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Social work theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456871/gestational-obesity-weight-management-implementation-of-national-guidelines-glowing-a-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-guideline-implementation-intervention-for-the-management-of-maternal-obesity-by-midwives
#1
Nicola Heslehurst, Judith Rankin, Catherine McParlin, Falko F Sniehotta, Denise Howel, Stephen Rice, Elaine McColl
Background: Weight management in pregnancy guidelines exist, although dissemination alone is an ineffective means of implementation. Midwives identify the need for support to overcome complex barriers to practice. An evaluation of an intervention to support midwives' guideline implementation would require a large-scale cluster randomised controlled trial. A pilot study is necessary to explore the feasibility of delivery and evaluation prior to a definitive trial. The GestationaL Obesity Weight management: Implementation of National Guidelines (GLOWING) trial aims to test whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver a behaviour change intervention to support midwives' implementation of weight management guidelines...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455864/social-influence-on-positive-youth-development-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#2
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455009/protecting-an-adult-identity-a-grounded-theory-of-supportive-care-for-young-adults-recently-diagnosed-with-cancer
#3
Louise Soanes, Faith Gibson
BACKGROUND: For adolescents and young adults living in high-income countries cancer remains the most common disease-related death. Increasing survival rates and projected longevity are positive outcomes, although long-term consequences of cancer and/or its treatment will likely increase the global burden of cancer. In low and middle-income countries the impact and needs of young adults with cancer are largely unknown and require further attention. However, universal studies have revealed that cancer-related needs for this group are multifactorial, complex and largely unmet...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451917/perceived-behavioral-control-as-a-potential-precursor-of-walking-three-times-a-week-patient-s-perspectives
#4
Peter Busse, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Behavior change theories can identify people's main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449202/a-web-based-psychoeducational-intervention-for-adolescent-depression-design-and-development-of-moodhwb
#5
Rhys Bevan Jones, Anita Thapar, Frances Rice, Harriet Beeching, Rachel Cichosz, Becky Mars, Daniel J Smith, Sally Merry, Paul Stallard, Ian Jones, Ajay K Thapar, Sharon A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in adolescence and leads to distress and impairment in individuals, families and carers. Treatment and prevention guidelines highlight the key role of information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions not only for individuals but also for their families and carers. Engaging young people in prevention and early intervention programs is a challenge, and early treatment and prevention of adolescent depression is a major public health concern. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions to provide accurate information about health issues and to enhance and develop self-management skills...
February 15, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448863/mental-health-literacy-sub-clinical-personality-disorders-and-job-fit
#6
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448376/matrix-product-algorithm-for-stochastic-dynamics-on-networks-applied-to-nonequilibrium-glauber-dynamics
#7
Thomas Barthel, Caterina De Bacco, Silvio Franz
We introduce and apply an efficient method for the precise simulation of stochastic dynamical processes on locally treelike graphs. Networks with cycles are treated in the framework of the cavity method. Such models correspond, for example, to spin-glass systems, Boolean networks, neural networks, or other technological, biological, and social networks. Building upon ideas from quantum many-body theory, our approach is based on a matrix product approximation of the so-called edge messages-conditional probabilities of vertex variable trajectories...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447259/medical-professionalism-of-foreign-born-and-foreign-trained-physicians-under-close-scrutiny-a-qualitative-study-with-stakeholders-in-germany
#8
Corinna Klingler, Fatiha Ismail, Georg Marckmann, Katja Kuehlmeyer
Hospitals in Germany employ increasing numbers of foreign-born and foreign-trained (FB&FT) physicians. Studies have investigated how FB&FT physicians experience their professional integration into the German healthcare system, however, the perspectives of stakeholders working with and shaping the work experiences of FB&FT physicians in German hospitals have so far been neglected. This study explores relevant stakeholders' opinions and attitudes towards FB&FT physicians-which likely influence how these physicians settle in-and how these opinions were formed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444268/advancing-tobacco-product-warning-labels-research-methods-and-theory-a-summary-of-a-grantee-meeting-held-by-the-us-national-cancer-institute
#9
James F Thrasher, Noel T Brewer, Jeff Niederdeppe, Ellen Peters, Andrew A Strasser, Rachel Grana, Annette R Kaufman
Background: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends prominent pictorial health warnings on tobacco products. To advance research methods, theory and understanding of how tobacco product warning labels (TPWLs) work, the US National Cancer Institute convened a grantee meeting. Our article describes the key insights that emerged from the meeting, situated within the context of the scientific literature. Results & Recommendations: First, presentations confirmed that large, pictorial TPWLs motivate people to try to quit and encourage smoking cessation...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443561/building-bridges-to-a-brighter-tomorrow-a-systematic-evidence-review-of-interventions-that-prepare-adolescents-for-adulthood
#10
Barri B Burrus, Kathleen Krieger, Regina Rutledge, Alexander Rabre, Sarah Axelson, Audra Miller, LeBretia White, Christine Jackson
BACKGROUND: Data suggest that adverse social determinants during adolescence can set in motion a lifetime of poor social and health outcomes. Vulnerable youths are at particularly high risk in this regard. OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the current evidence base for adolescent-focused interventions designed to influence adulthood preparation that could affect longer-term social determinants. SEARCH METHODS: Using a systematic review methodology, we conducted an initial assessment of intervention evaluations targeting 6 adulthood preparation subject (APS) areas to assess the quality and character of the evidence base...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422223/which-are-the-colors-of-the-dress-review-of-an-atypical-optic-illusion
#11
J González Martín-Moro, F Prieto Garrido, F Gómez Sanz, I Fuentes Vega, M Castro Rebollo, P Moreno Martín
OBJECTIVE: In 2015 the picture of a dress went viral in the social media. A significant proportion of the population saw it as golden and white (G&W), while another significant proportion saw it as blue and black (B&B). The aim of this article is to review the related literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bibliographic search conducted in Pubmed and Google. The algorithm used was: (color OR colour) AND (dress OR #thedress). The search was limited to the years 2015-2017...
