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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429146/clinical-validity-of-biochemical-and-molecular-analysis-in-diagnosing-leigh-syndrome-a-study-of-106-japanese-patients
#2
Erika Ogawa, Masaru Shimura, Takuya Fushimi, Makiko Tajika, Keiko Ichimoto, Ayako Matsunaga, Tomoko Tsuruoka, Mika Ishige, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Taro Yamazaki, Masato Mori, Masakazu Kohda, Yoshihito Kishita, Yasushi Okazaki, Shori Takahashi, Akira Ohtake, Kei Murayama
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of infancy and early childhood. It is clinically diagnosed by typical manifestations and characteristic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Unravelling mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) dysfunction behind LS is essential for deeper understanding of the disease, which may lead to the development of new therapies and cure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical validity of various diagnostic tools in confirming MRC disorder in LS and Leigh-like syndrome (LL)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427446/respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-due-to-mutated-bcs1l-a-novel-phenotype-with-encephalomyopathy-partially-phenocopied-in-a-bcs1l-mutant-mouse-model
#3
Saara Tegelberg, Nikica Tomašić, Jukka Kallijärvi, Janne Purhonen, Eskil Elmér, Eva Lindberg, David Gisselsson Nord, Maria Soller, Nicole Lesko, Anna Wedell, Helene Bruhn, Christoph Freyer, Henrik Stranneheim, Rolf Wibom, Inger Nennesmo, Anna Wredenberg, Erik A Eklund, Vineta Fellman
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases due to defective respiratory chain complex III (CIII) are relatively uncommon. The assembly of the eleven-subunit CIII is completed by the insertion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, a process for which BCS1L protein is indispensable. Mutations in the BCS1L gene constitute the most common diagnosed cause of CIII deficiency, and the phenotypic spectrum arising from mutations in this gene is wide. RESULTS: A case of CIII deficiency was investigated in depth to assess respiratory chain function and assembly, and brain, skeletal muscle and liver histology...
April 20, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420087/skeletal-muscle-nucleo-mitochondrial-crosstalk-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Prasad P Devarshi, Sean M McNabney, Tara M Henagan
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction, evidenced by incomplete beta oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the form of long and medium chain acylcarnitines, may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition and insulin resistance during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The present review discusses the roles of anterograde and retrograde communication in nucleo-mitochondrial crosstalk that determines skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations, specifically alterations in mitochondrial number and function in relation to obesity and insulin resistance...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419739/cardiac-troponin-t-and-fast-skeletal-muscle-denervation-in-ageing
#5
Zherong Xu, Xin Feng, Juan Dong, Zhong-Min Wang, Jingyun Lee, Cristina Furdui, Daniel Clark Files, Kristen M Beavers, Stephen Kritchevsky, Carolanne Milligan, Jian-Ping Jin, Osvaldo Delbono, Tan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417963/loop-diuretics-affect-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-hypertrophy
#6
Shintaro Mandai, Susumu Furukawa, Manami Kodaka, Yutaka Hata, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Fumiaki Ando, Yutaro Mori, Daiei Takahashi, Yuki Yoshizaki, Yuri Kasagi, Yohei Arai, Emi Sasaki, Sayaka Yoshida, Yasuro Furuichi, Nobuharu L Fujii, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
Muscle wasting or sarcopenia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, renal failure, or heart failure, and in elderly individuals. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) is highly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle, where it contributes to the generation of membrane ion currents and potential. However, the physiologic function of NKCC1 in myogenesis is unclear. We investigated this issue using the NKCC1 inhibitors bumetanide and furosemide, which are commonly used loop diuretics...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410879/determination-of-reference-genes-that-are-independent-of-feeding-rhythms-for-circadian-studies-of-mouse-metabolic-tissues
#7
Reiko Nakao, Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Naoyuki Wada, Katsutaka Oishi
Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is a popular method for the measurement of mRNA expression level and is a critical tool for basic research. The identification of suitable reference genes that are stable and not affected by experimental conditions is a critical step in the accurate normalization of RT-PCR. On the other hand, the levels of numerous transcripts exhibit circadian oscillation in various peripheral tissues and it is thought to be regulated by feeding rhythms in addition to the molecular circadian clock...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409282/motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-resistance-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Jik Nijssen, Laura H Comley, Eva Hedlund
In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate. Importantly, certain lower MN subgroups are relatively resistant to degeneration, even though pathogenic proteins are typically ubiquitously expressed. Ocular MNs (OMNs), including the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei (CNIII, IV and VI), which regulate eye movement, persist throughout the disease. Consequently, eye-tracking devices are used to enable paralysed ALS patients (who can no longer speak) to communicate...
