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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538312/skeletal-muscle-contraction-time-and-tone-decrease-after-8-weeks-of-plyometric-training
#1
Damir Zubac, Boštjan Šimunič
Zubac, D and Šimunič, B. Skeletal muscle contraction time and tone decrease after 8 weeks of plyometric training. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1610-1619, 2017-The aim of the study was to examine whether an improvement in jumping performance after 8 weeks of plyometric training (PT) runs in parallel with changes in lower-limb skeletal muscle contractile properties. Using noninvasive tensiomyography (TMG), we assessed contraction time (Tc) and the maximal amplitude of radial displacement (Dm) in 20 subjects (50% men; age 22...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537848/influence-of-endurance-training-on-skeletal-muscle-mitophagy-regulatory-proteins-in-type-2-diabetic-men
#2
Christian Brinkmann, Axel Przyklenk, Alexander Metten, Thorsten Schiffer, Wilhelm Bloch, Klara Brixius, Sebastian Gehlert
BACKGROUND: Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients...
May 24, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#3
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531280/effects-of-calorie-restriction-and-fiber-type-on-glucose-uptake-and-abundance-of-electron-transport-chain-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-proteins-in-single-fibers-from-old-rats
#4
Haiyan Wang, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Anthony R P Verkerke, Gregory D Cartee
Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine in 23-26 months-old rats the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks-old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ±insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles...
May 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#5
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527365/variation-in-the-ovine-myf5-gene-and-its-effect-on-carcass-lean-meat-yield-in-new-zealand-romney-sheep
#6
Jiqing Wang, Huitong Zhou, Rachel H J Forrest, Jiang Hu, Xiu Liu, Shaobin Li, Yuzhu Luo, Jon G H Hickford
Myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) plays an important role in regulating skeletal muscle, but to date there have been no reports on whether the gene is variable and whether this variation is associated with meat yield in sheep. In this study, four variants (A to D) of ovine MYF5 containing two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and one basepair (bp) insertion/deletion were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Breed differences in variant frequencies were observed...
May 11, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522765/exercise-training-in-tg%C3%AE-q-44-mice-during-the-progression-of-chronic-heart-failure-cardiac-vs-peripheral-soleus-muscle-impairments-to-oxidative-metabolism
#7
Bruno Grassi, Joanna Majerczak, Eleonora Bardi, Alessia Buso, Marina Comelli, Stefan Chlopicki, Magdalena Guzik, Irene Mavelli, Zenon Nieckarz, Desy Salvadego, Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Tomasz Skorka, Roberto Bottinelli, Jerzy A Zoladz, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Cardiac function, skeletal (soleus) muscle oxidative metabolism and the effects of exercise training were evaluated in a transgenic murine model (Tgαq*44) of chronic heart failure (CHF) during the critical period between the occurrence of an impairment of cardiac function and the stage at which overt cardiac failure ensues (i.e. from 10 to 12 months of age). Forty-eight Tgαq*44 mice and 43 wild-type (WT) FVB controls were randomly assigned to control groups and to groups undergoing 2 months of intense exercise training (spontaneous running on a instrumented wheel)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522731/effect-of-metformin-on-bioactive-lipid-metabolism-in-insulin-resistant-muscle
#8
Piotr Zabielski, Marta Chacinska, Karol Charkiewicz, Marcin Baranowski, Jan Gorski, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska
Intramuscular accumulation of bioactive lipids leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is lack of consensus concerning which of the lipid mediators has the greatest impact on muscle insulin action in vivo Our aim was to elucidate the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and metformin (Met) on skeletal muscle bioactive lipid accumulation and insulin resistance (IR) in rats. We employed a [U-(13)C]palmitate isotope tracer and mass spectrometry to measure the content and fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of intramuscular long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramide (Cer)...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521058/enhanced-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-energy-production-and-transfer-in-breast-muscle-of-pedigree-male-broilers-exhibiting-high-feed-efficiency
#9
W G Bottje, K Lassiter, S Dridi, N Hudson, B-W Kong
In cells with fluctuating energy demand (e.g., skeletal muscle), a transfer system of proteins across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes links mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytosolic phosphorylated creatine (PCr) that serves as a phosphate reservoir for rapid repletion of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Crucial proteins of this energy transfer system include several creatine kinase (CK) isoforms found in the cytosol and mitochondria. In a recent proteomic study (Kong et al., 2016), several components of this system were up-regulated in high feed efficiency (FE) compared to low FE breast muscle; notably adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), voltage dependent activated channel (VDAC), the brain isoform of creatine kinase (CK-B), and several proteins of the electron transport chain...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513458/cofilin-a-protein-controlling-dynamics-of-actin-filaments
#10
Zofia Ostrowska, Joanna Moraczewska
Cofilins are evolutionary conserved proteins present in all Eukaryotic cells. Their primary function is dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Two cofilin isoforms are known: cofilin 1, present in all studied non-muscle cells and in embryonic muscle cells, and cofilin 2, which dominates in mature skeletal and cardiac muscles. Polypeptide chains of both isoforms fold into a structure homological to a conservative ADF (actin depolymerizing factor) domain, which is characteristic of actin depolymerizing factor...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513282/zanthoxylum-alkylamides-activate-phosphorylated-ampk-and-ameliorate-glycolipid-metabolism-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#11
Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Jianquan Kan
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zanthoxylum alkylamides on the glycolipid metabolism of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats were given daily oral treatments of 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg bw alkylamides for 28 days. Alkylamides significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content, as well as relieved organ enlargement caused by diabetes. The serum and liver triglyceride, malondialdehyde, and free fatty-acid contents of rats with STZ-induced diabetes were significantly reduced...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508505/rapid-switch-off-of-the-human-mhc-iix-gene-after-heavy-load-muscle-contractions-is-sustained-for-at-least-4-days
