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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446620/polydopamine-coated-main-chain-liquid-crystal-elastomer-as-optically-driven-artificial-muscle
#1
Hongmiao Tian, Zhijian Wang, Yilong Chen, Jinyou Shao, Tong Gao, Shengqiang Cai
Optically-driven active materials have received much attention because their deformation and motion can be controlled remotely, instantly and precisely in a contactless way. In this article, we investigated an optically-actuated elastomer with rapid response: polydopamine (PDA)-coated liquid crystal elastomer (LCE). Due to the photothermal effect of PDA coating and thermal responsiveness of LCE, the elastomer film contracted significantly with near infrared (NIR) irradiation. With a fixed strain, light-induced actuating stress in the film could be as large as 1...
February 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444715/porcine-wharton-s-jelly-cells-distribute-throughout-the-body-after-intraperitoneal-injection
#2
Kreeson Packthongsuk, Theresa Rathbun, Deryl Troyer, Duane L Davis
BACKGROUND: Wharton's jelly cells (WJCs) have multiple differentiation potentials and are easily harvested in large numbers. WJCs are well tolerated in allogeneic environments and there is a growing list of their therapeutic effects. Most therapies require administering large numbers of cells and this is generally accomplished by intravenous injection. Here, we studied the locations of porcine WJCs in immune-competent, allogeneic hosts after intraperitoneal (IP) injection. METHODS: Male porcine WJCs were administered to female neonatal piglets by IP injection...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436684/lactoferrin-promotes-murine-c2c12-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-and-myotube-hypertrophy
#3
Tomoya Kitakaze, Meiku Oshimo, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Mizuyuki Ryu, Yasushi A Suzuki, Hiroshi Inui, Naoki Harada, Ryoichi Yamaji
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which promotes the proliferation of murine C2C12 myoblasts. In the present study, it was investigated how Lf promotes myoblast proliferation and whether Lf promotes myoblast differentiation or induces myotube hypertrophy. Lf promoted the proliferation of myoblasts in a dose‑dependent manner. Myoblast proliferation increased on day 3 when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for three days and also when myoblasts were cultured in the presence of Lf for the first day and in the absence of Lf for the subsequent two days...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434825/changes-in-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-factors-and-the-protein-synthesis-pathway-in-injured-skeletal-muscle-after-contusion
#4
Xiaoguang Liu, Zhigang Zeng, Linlin Zhao, Weihua Xiao, Peijie Chen
Injury of skeletal muscle, and particularly mechanically-induced damage, including contusion injury, frequently occurs in contact sports as well as in sports with accidental contact. Although the mechanisms of skeletal muscle regeneration are well understood, those involved in muscle contusion are not. A total of 40 male mice were randomly divided into control (n=8) and muscle contusion (n=32) groups. A muscle contusion model was established by weight-drop injury. Subsequently, the gastrocnemius muscles in the two groups were harvested at different times (1, 3, 7 and 14 days) post-injury...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434648/hsp90%C3%AE-knockdown-in-dio-mice-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-improves-glucose-tolerance
#5
Enxuan Jing, Pragalath Sundararajan, Ishita Deb Majumdar, Suwagmani Hazarika, Samantha Fowler, Angela Szeto, Stephane Gesta, Armando J Mendez, Vivek K Vishnudas, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain
Background: Inhibition of Hsp90 has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of diabetes. In the present report, the specific isoform Hsp90ab1, was identified as playing a major role in regulating insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. Methods: In a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model of diabetes, expression of various Hsp90 isoforms in skeletal tissue was examined. Subsequent experiments characterized the role of Hsp90ab1 isoform in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) and a DIO mouse model...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427372/cross-bridges-in-slow-skeletal-muscle-not-only-slow-but-also-soft
#6
Robert Stehle, Theresia Kraft
Skeletal muscle is composed of slow and fast muscle fibres which contain different isoforms of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC), MyHC-1 in slow fibres and MyHC-2 in fast fibres. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426944/incorporation-of-a-skeletal-muscle-specific-enhancer-in-the-regulatory-region-of-igf1-upregulates-igf1-expression-and-induces-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#7
Yunlong Zou, Yanjun Dong, Qingyong Meng, Yaofeng Zhao, Ning Li
