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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924530/aspergillus-species-and-their-associated-mycotoxins
#1
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Gallo
The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924493/citric-acid-capped-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-an-effective-maldi-matrix-for-polymers
#2
Qiaoli Liang, Jennifer Sherwood, Thomas Macher, Joseph M Wilson, Yuping Bao, Carolyn J Cassady
A new matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry matrix is proposed for molecular mass determination of polymers. This matrix contains an iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) core with citric acid (CA) molecules covalently bound to the surface. With the assistance of additives, the particulate nature of NPs allows the matrix to mix uniformly with polar or nonpolar polymer layers and promotes ionization, which may simplify matrix selection and sample preparation procedures. Several distinctively different polymer classes (polyethyleneglycol (PEG), polywax/polyethylene, perfluoropolyether, and polydimethylsiloxane) are effectively detected by the water or methanol dispersed NPCA matrix with NaCl, NaOH, LiOH, or AgNO3 as additives...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924413/suppression-of-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-and-their-encoding-genes-in-button-mushrooms-agaricus-bisporus-by-cacl2-and-citric-acid
#3
Zia Ullah Khan, Li Jiayin, Nasir Mehmood Khan, Wangshu Mou, Dongdong Li, Yansheng Wang, Simin Feng, Zisheng Luo, Linchun Mao, Tiejin Ying
Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were harvested and treated with a solution of 1.5% CaCl2 + 0.5% citric acid and stored for 16 days at 12 °C. The effects of this treatment on firmness, weight, color, cell wall compositions (cellulose and chitin) and cell wall degrading enzymes (cel1ulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase) were investigated during post-harvest storage. The expressions of major genes (Cel1, Glu1, Chi1 and PAL1) involved in cell wall degradation during post-harvest storage were also monitored...
December 6, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913168/fermentative-production-of-high-titer-citric-acid-from-corn-stover-feedstock-after-dry-dilute-acid-pretreatment-and-biodetoxification
#4
Ping-Ping Zhou, Jiao Meng, Jie Bao
The aim of this work is to study the citric acid fermentation by a robust strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M288 using corn stover feedstock after dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and biodetoxification. Citric acid at 100.04g/L with the yield of 94.11% was obtained, which are comparable to the starch or sucrose based citric acid fermentation. No free wastewater was generated in the overall process from the pretreatment to citric acid fermentation. Abundant divalent metal ions as well as high titer of potassium, phosphate, and nitrogen were found in corn stover hydrolysate...
November 15, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908232/iron-sulfur-clusters-in-mitochondrial-metabolism-multifaceted-roles-of-a-simple-cofactor
#5
REVIEW
Johnny Stiban, Minyoung So, Laurie S Kaguni
Iron-sulfur metabolism is essential for cellular function and is a key process in mitochondria. In this review, we focus on the structure and assembly of mitochondrial iron-sulfur clusters and their roles in various metabolic processes that occur in mitochondria. Iron-sulfur clusters are crucial in mitochondrial respiration, in which they are required for the assembly, stability, and function of respiratory complexes I, II, and III. They also serve important functions in the citric acid cycle, DNA metabolism, and apoptosis...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905619/highly-fluorescent-nitrogen-doped-carbon-dots-with-excellent-thermal-and-photo-stability-applied-as-invisible-ink-for-loading-important-information-and-anti-counterfeiting
#6
Yingbo Liu, Liang Zhou, Yanan Li, Ruiping Deng, Hongjie Zhang
High quantum yields (QY) and stable performances are prerequisites for implementing carbon dots in practical applications. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs), which were prepared via the hydrothermal treatment of citric acid (CA) and tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl aminomethane (Tris), have a high QY of 75%, together with excellent thermal and photo stability. These N-CDs deliver an excellent thermal stability performance over the temperature range of 25 °C to 95 °C, and even at a heating temperature of 90 °C for 360 min...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904087/push-out-bond-strength-of-a-new-post-system-after-various-post-space-treatments
#7
Melek Akman, Ayçe Unverdi Eldeniz, Selen Ince, Mehmet Burak Guneser
To assess the effect of post-space treatment with chelating agents on the push-out bond-strength of a glass fiber post-system. Fortyeight human teeth were decoronated. The roots were prepared to size 40 and obturated. The post-spaces were prepared with PeesoReamer drills. The post-spaces were irrigated with (i) NaOCl and EDTA with chlorhexidine (QMix), (ii) NaOCl and EDTA, (iii) NaOCl and Citric acid, (iv) NaOCl and saline as a control group. i-TFC glass fiber posts were then luted with i-TFC bond system. The samples were horizontally sectioned...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900420/nmr-based-metabolomic-approach-to-study-urine-samples-of-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-patients
#8