#12
J L Andersen, T Gruschy-Knudsen
Long-term heavy-load contractions decrease the relative amount of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIX isoform in human skeletal muscle, but the timing of the down regulation in the short term is unknown. Untrained subjects performed two resistance bouts, in two consecutive days, with one leg, the other leg serving as a control (age 24±1, n=5). Muscle biopsies were obtained in both legs before, immediately after, and 24, 54 and 96 hours after exercise. Serial cryosection analysis combined immunohistochemistry and ATPase histochemistry with In Situ hybridization to identify the distribution of MHC isoforms and their corresponding transcripts, enabling identification of transitional fibres...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506910/omecamtiv-mecarbil-activates-ryanodine-receptors-from-canine-cardiac-but-not-skeletal-muscle
#13
Péter Nánási, Marta Gaburjakova, Jana Gaburjakova, János Almássy
Due to the limited results achieved in the clinical treatment of heart failure, a new inotropic strategy of myosin motor activation has been developed. The lead molecule of myosin activator agents is omecamtiv mecarbil, which binds directly to the heavy chain of the cardiac β-myosin and enhances cardiac contractility by lengthening the lifetime of the acto-myosin complex and increasing the number of the active force-generating cross-bridges. In the absence of relevant data, the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on canine cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR 2) has been investigated in the present study by measuring the electrical activity of single RyR 2 channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayer...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505249/sialic-acid-deficiency-is-associated-with-oxidative-stress-leading-to-muscle-atrophy-and-weakness-in-the-gne-myopathy
#14
Anna Cho, May Christine V Malicdan, Miho Miyakawa, Ikuya Nonaka, Ichizo Nishino, Satoru Noguchi
Sialic acids are monosaccharides found in terminal sugar chains of cell surfaces and proteins; they have various biological functions and have been implicated in health and disease. Genetic defects of the GNE gene which encodes a critical bifunctional enzyme for sialic acid biosynthesis, lead to GNE myopathy, a disease manifesting with progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. The likely mechanism of disease is a lack of sialic acids. There remains, however, an unexplained link between hyposialylation and the muscle atrophy and weakness...
May 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493603/age-related-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-the-role-of-free-radicals-derived-from-mitochondria-in-the-vasculature
#15
Song-Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Van Reese, Michael P Murphy, Russell S Richardson
AIM: This study sought to determine the role of free radicals derived from mitochondria in the vasculature in the recognized age-related endothelial dysfunction of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs). METHODS: A total of 44 SMFAs were studied with and without acute exposure to the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade. The relative abundance of proteins from the electron transport chain, phosphorylated (p-) to endothelial (e) NOS ratio, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the mitochondria-derived superoxide (O2(-) ) levels were assessed in SMFA...
May 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485800/gdf11-does-not-improve-the-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-in-c2c12
#16
Y-Y Jing, D Li, F Wu, L-L Gong, R Li
OBJECTIVE: GDF11 (Growth Differentiation factor 11) has been reported to rejuvenate skeletal muscle, heart and brain in aged mice, and the aged skeletal muscle is closely related to insulin resistance. We wondered whether GDF11 has an effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High fat diet induced obese mice with insulin resistance were established in vivo. Palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes was established in vitro...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485676/assessment-of-preclinical-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-biomarkers-following-clofibrate-administration-in-wistar-rats
#17
Pierre Maliver, Matthias Festag, Moritz Bennecke, Francois Christen, Balázs Bánfai, Barbara Lenz, Michael Winter
Clofibrate is a known rodent hepatotoxicant classically associated with hepatocellular hypertrophy and increased serum activities of cellular alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) in the absence of microscopic hepatocellular degeneration. At toxic dose, clofibrate induces liver and skeletal muscle injury. The objective of this study was to assess novel liver and skeletal muscle biomarkers following clofibrate administration in Wistar rats at different dose levels for 7 days. In addition to classical biomarkers, liver injury was assessed by cytokeratin 18 (CK18) cleaved form, high-mobility group box 1, arginase 1 (ARG1), microRNA 122 (miR-122), and glutamate dehydrogenase...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483801/intramyocellular-ceramides-sub-cellular-concentrations-and-fractional-de-novo-synthesis-in-postabsorptive-humans
#18
Jin Ook Chung, Christina Koutsari, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska, Kazanna C Hames, Michael D Jensen
We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5 h infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptive men and women had muscle biopsies 1.5 h, 6.5 h and 24 h after starting the tracer infusion. Concentrations and enrichment of muscle ceramides were measured by LC\MS\MS. We found that HOMA-IR, plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were positively correlated with SS C16:0 and C18:1 ceramide, but not SS C14:0-Cer, C20:0-Cer, C24:0-Cer, and C24:1-Cer concentrations; IMF ceramide concentrations were not correlated with any metabolic parameters...
May 8, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#19
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells up-regulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early- differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473610/sex-differences-in-sympathetic-vasoconstrictor-responsiveness-and-sympatholysis
#20
Timothy P Just, Darren S DeLorey
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness would be blunted and NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction enhanced in females compared to males. Male (M; n=8) and Female (F; n=10) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and surgically instrumented for measurement of arterial blood pressure and femoral artery blood flow and stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain. The percentage change of femoral vascular conductance (%FVC) in response to sympathetic chain stimulation delivered at 2 and 5 Hz was determined at rest and during muscle contraction before (control) and after NOS blockade...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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