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Social work theory

Kristin M Healey, Cali F Bartholomeusz, David L Penn
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC) that are associated with functional decline, and work suggests that similar associations exist in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The goal of the current article is to review and synthesize the current body of work examining SC in FEP. Secondary aims are to examine the relationship between SC and symptoms, and change in SC over time in FEP. DESIGN: Literature is reviewed from four key SC domains: emotion processing (EP), theory of mind (ToM), social perception (SP), and attributional style (AS)...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Joe Wark, Jo-Ann Vis
Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children...
October 21, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Alex Hall, Tracy Finch, Niina Kolehmainen, Deborah James
BACKGROUND: Implementing good-quality health and social care requires empowerment of staff members within organizations delivering care. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is an intervention using positive video feedback to empower staff through reflection on practice. This qualitative study explored the implementation of VIG within an autism care organization in England, from the perspective of staff members undergoing training to deliver VIG. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 7 participants working within the organization (5 staff undergoing training to deliver VIG; 2 senior managers influencing co-ordination of training)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Chau-Kiu Cheung, Jessica Chi-Mei Li, Tak-Yan Lee
Desistance as a process to forgo delinquent habits is an important target for intervention into youth at risk of delinquency. The intervention through social work services, nevertheless, has not clearly demonstrated its effectiveness. For such a demonstration, the present study examines the contribution of social work services with reference to the voluntaristic theory of action. The theory suggests that promoting the youth's voluntarism underlying desistance, encompassing appreciation, facilitation, observation, and identification concerning desistance is essential...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Brandi Janssen, Matthew W Nonnemann
Health and safety professionals often call for an improved safety culture in agriculture. Such a shift would result in agricultural practices that prioritize safe work habits and see safety as both an effective means to improve production and a goal worth pursuing in its own right. This paper takes an anthropological approach and demonstrates the potential for new institutional theory to conceptualize broader cultural change in agriculture. New institutional theory examines the roles of organizations and the ways that they inform and support broad social institutions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki, Raheleh Rezaei, Verina Wild
This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies that shed light on the health of migrants in Iran from the perspective of social justice. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Iranian databases, including IranMedex, Magiran, and SID, in June 2012. All studies that were published until June 2012 describing the health status of migrants - including refugees - in Iran were included. The search results were categorisoyed according to an adapted version of the six dimensions of well-being in Madison Powers' and Ruth Faden's theory of social justice in health...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Rosalía Cascón-Pereira, Shiona Chillas, Jerry Hallier
This study examines "identity work" among hybrid doctor-managers (DMs) in the Spanish National Health System to make sense of their managerial roles. In particular, the meanings underlying DMs experience of their hybrid role are investigated using a Grounded Theory methodology, exposing distinctions in role-meanings. Our findings provide evidence that using different social sources of comparison (senior managers or clinicians) to construct the meaning of managerial roles leads to different role-meanings and role identities, which are the source of the two established types of DM in the literature, the reluctant and the enthusiast...
October 3, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Self-inflicted injury (SII) is a continuum of intentionally self-destructive behaviors, including nonsuicidal self-injuries, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. These behaviors are among the most pressing yet perplexing clinical problems, affecting males and females of every race, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status, and nearly every age. The complexity of these behaviors has spurred an immense literature documenting risk and vulnerability factors ranging from individual to societal levels of analysis...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Disorderly environments are linked to disorderly behaviors. Broken windows theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), an influential theory of crime and rule-breaking, assumes that scene-level social disorder cues (e.g., litter, graffiti) cause people to reason that they can get away with breaking rules. But what if part of the story is not about such complex social reasoning? Recent research suggests that basic visual disorder cues may be sufficient to encourage complex rule-breaking behavior. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted a set of experiments (Experiments 1-3) in which we identified basic visual disorder cues that generalize across visual stimuli with a variety of semantic content...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Kerstin Sjögren Fugl-Meyer
This paper introduces a biopsychosocial model for use as a tool by medical social workers and other rehabilitation professionals for the descriptive analysis of the case history and follow-up of patients needing rehabilitative support. The model is based on action theory and emphasizes the demands on evidence-based clarification of the interplay between a subject's contextual life situation, their ability to act in order to realize their goals, and their emotional adaptation. Using clinical experience and literature searches, a standard operations procedure to adequately document the case history in clinical practice is suggested, thus providing strategies through which the work of medical social workers can be based on evidence...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
David Klindt, Marie Devaine, Jean Daunizeau
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to recognize what people think or feel, is a crucial component of human social intelligence. It has been recently proposed that ToM can be decomposed into automatic and controlled neurocognitive components, where only the latter engage executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control and task switching). Critical here is the notion that such dual processes are expected to follow different developmental dynamics. In this work, we provide novel experimental evidence for this notion...
September 23, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Antonios Proestakis, Pablo Brañas-Garza
Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments, such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behavior as a result of this discriminatory behavior has not been thoroughly studied. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the "self-weight bias" by giving to both self-identified obese (n = 90) and non-obese (n = 180) individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Oliver D Howes, Robert McCutcheon, Michael J Owen, Robin M Murray
The dopamine hypothesis is the longest standing pathoetiologic theory of schizophrenia. Because it was initially based on indirect evidence and findings in patients with established schizophrenia, it was unclear what role dopamine played in the onset of the disorder. However, recent studies in people at risk of schizophrenia have found elevated striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and increased dopamine release to stress. Furthermore, striatal dopamine changes have been linked to altered cortical function during cognitive tasks, in line with preclinical evidence that a circuit involving cortical projections to the striatum and midbrain may underlie the striatal dopamine changes...
August 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Louise A Connell, Naoimh E McMahon, Sarah F Tyson, Caroline L Watkins, Janice J Eng
BACKGROUND: Despite best evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of increased intensity of exercise after stroke, current levels of therapy continue to be below those required to optimise motor recovery. We developed and tested an implementation intervention that aims to increase arm exercise in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of a behaviour change framework, the Behaviour Change Wheel, to identify the mechanisms of action that explain how the intervention produced change...
September 30, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Hyun Woo Kim, John D McCarthy
Extensive research has shown individual religiosity to have an impact upon U.S. protest participation. But very little work has examined the role of religious density in a community on the likelihood of protest mobilization. Our research links the religious density across 62 counties in New York State to various protest mobilization issues during the period of 1960-1995. In this research, we develop a theory of socially organized sentiments to examine religious influences on overall protest event mobilizations in local communities, a specific example of a more general theory that can link community structure to multiple forms of civic engagement...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Keith J Holyoak, Derek Powell
We review a broad range of work, primarily in cognitive and social psychology, that provides insight into the processes of moral judgment. In particular, we consider research on pragmatic reasoning about regulations and on coherence in decision making, both areas in which psychological theories have been guided by work in legal philosophy. Armed with these essential prerequisites, we sketch a psychological framework for how ordinary people make judgments about moral issues. Based on a literature review, we show how the framework of deontological coherence unifies findings in moral psychology that have often been explained in terms of a grab-bag of heuristics and biases...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Penelope Hasking, Janis Whitlock, David Voon, Alyssa Rose
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a complex behaviour, routinely engaged for emotion regulatory purposes. As such, a number of theoretical accounts regarding the aetiology and maintenance of NSSI are grounded in models of emotion regulation; the role that cognition plays in the behaviour is less well known. In this paper, we summarise four models of emotion regulation that have repeatedly been related to NSSI and identify the core components across them. We then draw on social cognitive theory to unite models of cognition and models of emotion in developing a new cognitive-emotional model of NSSI...
October 5, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
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