Alessia Vignoli, Donatella Maria Rodio, Anna Bellizzi, Anatoly Petrovich Sobolev, Elena Anzivino, Monica Mischitelli, Leonardo Tenori, Federico Marini, Roberta Priori, Rossana Scrivo, Guido Valesini, Ada Francia, Manuela Morreale, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Marco Iannetta, Cristiana Campanella, Donatella Capitani, Claudio Luchinat, Valeria Pietropaolo, Luisa Mannina
The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approach was used as analytical methodology to study the urine samples of chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease (CIRD) patients. The urine samples of CIRD patients were compared to the ones of both healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), another immuno-mediated disease. Urine samples collected from 39 CIRD patients, 25 healthy subjects, and 26 MS patients were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and the NMR spectra were examined using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889148/surface-attachment-of-active-antimicrobial-coatings-onto-conventional-plastic-based-laminates-and-performance-assessment-of-these-materials-on-the-storage-life-of-vacuum-packaged-beef-sub-primals
#9
David Clarke, Andrey A Tyuftin, Malco C Cruz-Romero, Declan Bolton, Seamus Fanning, Shashi K Pankaj, Carmen Bueno-Ferrer, Patrick J Cullen, Joe P Kerry
Two antimicrobial coatings, namely Sodium octanoate and Auranta FV (a commercial antimicrobial composed of bioflavonoids, citric, malic, lactic, and caprylic acids) were used. These two antimicrobials were surface coated onto the inner polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated polyamide films using beef gelatin as a carrier and coating polymer. This packaging material was then used to vacuum pack beef sub-primal cuts and stored at 4 °C. A control was prepared using the non-coated commercial laminate and the same vacuum packaged sub-primal beef cuts...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888010/indole-3-acetic-acid-diol-based-ph-sensitive-biological-macromolecule-for-antibacterial-antifungal-and-antioxidant-applications
#10
Chitra G, Franklin D S, Sudarsan S, Sakthivel M, Guhanathan S
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)/diol based pH-sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels with tunable biological properties (cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant and anti-fungal) have been synthesized via condensation polymerization. The present study focused on the synthesis of heterocyclic hydrogel using citric acid (CA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and diethylene glycol (DEG) by condensation polymerization. The hydrogels revealed a pH-sensitive swelling behaviour, with increased swelling in acidic media, then turns to decreased the swelling in the basic media...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888006/physicochemical-characteristics-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-potato-and-cassava-starches-under-organic-acid-and-heat-moisture-treatments
#11
Pham Van Hung, Nguyen Thi Mai Huong, Nguyen Thi Lan Phi, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh Tien
A combination of acid (citric acid or lactic acid) and heat-moisture treatment was used to modify cassava and potato starches in this study. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the treated starches were investigated. The cassava starch contained 17.0% amylose and possessed A-type crystallinity, whereas the potato starch had 27.4% amylose and possessed B-type crystallinity. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, the crystalline structure of the cassava starch remained unchanged (A type), while the crystalline structure of the potato starch changed from B type to the C (B+A) type...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886853/airway-remodeling-associated-with-cough-hypersensitivity-as-a-consequence-of-persistent-cough-an-experimental-study
#12
Hitoshi Nakaji, Akio Niimi, Hirofumi Matsuoka, Toshiyuki Iwata, Shilei Cui, Hisako Matsumoto, Isao Ito, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Kojiro Otsuka, Tomoshi Takeda, Hideki Inoue, Tomoko Tajiri, Tadao Nagasaki, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Kazuo Chin, Michiaki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough involves airway remodeling associated with cough reflex hypersensitivity. Whether cough itself induces these features remains unknown. METHODS: Guinea pigs were assigned to receive treatment with citric acid (CA), saline (SA), or CA+dextromethorphan (DEX). All animals were exposed to 0.5M CA on days 1 and 22. On days 4-20, the CA and CA+DEX groups were exposed to CA, and the SA group to saline thrice weekly, during which the CA+DEX group was administered DEX pretreatment to inhibit cough...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886402/analysis-of-paracoccidioides-lutzii-mitochondria-a-proteomic-approach
#13
L Casaletti, P S Lima, L N Lima, C L Borges, S N Báo, A M Bailão, C M A Bailão
The genus Paracoccidioides is composed of thermal dimorphic fungi, causative agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most frequent systemic mycoses in Latin America. Mitochondria have sophisticated machinery for ATP production, which involves metabolic pathways such as citric acid and glyoxylate cycles, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, this organelle performs a variety of functions in the cell, working as an exceptional metabolic signaling center that contributes to cellular stress responses, as autophagy and apoptosis in eukaryotic organisms...
