of tumors in anatomically complex locations. However, the therapeutic benefit of PBRT is limited by a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of just 1.1. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this limitation can be overcome by artificially enhancing the RBE using molecular-targeted gold nanorods (GNRs). METHODS: Molecular-targeting of GNRs was accomplished using Cetuximab (antibody specific to epidermal growth factor receptor that is over-expressed in tumors) conjugated GNRs (cGNRs) and their binding affinity to Head and Neck cancer cells was confirmed using dark field microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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