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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729962/the-protective-effects-of-family-support-on-the-relationship-between-official-intervention-and-general-delinquency-across-the-life-course
#1
Beidi Dong, Marvin D Krohn
PURPOSE: Previous research on the labeling perspective has identified mediational processes and the long-term effects of official intervention in the life course. However, it is not yet clear what factors may moderate the relationship between labeling and subsequent offending. The current study integrates Cullen's (1994) social support theory to examine how family social support conditions the criminogenic, stigmatizing effects of official intervention on delinquency and whether such protective effects vary by developmental stage...
March 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728533/lifestyle-inequalities-explaining-socioeconomic-differences-in-preventive-practices-of-clinically-overweight-women-after-menopause
#2
Mélisa Audet, Alex Dumas, Rachelle Binette, Isabelle J Dionne
Excess weight and menopause are two major factors increasing aging women's vulnerability to chronic diseases. However, social position and socioeconomic status have also been identified as major determinants influencing both health behaviors and the development of such diseases. This study focuses on the socioeconomic variations of behavioral risk factors of chronic diseases in aging women. By drawing on Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 40 semistructured interviews were conducted to investigate preventive health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women from contrasting socioeconomic classes living in Canada...
August 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#3
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710666/mediators-of-physical-activity-adherence-results-from-an-action-control-intervention-in-couples
#4
Corina Berli, Gertraud Stadler, Patrick E Shrout, Niall Bolger, Urte Scholz
BACKGROUND: Behavior change interventions targeting self-regulation skills have generally shown promising effects. However, the psychological working mechanisms remain poorly understood. PURPOSE: We examined theory-based mediators of a randomized controlled trial in couples targeting action control (i.e., continuously monitoring and evaluating an ongoing behavior). Self-reported action control was tested as the main mediating mechanism of physical activity adherence, and in addition self-efficacy and received social support from the partner...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709280/collapse-of-resilience-patterns-in-generalized-lotka-volterra-dynamics-and-beyond
#5
Chengyi Tu, Jacopo Grilli, Friedrich Schuessler, Samir Suweis
Recently, a theoretical framework aimed at separating the roles of dynamics and topology in multidimensional systems has been developed [Gao et al., Nature (London) 530, 307 (2016)10.1038/nature16948]. The validity of their method is assumed to hold depending on two main hypotheses: (i) The network determined by the the interaction between pairs of nodes has negligible degree correlations; (ii) the node activities are uniform across nodes on both the drift and the pairwise interaction functions. Moreover, the authors consider only positive (mutualistic) interactions...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708033/neuropsychological-profile-and-social-cognition-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-cchs-correlation-with-neuroimaging-in-a-clinical-case
#6
Borja Esteso Orduña, Raquel Seijas Gómez, Elena García Esparza, Emily M Briceño, Javier Melero Llorente, María de la Concepción Fournier Del Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder due to paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutations. CCHS patients suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system characterized by the absence of or extremely reduced response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with neuropsychological deficits. The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the longitudinal neuropsychological profile and its correlations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a child with CCHS with a PHOX2B mutation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705157/ward-social-workers-views-of-what-facilitates-or-hinders-collaboration-with-specialist-palliative-care-team-social-workers-a-grounded-theory
#7
Janice Firn, Nancy Preston, Catherine Walshe
BACKGROUND: Inpatient, generalist social workers in discharge planning roles work alongside specialist palliative care social workers to care for patients, often resulting in two social workers being concurrently involved in the same patient's care. Previous studies identifying components of effective collaboration, which impacts patient outcomes, care efficiency, professional job satisfaction, and healthcare costs, were conducted with nurses and physicians but not social workers. This study explores ward social workers' perceptions of what facilitates or hinders collaboration with palliative care social workers...
July 14, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696435/a-direct-test-of-the-diathesis-stress-model-for-depression
#8
L Colodro-Conde, B Couvy-Duchesne, G Zhu, W L Coventry, E M Byrne, S Gordon, M J Wright, G W Montgomery, P A F Madden, S Ripke, L J Eaves, A C Heath, N R Wray, S E Medland, N G Martin
The diathesis-stress theory for depression states that the effects of stress on the depression risk are dependent on the diathesis or vulnerability, implying multiplicative interactive effects on the liability scale. We used polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (MDD) calculated from the results of the most recent analysis from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a direct measure of the vulnerability for depression in a sample of 5221 individuals from 3083 families. In the same we also had measures of stressful life events and social support and a depression symptom score, as well as DSM-IV MDD diagnoses for most individuals...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696302/harm-to-self-outweighs-benefit-to-others-in-moral-decision-making
#9
Lukas J Volz, B Locke Welborn, Matthias S Gobel, Michael S Gazzaniga, Scott T Grafton
How we make decisions that have direct consequences for ourselves and others forms the moral foundation of our society. Whereas economic theory contends that humans aim at maximizing their own gains, recent seminal psychological work suggests that our behavior is instead hyperaltruistic: We are more willing to sacrifice gains to spare others from harm than to spare ourselves from harm. To investigate how such egoistic and hyperaltruistic tendencies influence moral decision making, we investigated trade-off decisions combining monetary rewards and painful electric shocks, administered to the participants themselves or an anonymous other...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695775/a-qualitative-study-on-the-implementation-of-quality-systems-in-australian-hospitals
#10
Sandra G Leggat, Cathy Balding
Public hospitals are required to have quality systems in place to meet accreditation standards, achieve government performance expectations and continually improve care. However, previous study suggests that there has been limited success in the implementation of effective quality systems. Using document review, self-evaluation and qualitative data from interviews and focus groups of 270 board members, managers and staff we explored the implementation of quality systems in eight Australian public hospitals...
