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Muscle-skeletal chains

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#1
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191501/skeletal-muscle-function-deficits-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives-on-resistance-training
#2
Evan V Papa, Xiaoyang Dong, Mahdi Hassan
A variety of changes in skeletal muscle occur with aging. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Traditional definitions of sarcopenia focused on the size of human skeletal muscle. However, increasing evidence in older adults suggests that low muscle mass is associated with weakness, and weakness is strongly associated with function and disability. In recent years a global trend has shifted toward more encompassing definitions for the loss of muscle mass which include decreases in physical function...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188262/mapk-signaling-pathways-and-hdac3-activity-are-disrupted-during-emerin-null-myogenic-progenitor-differentiation
#3
Carol M Collins, Joseph Ellis, James M Holaska
Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). Emerin is an integral inner nuclear membrane protein and a component of the nuclear lamina. EDMD is characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, cardiac conduction defects and tendon contractures. The failure to regenerate skeletal muscle is predicted to contribute to the skeletal muscle pathology of EDMD. We hypothesize muscle regeneration defects are caused by impaired muscle stem cell differentiation. Myogenic progenitors derived from emerin-null mice were used to confirm their impaired differentiation and analyze selected myogenic molecular pathways...
February 10, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179229/exogenous-amino-acids-suppress-glucose-oxidation-and-potentiate-hepatic-glucose-production-in-late-gestation-fetal-sheep
#4
Laura D Brown, Jaden R Kohn, Paul J Rozance, William W Hay, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Acute amino acid (AA) infusion increases AA oxidation rates in normal late gestation fetal sheep. Because fetal oxygen consumption rate does not change with increased AA oxidation, we hypothesized that AA infusion would suppress glucose oxidation pathways and that the additional carbon supply from AA would activate hepatic glucose production. To test this, late gestation fetal sheep were infused intravenously for 3h with saline or exogenous AA (AA). Glucose tracer metabolic studies were performed and skeletal muscle and liver tissues samples were collected...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177707/dietary-fish-oil-delays-hypoxic-skeletal-muscle-fatigue-and-enhances-caffeine-stimulated-contractile-recovery-in-the-rat-in-vivo-hindlimb
#5
Gregory E Peoples, Peter L McLennan
Oxygen efficiency influences skeletal muscle contractile function during physiological hypoxia. Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduces the oxygen cost of muscle contraction. This study used autologous perfused rat hindlimb model to examine the effects of a fish oil diet on skeletal muscle fatigue during an acute hypoxic challenge. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet rich in saturated fat (SF), long chain (LC) n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA), or LC n-3 PUFA DHA from fish oil (FO) (8weeks)...
January 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165492/enhanced-development-of-skeletal-myotubes-from-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Nicholas J Genovese, Timothy L Domeier, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, R Michael Roberts
The pig is recognized as a valuable model in biomedical research in addition to its agricultural importance. Here we describe a means for generating skeletal muscle efficiently from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSC) in vitro thereby providing a versatile platform for applications ranging from regenerative biology to the ex vivo cultivation of meat. The GSK3B inhibitor, CHIR99021 was employed to suppress apoptosis, elicit WNT signaling events and drive naïve-type piPSC along the mesoderm lineage, and, in combination with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine, to activate an early skeletal muscle transcription program...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165405/circulating-docosahexaenoic-acid-associates-with-insulin-dependent-skeletal-muscle-and-whole-body-glucose-uptake-in-older-women-born-from-normal-weight-mothers
#7
Robert M Badeau, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Patricia Iozzo, Johan G Eriksson, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance...
February 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161635/effect-of-tcea3-on-the-differentiation-of-bovine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#8
Yue Zhu, Hui-Li Tong, Shu-Feng Li, Yun-Qin Yan
Bovine muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) are important for animal growth. In this study, the effect of transcription elongation factor A3 (TCEA3) on bovine MDSC differentiation was investigated. Western blotting, immunofluorescence assays, and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein isolation and purification techniques were used to determine the expression pattern and protein localization of TCEA3 in bovine MDSCs during in vitro differentiation. TCEA3 expression was upregulated using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to study its effects on MDSC differentiation in vitro...
