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Muscle-skeletal chains

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649426/conserved-and-species-specific-molecular-denominators-in-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-aging
#1
Evi M Mercken, Miriam Capri, Bethany A Carboneau, Maria Conte, Juliana Heidler, Aurelia Santoro, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Husam Khraiwesh, José A González-Reyes, Ruin Moaddel, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, José M Villalba, Julie A Mattison, Ilka Wittig, Claudio Franceschi, Rafael de Cabo
Aging is a complex phenomenon involving functional decline in multiple physiological systems. We undertook a comparative analysis of skeletal muscle from four different species, i.e. mice, rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans, at three different representative stages during their lifespan (young, middle, and old) to identify pathways that modulate function and healthspan. Gene expression profiling and computational analysis revealed that pathway complexity increases from mice to humans, and as mammals age, there is predominantly an upregulation of pathways in all species...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641603/molecular-detection-of-sarcocystis-lutrae-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles-in-scotland
#2
T Lepore, P M Bartley, F Chianini, A I Macrae, E A Innes, F Katzer
Neck samples from 54 badgers and 32 tongue samples of the same badgers (Meles meles), collected in the Lothians and Borders regions of Scotland, were tested using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) directed against the 18S ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of protozoan parasites of the family Sarcocystidae. Positive results were obtained from 36/54 (67%) neck and 24/32 (75%) tongue samples using an 18S rDNA PCR. A 468 base pair consensus sequence that was generated from the 18S rDNA PCR amplicons (KX229728) showed 100% identity to Sarcocystis lutrae...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640223/non-targeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-the-effects-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-sunitinib-and-erlotinib-on-heart-muscle-liver-and-serum-metabolism-in-vivo
#3
Brian C Jensen, Traci L Parry, Wei Huang, Amro Ilaiwy, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Sara K O'Neal, Cam Patterson, Gary L Johnson, Monte S Willis
Background: More than 90 tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as effective therapies in treating cancer by exploiting this kinase dependency. The TKI erlotinib targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas sunitinib targets primarily vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR).TKIs that impact the function of non-malignant cells and have on- and off-target toxicities, including cardiotoxicities...
June 22, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639573/a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-physiological-significance-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-myogenesis-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-of-genioglossus-in-mice
#4
Tong Hao, Yue-Hua Liu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Yun Lu, Hong-Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Chronic intermittent hypoxia is the most remarkable feature of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and it can induce the change of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and contractile properties in the genioglossus. To clarify the role of HIF-1α in contractile properties of the genioglossus, this study generated and compared high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from genioglossus between HIF-1α conditional knockout (KO) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) mice...
July 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#5
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#6
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#7
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623958/knockdown-of-subunit-3-of-the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#8
Mariam A Ba, Jeffrey Surina, Cherie A Singer, Maria L Valencik
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex composed of 8 subunits designated CSN1-CSN8. CSN3 represents the third subunit of the CSN and maintains the integrity of the complex. CSN3 binds to the striated muscle-specific β1D integrin tail, and its subcellular localization is altered in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. However, the role of CSN3 in skeletal muscle differentiation is unknown. The main goal of this study was to identify whether CSN3 participates in myoblast differentiation and the signalling mechanisms involved using C2C12 cells as a skeletal muscle cell model...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#9
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#10
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606401/monoclonal-gammopathy-with-both-nemaline-myopathy-and-amyloid-myopathy
#11
Min Wang, Lin Lei, Hai Chen, Li Di, Mi Pang, Yan Lu, Lu Lu, Xin-Ming Shen, Yuwei Da
Monoclonal gammopathies due to plasma cell dyscrasias can induce diverse rare neuromuscular disorders. Deposition of monoclonal antibody light chains in skeletal muscle causes amyloid myopathy. Monoclonal gammopathy is occasionally associated with sporadic late-onset nemaline myopathy. Here we report a monoclonal gammopathy patient with both sporadic late-onset nemaline myopathy and amyloid myopathy. The diagnoses were based on immunofixation electrophoresis of urine, and serum for free light chain assay, Congo red staining and Thioflavin S staining of muscle biopsies, as well as immunohistochemical staining and electron-microscopic observation...
May 11, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599297/long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure-inhibits-histone-deacetylase-2-expression-and-enhances-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#12
Dongmei Huang, Zhiying Ma, Yili He, Ying Xiao, Honglin Luo, Qiuli Liang, Xiaoning Zhong, Jing Bai, Zhiyi He
Long-term cigarette smoke induces lung inflammatory injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with skeletal muscle inflammation. This study aimed at investigating how cigarette smoke promotes skeletal muscle inflammation and its molecular pathogenesis. Mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 12 or 24 weeks, and C2C12 cells were stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The mass and function, myotube formation, inflammatory cytokine production, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 expression were detected in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice and C2C12 cells...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597552/branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-kinase-111-130-a-t-cell-epitope-that-induces-both-autoimmune-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-in-a-j-mice
#13
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A Uzal, Jennifer L Strande, Gustavo A Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread. METHODS: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk ) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver...
