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Muscle-skeletal chains

Ahmed Hammad, Toshimi Kaido, Vusal Aliyev, Claudia Mandato, Shinji Uemoto
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
Valentin Barquissau, Frédéric Capel, Dominique Dardevet, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Anne Gallinier, Marie-Agnès Chauvin, Jennifer Rieusset, Béatrice Morio
Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) can have opposite impacts on insulin signaling, they have mainly been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We analyzed the relationship between these three features in skeletal muscle of senescence accelerated mice (SAM) prone (P8), which are characterized by enhanced oxidative stress compared to SAM resistant (R1). Oxidative stress, ROS production, antioxidant system, mitochondrial content and functioning, as well as in vitro and in vivo insulin signaling were investigated in gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles...
October 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yuho Kim, Sok Sambo Men, Chen Liang, Candace N Receno, Tom D Brutsaert, Donna L Korol, Kevin S Heffernan, Keith C DeRuisseau
Aging skeletal muscle displays an altered iron status that may promote oxidative stress and sarcopenia. A low iron (LI) containing diet could reduce muscle iron status and attenuate age-related muscle atrophy. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may also alleviate sarcopenia by promoting muscle protein synthesis and iron status improvement. This study examined individual and combined effects of LI and BCAA diets on anabolic signaling and iron status in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Twenty-nine-month-old male F344BN rats consumed the following control-base diets: Control + regular iron (35 mg iron/kg) (CR; n = 11); Control + LI (~6 mg iron/kg) (CL; n = 11); 2×BCAA + regular iron (BR; n = 10); and 2×BCAA + LI (BL; n = 12) for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Haruki Uojima, Seiko Sakurai, Hisashi Hidaka, Takeshi Kinbara, Ji Hyun Sung, Chikamasa Ichita, Shinnosuke Tokoro, Sakue Masuda, Akiko Sasaki, Kazuya Koizumi, Hideto Egashira, Makoto Kako, Shuzo Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplements on muscle strength and muscle mass in patients with liver cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a single-center, prospective study of adult cirrhotic patients receiving nutrition therapy at Shonan Kamakura General Hospital. A 28-day pretreatment observation period was followed by a 24-week treatment period. Patients who fulfilled the treatment criteria received one package of oral BCAA supplement powder twice a day and the response was evaluated...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Agnieszka A Koppolu, Agnieszka Madej-Pilarczyk, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Joanna Kosińska, Piotr Gasperowicz, Jolanta Dorszewska, Wojciech Kozubski, Barbara Steinborn, Andrzej M Kochański, Rafał Płoski
Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders affecting skeletal muscles and connective tissue. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness and joint deformities which limit the movement and progress over time. Several forms of collagen VI-related myopathies have been described: Bethlem myopathy, an intermediate form and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, which is the most severe. Here we report a novel de novo c.1056+3A>C substitution in intron 14 of the COL6A1 gene encoding alpha-chains of collagen VI in a 13-year-old girl suffering from collagen VI (ColVI) myopathy...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
Carol S Bookwalter, Chwen L Tay, Rama McCrorie, Michael J Previs, Hailong Lu, Elena B Krementsova, Patricia M Fagnant, Jake Baum, Kathleen M Trybus
Motility of the apicomplexan malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is enabled by a multi-protein glideosome complex, whose core is the class XIV myosin motor, PfMyoA and a divergent Plasmodium actin (PfACT1). Parasite motility is necessary for host cell invasion and virulence, but studying its molecular basis has been hampered by unavailability of sufficient amounts of PfMyoA. Here, we expressed milligram quantities of functional full-length PfMyoA with the baculovirus/Sf9 cell expression system, which required a UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4p) family myosin chaperone from Plasmodium spp...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Suifeng Liu, Feng Gao, Lei Wen, Min Ouyang, Yi Wang, Qiong Wang, Liping Luo, Zaijin Jian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcopenia is characterized by an age-related decline in skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the molecular pathways underlying sarcopenia remain elusive. The recent demonstration that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) favours muscle function related to insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism raises the question of whether this hormone may also regulate muscle mass. The present study explored the promotive effects of ucOC in proliferation and differentiation processes of C2C12 myoblasts as well as the possible signalling pathways involved...
October 5, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Natalia A Vilchinskaya, Ekaterina P Mochalova, Tatiana L Nemirovskaya, Timur M Mirzoev, Olga V Turtikova, Boris S Shenkman
One of the key events that occurs during skeletal muscle inactivation is a change in myosin phenotype, i.e. increased expression of fast isoforms and decreased expression of slow isoform of myosin heavy chain (MyHC). It is known that calcineurin/NFAT and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can regulate the expression of genes encoding MyHC slow isoform. Earlier, we found a significant decrease in phosphorylated AMPK in rat soleus after 24 h of hindlimb unloading (HU). We hypothesized that a decrease in AMPK phosphorylation and subsequent histone deacetylase (HDAC) nuclear translocation can be one of the triggering events leading to a reduced expression of slow MyHC...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Meera C Viswanathan, Rick C Tham, William A Kronert, Floyd Sarsoza, Adriana S Trujillo, Anthony Cammarato, Sanford I Bernstein
Myosin storage myopathy (MSM) is a congenital skeletal muscle disorder caused by missense mutations in the β-cardiac/slow skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain rod. It is characterized by subsarcolemmal accumulations of myosin that have a hyaline appearance. MSM mutations map near or within the assembly competence domain known to be crucial for thick filament formation. Drosophila MSM models were generated for comprehensive physiological, structural, and biochemical assessment of the mutations' consequences on muscle and myosin structure and function...