November 25, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886267/in-vivo-characterization-of-hair-and-skin-derived-carbon-quantum-dots-with-high-quantum-yield-as-long-term-bioprobes-in-zebrafish
#14
Jing-Hui Zhang, Aping Niu, Jing Li, Jian-Wei Fu, Qun Xu, De-Sheng Pei
Carbon quantum dots (CDs) were widely investigated because of their tunable fluorescence properties and low toxicity. However, so far there have been no reports on in vivo functional studies of hair and skin derived CDs. Here, hair derived CDs (HCDs) and skin derived CDs (SCDs) were produced by using human hair and pig skin as precursors. The quantum yields (QYs) of HCDs and SCDs were quite high, compared to citric acid derived CDs (CCDs). HCDs and SCDs possess optimal photostability, hypotoxicity and biocompatibility in zebrafish, indicating that HCDs and SCDs possess the capacity of being used as fluorescence probes for in vivo biological imaging...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885626/anaplerosis-for-glutamate-synthesis-in-the-neonate-and-in-adulthood
#15
Eva Brekke, Tora Sund Morken, Anne B Walls, Helle Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, Ursula Sonnewald
A central task of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs, citric acid) cycle in brain is to provide precursors for biosynthesis of glutamate, GABA, aspartate and glutamine. Three of these amino acids are the partners in the intricate interaction between astrocytes and neurons and form the so-called glutamine-glutamate (GABA) cycle. The ketoacids α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate are removed from the cycle for this process. When something is removed from the TCA cycle it must be replaced to permit the continued function of this essential pathway, a process termed anaplerosis...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882564/processing-black-mulberry-into-jam-effects-on-antioxidant-potential-and-in-vitro-bioaccessibility
#16
Merve Tomas, Gamze Toydemir, Dilek Boyacioglu, Robert D Hall, Jules Beekwilder, Esra Capanoglu
BACKGROUND: Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialized scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurization. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, percent polymeric color, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881386/ppar%C3%AE-augments-heart-function-and-cardiac-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-early-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#17
Stephen Wade Standage, Brock G Bennion, Taft Olpin Knowles, Dolena R Ledee, Michael A Portman, John K McGuire, W Conrad Liles, Aaron K Olson
Children with sepsis and multisystem organ failure have downregulated leukocyte gene expression of PPARα, a nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor that regulates inflammation and lipid metabolism. Mouse models of sepsis have likewise demonstrated that the absence of PPARα is associated with decreased survival and organ injury, specifically of the heart. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of early sepsis, we found that heart function increases in wild type (WT) mice over the first 24 hours of sepsis, but that mice lacking PPARα (Ppara(-/-)) cannot sustain the elevated heart function necessary to compensate for sepsis pathophysiology...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877156/a-chitosan-coating-containing-essential-oil-from-origanum-vulgare-l-to-control-postharvest-mold-infections-and-keep-the-quality-of-cherry-tomato-fruit
#18
Tainá A Barreto, Sonalle C A Andrade, Janeeyre F Maciel, Narciza M O Arcanjo, Marta S Madruga, Bruno Meireles, Ângela M T Cordeiro, Evandro L Souza, Marciane Magnani
The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874251/simultaneous-analysis-of-ten-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-in-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-photorespiration-pathway-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-at-different-growth-stages
#19
Mengwei Ye, Lijing Zhang, Panpan Xu, Runtao Zhang, Jilin Xu, Xiaokai Wu, Juanjuan Chen, Chengxu Zhou, Xiaojun Yan
A method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of organic acids in microalgae. o-Benzylhydroxylamine was used to derivatize the analytes, and stable isotope-labeled compounds were used as internal standards for precise quantification. The proposed method was evaluated in terms of linearity, recovery, matrix effect, sensitivity, and precision. Linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients of >0.99 were obtained over the concentration range of 0...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872714/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-organic-acids-and-phytase-on-performance-and-intestinal-histomorphology-of-broilers
#20
Nasibeh Mohammadagheri, Ramin Najafi, Gholamreza Najafi
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
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