April 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408640/long-term-but-not-short-term-high-fat-diet-induces-fiber-composition-changes-and-impaired-contractile-force-in-mouse-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#9
Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshifumi Tamura, Saori Kakehi, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takashi Murayama, Kyoko Nakamura, Ryo Kakigi, Takao Okada, Takashi Sakurai, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
In this study, we investigated the effects of a short-term and long-term high-fat diet (HFD) on morphological and functional features of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) for 4 weeks (4-week HFD) or 12 weeks (12-week HFD). Subsequently, the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle was isolated, and the composition of muscle fiber type, expression levels of proteins involved in muscle contraction, and force production on electrical stimulation were analyzed. The 12-week HFD, but not the 4-week HFD, resulted in a decreased muscle tetanic force on 100 Hz stimulation compared with control (5...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406926/high-resolution-respirometry-of-fine-needle-muscle-biopsies-in-pre-manifest-huntington-s-disease-expansion-mutation-carriers-shows-normal-mitochondrial-respiratory-function
#10
Eva Buck, Martina Zügel, Uwe Schumann, Tamara Merz, Anja M Gumpp, Anke Witting, Jürgen M Steinacker, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Patrick Weydt, Enrico Calzia, Katrin S Lindenberg
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD), one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404582/histone-deacetylase-activity-modulates-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Alec Izaac Marcus Simmonds, Frank Seebacher
Aerobic exercise has a positive impact on animals by enhancing skeletal muscle function and locomotor performance. Responses of skeletal muscle to exercise involve changes in energy metabolism, calcium handling, and the composition of contractile protein isoforms, which together influence contractile properties. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) can cause short-term changes in gene expression, and may thereby mediate plasticity in contractile properties of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. The aim of this project was to determine (in zebrafish, Danio rerio) the traits that mediate inter-individual differences in sustained and sprint performance, and to determine whether inhibiting class I and II HDACs mediates exercise-induced changes in these traits...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398466/novel-nesprin-1-mutations-associated-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy-cause-nuclear-envelope-disruption-and-defects-in-myogenesis
#12
Can Zhou, Chen Li, Bin Zhou, Huaqin Sun, Victoria Koullourou, Ian Holt, Megan J Puckelwartz, Derek T Warren, Robert Hayward, Ziyuan Lin, Lin Zhang, Glenn E Morris, Elizabeth M McNally, Sue Shackleton, Li Rao, Catherine M Shanahan, Qiuping Zhang
Nesprins-1 and -2 are highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle and together with SUN (Sad1p/UNC84)-domain containing proteins and lamin A/C form the LInker of Nucleoskeleton-and-Cytoskeleton (LINC) bridging complex at the nuclear envelope (NE). Mutations in nesprin-1/2 have previously been found in patients with autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) as well as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, three novel rare variants (R8272Q, S8381C and N8406K) in the C-terminus of the SYNE1 gene (nesprin-1) were identified in seven DCM patients by mutation screening...
April 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393223/pyropia-yezoensis-peptide-pyp1%C3%A2-5-protects-against-dexamethasone%C3%A2-induced-muscle-atrophy-through-the-downregulation-of-atrogin1-mafbx-and-murf1-in-mouse-c2c12-myotubes
#13
Min-Kyeong Lee, Young-Min Kim, In-Hye Kim, Youn-Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
Skeletal muscle atrophy refers to the decline in muscle mass and strength that occurs under various conditions, including aging, starvation, cancer and other cachectic diseases. Muscle atrophy caused by aging, known as sarcopenia, primarily occurs after 50 years of age. Muscle atrophy‑related genes, including atrogin1/muscle atrophy F‑box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), are expressed early in the muscle atrophy process, and their expression precedes the loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the potential anti‑atrophic effects of the Pyropia yezoensis peptide PYP1‑5...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382233/17%C3%AE-estradiol-upregulates-oxytocin-and-the-oxytocin-receptor-in-c2c12-myotubes
#14
Enrica Berio, Sara Divari, Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza, Bartolomeo Biolatti, Francesca Tiziana Cannizzo
BACKGROUND: The endocrinology of skeletal muscle is highly complex and many issues about hormone action in skeletal muscle are still unresolved. Aim of the work is to improve our knowledge on the relationship between skeletal muscle and 17β-estradiol. METHODS: The skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 was treated with 17β-estradiol, the oxytocin peptide and a combination of the two hormones. The mRNA levels of myogenic regulatory factors, myosin heavy chain, oxytocin, oxytocin receptor and adipogenic factors were analysed in C2C12 myotubes...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373641/influence-of-nitric-oxide-generated-through-microwave-plasma-on-l6-skeletal-muscle-cell-myogenesis-via-oxidative-signaling-pathways
