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Head and neck molecular biology

Paul J Choi, Joe Iwanaga, R Shane Tubbs, Emre Yilmaz
Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Luca Mazzarella, Alessandro Guida, Giuseppe Curigliano
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in epithelial cancer biology, and dictated the development of several targeting agents. The mouse-human chimeric antibody Cetuximab was among the first to be developed. After about two decades of clinical research it has gained a significant place in the management of advanced colorectal and head and neck cancers, whereas its development in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not led to a place in routine clinical practice, because of marginal clinical benefit despite statistically significant Phase III trials...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
V Petrosino, G Motta, G Tenore, M Coletta, A Guariglia, D Testa
Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs...
March 8, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
C René Leemans, Peter J F Snijders, Ruud H Brakenhoff
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arise in the mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract and are unexpectedly heterogeneous in nature. Classical risk factors are smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and in recent years, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has emerged, particularly in oropharyngeal tumours. HPV-induced oropharyngeal tumours are considered a separate disease entity, which recently has manifested in an adapted prognostic staging system while the results of de-intensified treatment trials are awaited...
March 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
A Lindemann, H Takahashi, A A Patel, A A Osman, J N Myers
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
In addition to tobacco and alcohol consumption, the two main risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), recent studies have revealed infections with human papilloma virus (HPV) as an additional risk factor for OSCC development. In the field of head and neck malignancies, the prevalence of HPV infections in oropharyngeal cancer (OC) ranges in different studies up to 84%. While HPV infection is discussed as an independent risk factor in this region, its distinguished role in carcinogenesis of tumours localized to the oral cavity remains uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Wei Song, Yimin Sun, Jie Lin, Xiaoqin Bi
Head and neck cancers (HNC) are one of the ten leading cancers worldwide, including a range of malignant tumors arising from the upper neck. Due to the complex mechanisms of HNC and lack of effective biomarkers, the 5-year survival rate of HNC has been low and the mortality rate has been high in recent decades. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), noncoding RNAs longer than 200 bps, are a focus of current cancer research, closely related to tumor biology. LncRNAs have been revealed to be aberrantly expressed in various types of HNC, and the dysregulated lncRNAs participate in HNC progression and induce malignant behavior by modulating gene expression at diverse levels...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Liu Qing, Wang Qing
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family are a series of important cancer therapeutic targets involved in cancer biology. These genes play an important role in tumor biological characteristics including angiogenesis, cell survival, invasion and glucose metabolism. In recent years, progresses have been achieved upon the cellular and molecular biological characteristics of EGFR and its role in cancer development based on the study of tumor specimens and experimental animal model. EGFR(HER1/ErbB) is overexpressed in over sixty percent of triple-negative breast cancers and occurs in pancreatic, bladder, lung and head-and-neck cancers...
February 1, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
Eleni Georgakopoulou, Justin Stebbing, Crispian Scully
BACKGROUND: Targeted treatments have been incorporated into oncology protocols, often with more traditional therapies, and are not totally free of adverse reactions, some of which affect the orofacial region. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the US Food and Drug Administration Approved Drug Products database to identify reported adverse effects of targeted agents in the orofacial region as well as other implications in oral health care...
February 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Liang Jiang, Zhihai Wang, Chuan Liu, Zhitao Gong, Yucheng Yang, Houyong Kang, Yanshi Li, Guohua Hu
Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the role of TrkB pathway in tumor occurrence and development for in order to provide theoretical basis to laryngeal cancer therapy. Materials and methods: Biological characteristics of the cells were studied by migration tests and colony forming assay. Gene and protein expression analysis was performed by RT-PCR or western blot. in vivo experiments were conducted in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Results: Significant changes in protein and gene expression, including higher expression level of TrkB, were found in cells and laryngeal cancer specimens...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Jonathan A Perkins
The future of head and neck lymphatic malformation (HNLM) evaluation and treatment is changing because of 2 decades of clinical research and recent basic science investigation. Basic science investigation using cellular biology and molecular genetics has revealed the genetic cause of some HNLMs, which has created the possibility of medical treatment specific to HNLM. This article summarizes the clinical and basic science research that will likely influence the future of HNLM assessment and treatment.