June 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594869/compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-glycyl-trna-synthetase-gars-cause-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction
#14
Michael Nafisinia, Lisa G Riley, Wendy A Gold, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Carolyn R Broderick, David R Thorburn, Cas Simons, John Christodoulou
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS; OMIM 600287) is one of thirty-seven tRNA-synthetase genes that catalyses the synthesis of glycyl-tRNA, which is required to insert glycine into proteins within the cytosol and mitochondria. To date, eighteen mutations in GARS have been reported in patients with autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D; OMIM 601472), and/or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V; OMIM 600794). In this study, we report a patient with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of a mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorder including mild left ventricular posterior wall hypertrophy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594135/the-igf-1-akt-s6-pathway-and-expressions-of-glycolytic-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-are-upregulated-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-during-the-first-week-after-hatching
#15
Takaoki Saneyasu, Tatsuya Tsuchihashi, Ayana Kitashiro, Nami Tsuchii, Sayaka Kimura, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593021/tissue-and-condition-specific-isoforms-of-mammalian-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunits-from-function-to-human-disease
#16
REVIEW
Christopher A Sinkler, Hasini Kalpage, Joseph Shay, Icksoo Lee, Moh H Malek, Lawrence I Grossman, Maik Hüttemann
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. COX consists of 14 subunits, three and eleven encoded, respectively, by the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Tissue- and condition-specific isoforms have only been reported for COX but not for the other oxidative phosphorylation complexes, suggesting a fundamental requirement to fine-tune and regulate the essentially irreversible reaction catalyzed by COX. This article briefly discusses the assembly of COX in mammals and then reviews the functions of the six nuclear-encoded COX subunits that are expressed as isoforms in specialized tissues including those of the liver, heart and skeletal muscle, lung, and testes: COX IV-1, COX IV-2, NDUFA4, NDUFA4L2, COX VIaL, COX VIaH, COX VIb-1, COX VIb-2, COX VIIaH, COX VIIaL, COX VIIaR, COX VIIIH/L, and COX VIII-3...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592858/inefficient-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-function-flanks-impaired-motor-neuron-recruitment-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-during-exercise
#17
F Lanfranconi, A Ferri, G Corna, R Bonazzi, C Lunetta, V Silani, N Riva, A Rigamonti, A Maggiani, C Ferrarese, L Tremolizzo
This study aimed to evaluate muscle oxidative function during exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with non-invasive methods in order to assess if determinants of reduced exercise tolerance might match ALS clinical heterogeneity. 17 pALS, who were followed for 4 months, were compared with 13 healthy controls (CTRL). Exercise tolerance was assessed by an incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer measuring peak O2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), vastus lateralis oxidative function by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and breathing pattern ([Formula: see text]E peak)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591404/sexual-transmission-of-american-trypanosomiasis-in-humans-a-new-potential-pandemic-route-for-chagas-parasites
#18
Perla F Araujo, Adriana B Almeida, Carlos F Pimentel, Adriano R Silva, Alessandro Sousa, Sebastião A Valente, Vera C Valente, Manuela M Britto, Ana C Rosa, Rozeneide M Alves, Luciana Hagström, Antonio Rl Teixeira
BACKGROUND: The Trypanosoma cruzi infection endemic in Latin America has now spread to several countries across four continents; this endemic involves triatomine vector-free protists. We hypothesised that the sexual transmission of T. cruzi contributes to the ongoing spread of Chagas disease. OBJECTIVES: A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate this hypothesis. METHODS: The study population comprised 109 subjects from four families, among whom 21 had been diagnosed with acute Chagas disease by direct parasitological analysis...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590155/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-metabolic-myopathies
#19
Marshall S Riley, D Paul Nicholls, Christopher B Cooper
Skeletal muscle requires a large increase in its adenosine triphosphate production to meet the energy needs of exercise. Normally, most of this increase in energy is supplied by the aerobic process of oxidative phosphorylation. The main defects in muscle metabolism that interfere with production of adenosine triphosphate are a) disorders of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, which prevent both carbohydrate entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the production of lactic acid, b) mitochondrial myopathies where the defect is usually within the electron transport chain, reducing the rate of oxidative phosphorylation and c) disorders of lipid metabolism...
June 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582757/comparative-analysis-of-muscle-phosphoproteome-induced-by-salt-curing
#20
Zhenyu Wang, Caixia Zhang, Zheng Li, Qingwu Shen, Dequan Zhang
Phosphorylated proteins in ovine muscle induced by salt curing were well investigated. Ten topside muscles of crossbred sheep were ground, mixed and divided into two groups, which were cured for 16h with 0% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Muscle proteins of two cured groups were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with Pro-Q Diamond and SYPRO Ruby staining. The differential phosphorylated proteins were determined using LC-MS/MS and the UniProt database. Ten different phosphoproteins (>1.5 fold) induced by salting were identified, including triosephosphate isomerase, glycogen phosphorylase, creatine kinase M-type, myoglobin, troponin T fast skeletal muscle type, actin, myosin light chain 1/3, tropomyosin beta chain, etc...
May 23, 2017: Meat Science
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