February 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159888/principles-for-circadian-orchestration-of-metabolic-pathways
#9
Kevin Thurley, Christopher Herbst, Felix Wesener, Barbara Koller, Thomas Wallach, Bert Maier, Achim Kramer, Pål O Westermark
Circadian rhythms govern multiple aspects of animal metabolism. Transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-wide measurements have revealed widespread circadian rhythms in metabolism governed by a cellular genetic oscillator, the circadian core clock. However, it remains unclear if and under which conditions transcriptional rhythms cause rhythms in particular metabolites and metabolic fluxes. Here, we analyzed the circadian orchestration of metabolic pathways by direct measurement of enzyme activities, analysis of transcriptome data, and developing a theoretical method called circadian response analysis...
February 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150475/relationship-between-fat-cd36-protein-in-skeletal-muscle-and-whole-body-fat-oxidation-in-endurance-trained-mice
#10
Jisu Kim, Kiwon Lim
Purpose: We investigated the effects of endurance training on the expression of long-chain fatty acid transport proteins in the skeletal muscle and whole-body fat oxidation during endurance exercise. Methods: Seven-week-old male ICR mice (n = 12) were divided into 2 groups, namely, Sed (sedentary; non-trained) and Tr (endurance-trained) groups. The Tr group was adapted to treadmill training at a fixed intensity (15 m/min, 8° slope) for 3 days. Next, the exercise intensity was increased while maintaining the 8° slope...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145418/chronic-dietary-exposure-to-branched-chain-amino-acids-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-vegans-but-not-in-omnivores
#11
J Gojda, L Rossmeislová, R Straková, J Tůmová, M Elkalaf, M Jaček, P Tůma, J Potočková, E Krauzová, P Waldauf, J Trnka, V Štich, M Anděl
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among nutrients strongly linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) measures. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase of BCAA intake on IS in two groups of healthy subjects differing in their basal consumption of BCAA, that is, vegans and omnivores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eight vegans and eight matched omnivores (five men and three women in each group) received 15 g (women) or 20 g (men) of BCAA daily for 3 months...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135003/modulation-of-skeletal-muscle-contraction-by-myosin-phosphorylation
#12
Rene Vandenboom
The striated muscle sarcomere is a highly organized and complex enzymatic and structural organelle. Evolutionary pressures have played a vital role in determining the structure-function relationship of each protein within the sarcomere. A key part of this multimeric assembly is the light chain-binding domain (LCBD) of the myosin II motor molecule. This elongated "beam" functions as a biological lever, amplifying small interdomain movements within the myosin head into piconewton forces and nanometer displacements against the thin filament during the cross-bridge cycle...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134339/dietary-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-cold-acclimated-men
#13
Denis P Blondin, Hans C Tingelstad, Christophe Noll, Frédérique Frisch, Serge Phoenix, Brigitte Guérin, Éric E Turcotte, Denis Richard, François Haman, André C Carpentier
In rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in producing heat to defend against the cold and can metabolize large amounts of dietary fatty acids (DFA). The role of BAT in DFA metabolism in humans is unknown. Here we show that mild cold stimulation (18 °C) results in a significantly greater fractional DFA extraction by BAT relative to skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue in non-cold-acclimated men given a standard liquid meal containing the long-chain fatty acid PET tracer, 14(R,S)-[(18)F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ((18)FTHA)...
January 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130125/histone-methyltransferase-setd2-is-critical-for-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-myoblasts
#14
Xin Yi, Ye Tao, Xi Lin, Yuan Dai, Tingli Yang, Xiaojing Yue, Xuejun Jiang, Xiaoyan Li, Ding-Sheng Jiang, Kelsey C Andrade, Jiang Chang
Skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly regulated. Epigenetic regulation is a major component of the regulatory mechanism governing these processes. Histone modification is part of the epigenetic code used for transcriptional regulation of chromatin through the establishment of an active or repressive state for genes involved in myogenesis in a temporal manner. Here, we uncovered the function of SET domain containing 2 (Setd2), an essential histone 3 lysine 36 trimethyltransferase, in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts...
January 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129596/tissue-engineering-the-mechanosensory-circuit-of-the-stretch-reflex-arc-with-human-stem-cells-sensory-neuron-innervation-of-intrafusal-muscle-fibers
#15
Xiufang Guo, Alisha Colon, Nesar Akanda, Severo Spradling, Maria Stancescu, Candace Martin, James J Hickman
Muscle spindles are sensory organs embedded in the belly of skeletal muscles that serve as mechanoreceptors detecting static and dynamic information about muscle length and stretch. Through their connection with proprioceptive sensory neurons, sensation of axial body position and muscle movement are transmitted to the central nervous system. Impairment of this sensory circuit causes motor deficits and has been linked to a wide range of diseases. To date, no defined human-based in vitro model of the proprioceptive sensory circuit has been developed...