January 1, 2017: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695705/all-drinking-is-not-equal-how-a-social-practice-theory-lens-could-enhance-public-health-research-on-alcohol-and-other-health-behaviours
#11
Petra Sylvia Meier, Alan Warde, John Holmes
BACKGROUND: The social meanings, settings and habitual nature of health-related activities and their integration into our daily lives are often overlooked in quantitative public health research. This reflects an overly individualized approach to epidemiological surveillance and evaluations of public health interventions, based on models of behaviour that are rooted in social cognition and rational choice theories. This paper calls for a new approach to alcohol epidemiology and intervention research informed by theories of practice...
July 11, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694550/children-s-experiences-of-time-when-a-parent-travels-for-work
#12
Anisa Zvonkovic, Andrea Swenson, Zoë Cornwell
This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time...
August 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687532/studying-scale-up-and-spread-as-social-practice-theoretical-introduction-and-empirical-case-study
#13
James Shaw, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Gemma Hughes, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680161/a-new-look-at-domain-specificity-insights-from-social-neuroscience
#14
REVIEW
Robert P Spunt, Ralph Adolphs
The concept of domain specificity - which suggests that some aspects of neural processing are specialized for particular types of stimuli - has been invoked to explain a range of cognitive phenomena, including language, face perception and theory of mind, and has been a hallmark of theories of cognitive architecture. More recent usage of this concept draws on neuroscientific data and, in particular, on work in social neuroscience. A critical examination of the part that the concept of domain specificity has played in theories of human brain function leads us to suggest a new view according to which domain specificity pertains to centrally generated constraints on information processing that can be both dynamic and context sensitive...
July 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679376/managing-expectations-cognitive-authority-and-experienced-control-in-complex-healthcare-processes
#15
Katherine J Hunt, Carl R May
BACKGROUND: Balancing the normative expectations of others (accountabilities) against the personal and distributed resources available to meet them (capacity) is a ubiquitous feature of social relations in many settings. This is an important problem in the management of long-term conditions, because of widespread problems of non-adherence to treatment regimens. Using long-term conditions as an example, we set out middle range theory of this balancing work. METHODS: A middle-range theory was constructed four stages...
July 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672203/-how-complex-and-even-perverse-the-real-world-can-be-w-d-hamilton-s-early-work-on-social-wasps-1964-1968
#16
Guido Caniglia
William D. Hamilton's name is often connected to important theoretical accomplishments, from the theory of inclusive fitness and kin selection to the so-called Hamilton's rule and the haplodiploidy hypothesis. This article asks: How did Hamilton attempt to test his theory and hypothesis against the complexity of the biological world? The article reconstructs Hamilton's empirical work with social wasps between 1963 and 1968, the years before and after the publication of the groundbreaking "The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior" in 1964...
June 30, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670410/a-multidisciplinary-workplace-intervention-for-chronic-low-back-pain-among-nursing-assistants-in-iran
#17
Sarallah Shojaei, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Joan Wagner
STUDY DESIGN: Interventional research with a 6-month follow-up period. PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary workplace intervention on reduction of work-related low back pain (WRLBP), using ergonomic posture training coupled with an educational program based on social cognitive theory. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: WRLBP is a major occupational problem among healthcare workers, who are often required to lift heavy loads...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669238/stress-across-generations-a-qualitative-study-of-stress-coping-and-caregiving-among-mexican-immigrant-mothers
#18
Amy L Non, Gabriela León-Pérez, Holly Glass, Emma Kelly, Nanibaa' A Garrison
OBJECTIVE: Hispanic immigrants represent the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority within the US, justifying increased attention to identify factors that influence declining immigrant health across generations. This study investigates the range of psychosocial stress exposures and coping mechanisms of Mexican immigrant mothers, and implications for the health of their US-born children. DESIGN: We conducted 10 focus groups with 1st generation Mexican-born immigrant mothers (n = 32 women) in Nashville, TN, in the summer of 2014...
July 3, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666447/how-female-community-health-workers-navigate-work-challenges-and-why-there-are-still-gaps-in-their-performance-a-look-at-female-community-health-workers-in-maternal-and-child-health-in-two-indian-districts-through-a-reciprocal-determinism-framework
#19
Enisha Sarin, Sarah Smith Lunsford
BACKGROUND: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are community health workers tasked to deliver health prevention in communities and link them with the health care sector. This paper examines the social, cultural, and institutional influences that either facilitate or impede ASHAs' abilities to deliver services effectively through the lens of the reciprocal determinism framework of social cognitive theory. METHODS: We conducted 98 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ASHAs (n = 49) and their family members (n = 49) in Gurdaspur and Mewat districts...
July 1, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662478/disassociation-of-cognitive-and-affective-aspects-of-theory-of-mind-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#20
Wanting Liu, Jie Fan, Jun Gan, Hui Lei, Chaoyang Niu, Raymond C K Chan, Xiongzhao Zhu
Impairment in social functioning has been widely described in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, several aspects of social cognition, such as theory of mind (ToM), have not been substantially investigated in this context. This study examined cognitive and affective ToM in 40 OCD patients and 38 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) with the computerized Yoni task and a battery of neurocognitive tests. OCD symptom severity was assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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