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Vincent Grégoire, Daniela Thorwarth, John Aldo Lee
With the routine use of intensity modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma allowing highly conformed dose distribution, there is an increasing need for refining both the selection and the delineation of gross tumor volumes (GTV). In this framework, molecular imaging with positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offers the opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy and to integrate tumor biology mainly related to the assessment of tumor cell density, tumor hypoxia, and tumor proliferation into the treatment planning equation...
January 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Carter Van Waes, Omar Musbahi
Objective: To provide a review of emerging knowledge from genomics and related basic science, preclinical, and clinical precision medicine studies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Data Sources: The Cancer Genome Atlas Network (TCGA) publications, PubMed-based literature review, and Review Methods: TCGA publications, PubMed, and were queried for genomics and related basic science, preclinical, and developmental clinical precision medicine studies in HNSCC...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
January 1, 2018: Cancer
Chiara Zagni, Venerando Pistarà, Luciana A Oliveira, Rogerio M Castilho, Giovanni Romeo, Ugo Chiacchio, Antonio Rescifina
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) play an important role as valuable drugs targeted to cancer therapy: several HDACis are currently being tested in clinical trials. Two new potential HDACis 1a and 1d, characterized by the presence of a biphenyl-4-sulfonamide group as a connection unit between the N-{4-[(E)-(2-formylhydrazinylidene)methyl]-3-hydroxyphenyl} and the 2-hydroxy-N-(trifluoroacetyl)benzamide moiety, respectively, as two zinc-binding group (ZBG), have been designed, synthesized and tested for their biological activity...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
M Granic, P Suton, D Mueller, I Cvrljevic, I Luksic
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignancy of the salivary glands. The clinical behaviour of MEC is largely unpredictable, ranging from indolent tumour growth to highly aggressive metastatic spread. The objective of this study was to determine the clinicopathological predictors of recurrence and survival in patients with head and neck MEC. The medical records of 64 patients who underwent surgical treatment for head and neck MEC between 1982 and 2010 were reviewed. The main outcome measures were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Aanchal Kakkar, Vijay Mariadas Antony, David Victor Kumar Irugu, Narayan Adhikari, Deepali Jain
NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare, poorly differentiated tumors with aggressive biological behavior and a characteristic molecular signature. Availability of NUT antibody has facilitated diagnosis of NMC without molecular testing. We report a series of head and neck NMCs diagnosed using NUT IHC at our institute, including one case with an unusual course. Immunohistochemistry for NUT was performed in nasal and sinonasal tumors with diagnoses of undifferentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and malignant neoplasm, not otherwise specified, to identify cases of NMC...
September 25, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
Janice S H Tan, Xiaotian Lin, Kevin L M Chua, Paula Y Lam, Khee-Chee Soo, Melvin L K Chua
Achieving local tumour control is paramount for cure in head and neck and prostate cancers. With the transition to precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques, survival rates have improved in the majority of these cancers, but a substantial proportion of 30-40% still relapse following primary treatment. Recent large-scale molecular profiling studies have revealed unique biological events that could explain for tumour aggression and resistance to therapies, redefining the molecular taxonomy of head and neck and prostate cancers...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Jean-Philippe Foy, Louis Bazire, Sandra Ortiz-Cuaran, Sophie Deneuve, Janice Kielbassa, Emilie Thomas, Alain Viari, Alain Puisieux, Patrick Goudot, Chloé Bertolus, Nicolas Foray, Youlia Kirova, Pierre Verrelle, Pierre Saintigny
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is associated with a substantial morbidity and inconsistent efficacy. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive status is recognized as a marker of increased radiosensitivity. Our goal was to identify molecular markers associated with benefit to radiotherapy in patients with HPV-negative disease. METHODS: Gene expression profiles from public repositories were downloaded for data mining. Training sets included 421 HPV-negative HNSCC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and 32 HNSCC cell lines with available radiosensitivity data (GSE79368)...
September 1, 2017: BMC Medicine
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