In this study, we upregulated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) expression specifically in skeletal muscle by engineering an enhancer into its non-coding regions and verified the expected phenotype in a mouse model. To select an appropriate site for introducing a skeletal muscle-specific myosin light chain (MLC) enhancer, three candidate sites that exhibited the least evolutionary conservation were chosen and validated in C2C12 single-cell colonies harbouring the MLC enhancer at each site. IGF1 was dramatically upregulated in only the site 2 single-cell colony series, and it exhibited functional activity leading to the formation of extra myotubes...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426367/pip5k1%C3%AE-promotes-myogenic-differentiation-via-akt-activation-and-calcium-release
#8
Xiaofan Chen, Jun Wan, Bo Yu, Yarui Diao, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle satellite cell-derived myoblasts are mainly responsible for postnatal muscle growth and injury-induced regeneration. Many intracellular signaling pathways are essential for myogenic differentiation, while a number of kinases are involved in this modulation process. Type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5KI) was identified as one of the key kinases involved in myogenic differentiation, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: PIP5K1α was quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and western blot assay...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418121/mouse-hind-limb-skeletal-muscle-functional-adaptation-in-a-simulated-fine-branch-arboreal-habitat
#9
Joseph E Rupert, J Ethan Joll, Wiaam Y Elkhatib, Jason M Organ
The musculoskeletal system is remarkably plastic during growth. The purpose of this study was to examine the muscular plasticity in functional and structural properties in a model known to result in significant developmental plasticity of the postcranial skeleton. Fifteen weanling C57BL/6 mice were raised to 16 weeks of age in one of two enclosures: a climbing enclosure that simulates a fine branch arboreal habitat and is traversed by steel wires crossing at 45° relative to horizontal at multiple intersections, and a control enclosure that resembles a parking deck with no wires but the same volume of habitable space...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417114/the-effects-of-whey-and-soy-proteins-on-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-digestion-and-selected-physiological-responses-in-rats
#10
B Wróblewska, J Juśkiewicz, B Kroplewski, A Jurgoński, E Wasilewska, D Złotkowska, L Markiewicz
The objective of this work was to identify the nutritional and physiological effects of commercial soy and whey protein preparations. Wistar rats were fed with soy (S), whey (W), or casein (C) preparations as the sole dietary protein source. The nitrogen balance, body composition, changes in caecal microbiota, mucosal and bacterial enzyme activities, and allergenic potential of the preparations were analysed. The whey diet elicited greater skeletal muscle anabolism than the soy diet. Rats from the S group had the lowest values of body weight, fat, and lean mass gain...
February 8, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400461/conformational-ensembles-of-calmodulin-revealed-by-nonperturbing-site-specific-vibrational-probe-groups
#11
Kristen L Kelly, Shannon R Dalton, Rebecca B Wai, Kanika Ramchandani, Rosalind J Xu, Sara Linse, Casey H Londergan
Seven native residues on the regulatory protein calmodulin, including three key methionine residues, were replaced (one by one) by the vibrational probe amino acid cyanylated cysteine, which has a unique CN stretching vibration that reports on its local environment. Almost no perturbation was caused by this probe at any of the seven sites, as reported by CD spectra of calcium-bound calmodulin and binding thermodynamics for the formation of a complex between calmodulin and a canonical target peptide from skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase measured by isothermal titration...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398371/gh-directly-stimulates-ucp3-expression
#12
Misa Hayashi, Kumi Futawaka, Midori Matsushita, Rie Koyama, Yue Fun, Yuki Fukuda, Ayaka Nushida, Syoko Nezu, Tetsuya Tagami, Kenji Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the direct action of GH signaling in energy homeostasis in myocytes. DESIGN: We investigated the GH-induced expression of UCP3 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts, and rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, as well as its direct effect on the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway using a combination of a reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting...
January 31, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381891/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-adiponectin-adipoq-gene-in-goat-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#13
Linjie Wang, Ke Xue, Yan Wang, Lili Niu, Li Li, Tao Zhong, Jiazhong Guo, Jing Feng, Tianzeng Song, Hongping Zhang
Objective: It is commonly accepted that adiponectin binds to its two receptors to regulate fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes. To better understand their functions in the regulation of intramuscular adipogenesis in goats, we cloned the three genes (AdipoQ, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) encoding these proteins and detected their mRNA distribution in different tissues. We also determined the role of AdipoQ in the adipogenic differentiation of goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). Methods: SMSCs were isolated using 1 mg/ml Pronase E from the longissimus dorsi muscles of 3-day-old female Nanjiang brown goats...