April 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120165/investigating-the-link-of-acad10-deficiency-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Kaitlyn Bloom, Al-Walid Mohsen, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Dina El Demellawy, Miguel Reyes-Múgica, Yudong Wang, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Chikara Otsubo, Kimi Tobita, Radhika Muzumdar, Zhenwei Gong, Emir Tas, Shrabani Basu, Jie Chen, Michael Bennett, Charles Hoppel, Jerry Vockley
The Native American Pima population has the highest incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of any reported population, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Genetic studies in Pima Indians have linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) gene polymorphisms, among others, to this predisposition. The gene codes for a protein with a C-terminus region that is structurally similar to members of a family of flavoenzymes-the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs)-that catalyze α,β-dehydrogenation reactions, including the first step in mitochondrial FAO (FAO), and intermediary reactions in amino acids catabolism...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115646/response-of-novel-skeletal-muscle-biomarkers-in-dogs-to-drug-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury-or-sustained-endurance-exercise
#17
Katerina Vlasakova, Pamela Lane, Laura Michna, Nagaraja Muniappa, Frank D Sistare, Warren E Glaab
The skeletal muscle (SKM) injury biomarkers, skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), and creatine kinase muscle isoform (Ckm) have been shown recently to be more sensitive and specific for monitoring drug-induced SKM injury than the conventional biomarkers, aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic assays in rat toxicology studies. To evaluate the utility of these SKM biomarkers across species, they were assessed in two dog models: a drug-induced injury study in Beagle dogs and a 160 km endurance exercise run completed by Alaskan sled dogs...
January 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112067/requirements-of-n-3-very-long-chain-pufa-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-effects-of-different-dietary-levels-of-epa-and-dha-on-fish-performance-and-tissue-composition-and-integrity
#18
Marta Bou, Gerd M Berge, Grete Baeverfjord, Trygve Sigholt, Tone-Kari Østbye, Odd Helge Romarheim, Bjarne Hatlen, Robin Leeuwis, Claudia Venegas, Bente Ruyter
Farmed salmon feeds have changed from purely marine-based diets with high levels of EPA and DHA in the 1990s to the current 70 % plant-based diets with low levels of these fatty acids (FA). The aim of this study was to establish the impacts of low dietary EPA and DHA levels on performance and tissue integrity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Atlantic salmon (50 g) in seawater were fed fourteen experimental diets, containing five levels (0, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 and 2·0 %) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 EPA+DHA plus control close to a commercial diet, to a final weight of 400 g...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110829/lipidomic-analysis-reveals-significant-lipogenesis-and-accumulation-of-lipotoxic-components-in-ob-ob-mouse-organs
#19
Jun Hayakawa, Miao Wang, Chunyan Wang, Rowland H Han, Zhen Y Jiang, Xianlin Han
To further understand the role of lipogenesis and lipotoxicity in the development of obesity and diabetes, lipidomes of various organs from ob/ob mice and their wild type controls were analyzed by shotgun lipidomics at 10, 12, and 16 weeks of age. We observed that the amounts of fatty acyl (FA) chains corresponding to those from de novo synthesis (e.g., 16:0, 16:1, and 18:1 FA) were substantially elevated in ob/ob mice, consistent with increased expression of genes and proteins involved in biosynthesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acid species were moderately increased in the examined tissues of ob/ob mice, since they can only be absorbed from diets or elongated from the ingested n-3 or n-6 FA...
January 11, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108329/exercise-increases-mitochondrial-complex-i-activity-and-drp1-expression-in-the-brains-of-aged-mice
#20
Aaron M Gusdon, Jason Callio, Giovanna Distefano, Robert M O'Doherty, Bret H Goodpaster, Paul M Coen, Charleen T Chu
Exercise is known to have numerous beneficial effects. Recent studies indicate that exercise improves mitochondrial energetics not only in skeletal muscle but also in other tissues. While exercise elicits positive effects on memory, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, the effects of exercise on brain mitochondrial energetics remain relatively unknown. Herein, we studied the effects of exercise training in old and young mice on brain mitochondrial energetics, in comparison to known effects on peripheral tissues that utilize fatty acid oxidation...
January 18, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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