#15
Naresh Kumar, Priyanka Shaw, Han Sup Uhm, Eun Ha Choi, Pankaj Attri
Myogenic precursors are myoblasts that have a potency to differentiate into muscle fibers on injury and maintain the regenerative power of skeletal muscle. However, the roles of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) in muscle development and myoblast differentiation are largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of exogenous NO generated by a microwave plasma torch on rat myoblastic L6 cell proliferation and differentiation. We observed that the differentiation of L6 myogenic precursor cells into myotubes was significantly enhanced after NO treatment...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356344/yap-promotes-myogenic-differentiation-via-the-mek5-erk5-pathway
#16
Ting-Huan Chen, Chen-Yu Chen, Hui-Chin Wen, Chia-Chu Chang, Horng-Dar Wang, Chih-Pin Chuu, Chung-Ho Chang
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator in the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The MEK5/ERK5 MAPK cascade is essential for the early step of myogenesis. In this study, we generated C2C12 stable cell lines that expressed YAP (C2C12-YAP cells) and found that ERK5 and MEK5 were activated in C2C12-YAP cells compared with control C2C12 (C2C12-vector) cells. C2C12-YAP stable cells also differentiated into myotubes better than C2C12-vector cells, and expressed elevated levels of myogenin, a transcription factor that regulates myogenesis, as well as elevated levels of myosin heavy chain, a skeletal muscle marker...
March 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345221/the-effect-of-the-timing-of-electromyostimulation-on-denervated-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#17
Eun Sil Koh, Hee Chan Kim, Jae-Young Lim
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the effect of electromyostimulation (EMS) on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in denervated muscles to determine the optimal timing for EMS application. METHODS: EMS was initiated on post-injury Day 1 for the group with denervation receiving immediate EMS (DIEMS) and on post-injury Day 15 for the group with denervation receiving delayed EMS (DDEMS) in rat denervated muscles. Muscle wet weight and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (FCSA) were measured...
March 27, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341832/mir-2425-5p-targets-rad9a-and-myog-to-regulate-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-bovine-skeletal-muscle-derived-satellite-cells
#18
Hui Li Tong, Run Ying Jiang, Wei Wei Zhang, Yun Qin Yan
Our group previously identified miR-2425-5p, a unique bovine miRNA; however, its biological function and regulation in muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) remain unclear. Herein, stem-loop RT-PCR results showed that miR-2425-5p increased during MDSCs proliferation, but decreased during differentiation. Cell proliferation was examined using EdU assays, cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) western blot (WB) and flow cytometry analysis. These results showed that miR-2425-5p mimics (miR-2425-M) enhanced MDSCs proliferation, whereas, miR-2425-5p inhibitor (miR-2425-I) had opposite effect...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339803/transcriptional-comparison-of-myogenesis-in-leghorn-and-low-score-normal-embryos
#19
J Griffin, N St-Pierre, M S Lilburn, M Wick
In a previous study, we reported on a quantitative transcriptomic method which confirmed the temporal transcription of developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (fsMyHC) embryonic isoforms in the embryonic Pectoralis major (PM) of the Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL). The objective of the current study was to further investigate the transcriptional events underlying embryonic PM growth in the SCWL and a genotype exhibiting partial muscular dystrophy, the Low Score Normal (LSN). We hypothesized that within the SCWL and LSN embryos, there would be differences in the temporal transcription of the fsMyHC isoforms and other myogenic regulatory genes...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338991/mir-30e-is-negatively-regulated-by-myostatin-in-skeletal-muscle-and-is-functionally-related-to-fiber-type-composition
#20
Haixue Jia, Yixia Zhao, Tingting Li, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu
Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal myogenesis in which microRNAs (miRNAs) also play critical roles. Using miRNA microarrays of skeletal muscle from MSTN-knockout (MSTN-/-) mice, we recently showed that miR-431 is regulated by MSTN signaling. To identify additional miRNAs regulated by MSTN, we re-analyzed these miRNA arrays and validated their expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-30e was significantly upregulated in skeletal muscle of MSTN-/- mice compared with that of the wild-type littermates...
March 17, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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