January 30, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380555/the-double-edged-sword-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-uremic-sarcopenia-through-myogenesis-perturbation
#14
Jia-Rong Jheng, Yuan-Siao Chen, Un Iong Ao, Ding-Cheng Chan, Jenq-Wen Huang, Kuang-Yu Hung, Der-Cheng Tarng, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUNDS: Sarcopenia is the age-related degeneration characterized with the decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. The imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation which jeopardizes immune, hormone regulation, and muscle-motor neuron connection is the main cause of sarcopenia. There is limited knowledge regarding molecular mechanism of sarcopenia. As the endoplasmic reticulum is the control centre of the protein syntheses and degradation, we hypothesized that endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) play an important in the development of sarcopenia...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379887/quercetin-inhibits-adipogenesis-of-muscle-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#15
Tomoko Funakoshi, Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuta Otsuka, Takayuki Izumo, Hiroshi Shibata, Shuichi Machida
Muscle satellite cells are committed myogenic progenitors capable of contributing to myogenesis to maintain adult muscle mass and function. Several experiments have demonstrated that muscle satellite cells can differentiate into adipocytes in vitro, supporting the mesenchymal differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, muscle satellite cells may be a source of ectopic muscle adipocytes, explaining the lipid accumulation often observed in aged skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) and in muscles of patients` with diabetes...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377510/bcaa-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-dysregulated-by-metabolic-status
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas P Gannon, Jamie K Schnuck, Roger A Vaughan
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) appear to influence several synthetic and catabolic cellular signaling cascades leading to altered phenotypes in mammals. BCAAs are most notably known to increase protein synthesis through modulating protein translation, explaining their appeal to resistance and endurance athletes for muscle hypertrophy, expedited recovery, and preservation of lean body mass. In addition to anabolic effects, BCAAs may increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle and adipocytes, possibly enhancing oxidative capacity...
January 29, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361595/fasting-enhances-mitochondrial-efficiency-in-ducklings-skeletal-muscle-by-acting-on-the-substrate-oxidation-system
#17
Damien Roussel, Mélanie Boël, Caroline Romestaing
During food deprivation, animals must develop physiological responses to maximize energy conservation and survival. At the subcellular level, energy conservation is mainly achieved by a reduction in mitochondrial activity and an upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. The aim of this study was to decipher mechanisms underlying the increased mitochondrial coupling efficiency reported in fasted birds. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity, efficiency and membrane potential were measured in mitochondria isolated from gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361581/myosin-phosphorylation-improves-contractile-economy-of-mouse-fast-skeletal-muscle-during-staircase-potentiation
#18
Jordan Bunda, William Gittings, Rene Vandenboom
Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) potentiates rodent fast twitch muscle but is an ATP requiring process. Our objective was to investigate the effect of skMLCK-catalyzed RLC phosphorylation on the energetic cost of contraction and the contractile economy (ratio of mechanical output to metabolic input) of mouse fast muscle in vitro (25° C). To this end, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from Wildtype and from skMLCK devoid (skMLCK-/-) mice were subjected to repetitive low-frequency stimulation (10 Hz for 15 s) to produce staircase potentiation of isometric twitch force after which muscles were quick frozen for determination of high-energy phosphate consumption (HEPC)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361167/a-novel-mechanism-causing-imbalance-of-mitochondrial-fusion-and-fission-in-human-myopathies
#19
Marina Bartsakoulia, Angela Pyle, Diego Troncosco, Josefa Vial, Marysol V Paz-Fiblas, Jennifer Duff, Helen Griffin, Veronika Boczonadi, Hanns Lochmüller, Stephanie Kleinle, Patrick F Chinnery, Sarah Grünert, Janbernd Kirschner, Veronica Eisner, Rita Horvath
Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in cellular homeostasis and a variety of human diseases are linked to its dysregulated function. Here we describe a 15-year-old boy with a novel disease caused by altered mitochondrial dynamics. The patient was the second child of consanguineous Jewish parents. He developed progressive muscle weakness and exercise intolerance at 6 years of age. His muscle biopsy revealed mitochondrial myopathy with numerous ragged red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) negative fibers and combined respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiency...
January 19, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358270/high-predictive-value-of-brain-mri-imaging-in-primary-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-deficiency
#20
Isaure de Beaurepaire, David Grévent, Marlène Rio, Isabelle Desguerre, Pascale de Lonlay, Raphaël Levy, Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Giulia Barcia, Benoit Funalot, Claude Besmond, Metodi D Metodiev, Benedetta Ruzzenente, Zahra Assouline, Arnold Munnich, Agnès Rötig, Nathalie Boddaert
BACKGROUND: Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
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