September 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Francesca Riuzzi, Sara Beccafico, Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Ileana Giambanco, Oxana Bereshchenko, Carlo Riccardi, Guglielmo Sorci, Rosario Donato
Regeneration of injured skeletal muscles relies on a tightly controlled chain of cellular and molecular events. We show that appropriate levels of S100B protein are required for timely muscle regeneration after acute injury. S100B released from damaged myofibers and infiltrating macrophages expands the myoblast population, attracts macrophages and promotes their polarization into M2 (pro-regenerative) phenotype, and modulates collagen deposition, by interacting with RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) or FGFR1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) depending on the muscle repair phase and local conditions...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
David H MacIver, Robert S Stephenson, Bjarke Jensen, Peter Agger, Damián Sánchez-Quintana, Jonathan C Jarvis, John B Partridge, Robert H Anderson
The concept of the 'unique myocardial band', which proposes that the ventricular myocardial cone is arranged like skeletal muscle, provides an attractive framework for understanding haemodynamics. The original idea was developed by Francisco Torrent-Guasp. Using boiled hearts and blunt dissection, Torrent-Guasp created a single band of ventricular myocardium extending from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic root, with the band thus constructed encircling both ventricular cavities. Cooked hearts can, however, be dissected in many ways...
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Sofia Mikkelsen Berg, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Nils Joakim Færgeman, Michael Gaster
Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) deficiency has previously been shown to result in muscle insulin resistance due to accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines. However, differences in the acylcarnitine profile and/or changes in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT in myotubes obtained from obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and glucose-tolerant obese and lean controls remain unclear. The objective of the study was to examine whether myotubes from obese patients with T2DM express differences in gene expression and protein abundance of CRAT and in acylcarnitine species pre-cultured under glucose and insulin concentrations similar to those observed in healthy individuals in the over-night fasted, resting state...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Ewen W Sommerville, Charlotte L Alston, Angela Pyle, Langping He, Gavin Falkous, Karen Naismith, Patrick F Chinnery, Robert McFarland, Robert W Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic etiology of a young woman presenting an early-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evidence of decreased mitochondrial complex I and IV activities in skeletal muscle suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: A case report including diagnostic workup, whole-exome sequencing of the affected patient, filtering, and prioritization of candidate variants assuming a suspected autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder and segregation studies...
October 2017: Neurology. Genetics
Ya Wen, Hideki Ushio
As a widely distributed and natural existing antioxidant, ferulic acid and its functions have been extensively studied in recent decades. In the present study, hypertrophic growth of fast skeletal myofibers was observed in adult zebrafish after ferulic acid administration for 30 days, being reflected in increased body weight, body mass index (BMI), and muscle mass, along with an enlarged cross-sectional area of myofibers. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression levels of myogenic transcriptional factors (MyoD, myogenin and serum response factor (SRF)) and their target genes encoding sarcomeric unit proteins involved in muscular hypertrophy (skeletal alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, and troponin I)...
September 26, 2017: Nutrients
Natalie R Fetto, Wenqiang Cao, Ian S Wallace, Matthew J Tucker
Recently, it has been shown that nitrile derivatized phenylalanines possess distinct fluorescent properties depending on the position of the cyano- group within the aromatic ring. These fluorophores have potential as probes for studying protein dynamics due to their sensitivity to local environment. Herein, we demonstrate that 2-cyanophenylalanine (Phe2CN) and Phe4CN can independently monitor multiple sites during the Ca2+ dependent binding of a skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) peptide fragment to the protein calmodulin (CaM)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hongwei Jiang, Yujin Ma, Junqiang Yan, Jie Liu, Liping Li
Insulin resistance (IR) is known to be an important factor, which can lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Autophagy is a cellular process, which sequesters senescent or damaged proteins in autophagosomes for recycling of their products. Insulin and intracellular molecules, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), are well‑known inhibitors of autophagy. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT‑4) in skeletal muscles are significantly decreased, indicating decreased glucose‑processing ability...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alexandre Fouré, David Bendahan
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
Seiko Noda, Asako Yamada, Kanae Nakaoka, Masae Goseki-Sone
Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation, and development. The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a differentiation marker for intestinal epithelial cells, is regulated by vitamin D. Intestinal-type ALP is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, and is known to be affected by several kinds of nutrients...
August 4, 2017: Nutrition Research
Zsolt Bánfai, Kinga Hadzsiev, Endre Pál, Katalin Komlósi, Márton Melegh, László Balikó, Béla Melegh
BACKGROUND: Defects of the slow myosin heavy chain isoform coding MYH7 gene primarily cause skeletal myopathies including Laing Distal Myopathy, Myosin Storage Myopathy and are also responsible for cardiomyopathies. Scapuloperoneal and limb-girdle muscle weakness, congenital fiber type disproportion, multi-minicore disease were also reported in connection of MYH7. Pathogeneses of the defects in the head and proximal rod region of the protein are well described. However, the C-terminal mutations of the MYH7 gene are less known...
September 19, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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