February 5, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421465/rethinking-health-sector-procurement-as-developmental-linkages-in-east-africa
#12
Maureen Mackintosh, Paula Tibandebage, Mercy Karimi Njeru, Joan Kariuki Kungu, Caroline Israel, Phares G M Mujinja
Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414424/international-voluntary-health-networks-ivhns-a-social-geographical-framework
#13
Benet Reid, Nina Laurie, Matt Baillie Smith
Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health...
February 1, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412283/the-daily-lives-of-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi, Angela Maria Alvarez, Silvana Sidney Costa Santos, Josiane Steil Siewert, Simony Fabíola Lopes Nunes, Andrelise Viana Rosa Tomasi
OBJECTIVE: To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. METHOD: Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409750/modeling-individual-differences-a-case-study-of-the-application-of-system-identification-for-personalizing-a-physical-activity-intervention
#15
Sayali S Phatak, Mohammad T Freigoun, César A Martín, Daniel E Rivera, Elizabeth V Korinek, Marc A Adams, Matthew P Buman, Predrag Klasnja, Eric B Hekler
BACKGROUND: Control systems engineering methods, particularly, system identification (system ID), offer an idiographic (i.e., person-specific) approach to develop dynamic models of physical activity (PA) that can be used to personalize interventions in a systematic, scalable way. The purpose of this work is to: 1) apply system ID to develop individual dynamical models of PA (steps/day measured using Fitbit Zip) in the context of a goal setting and positive reinforcement intervention informed by Social Cognitive Theory; and 2) compare insights on potential tailoring variables (i...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404640/-oxytocin-from-a%C3%A2-hormone-for-birth-to-a%C3%A2-social-hormone-the-hormonal-governance-of-sociability-aka-society
#16
Xenia Steinbach, Sabine Maasen
In the mass media, the hormone Oxytocin is currently being debated as the biochemical basis of sociability and a powerful neuropharmacological solution for (re-)establishing societal cohesion. Given its beginning as a 'bodyhormone' early in the 20th century, this article will trace the extraordinary career of Oxytocin from a regulator of birth to a regulator of society. What makes so strong a claim intelligible and acceptable? Our analysis of the scientific discourse on Oxytocin (1906-1990), the mass media discourse since the 1990s, and its repercussions for the scientific discourse during the same period, suggest a series of re-configurations of scientific theories and practices, as well as of the conception of the substance itself...
February 5, 2018: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402529/psychometric-properties-of-neural-responses-to-monetary-and-social-rewards-across-development
#17
Paige Ethridge, Anna Weinberg
Reward-related event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used to index individual differences that signal the presence or predict the onset of psychopathology. However, relatively little research has explored the psychometric properties of reward-related ERPs. Without understanding their psychometric properties, the value of using ERPs as biomarkers for psychopathology is limited. The present study, therefore, sought to establish the internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) elicited by two types of incentives commonly used in individual differences research - monetary and social rewards...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402181/home-is-where-the-head-is-a-distributed-cognition-account-of-personal-health-information-management-in-the-home-among-those-with-chronic-illness
#18
Nicole E Werner, Anna F Jolliff, Gail Casper, Thomas Martell, Kevin Ponto
Managing chronic illness requires personal health information management (PHIM) to be performed by lay individuals. Paramount to understanding the PHIM process is understanding the sociotechnical system in which it frequently occurs: the home environment. We combined distributed cognition theory and the patient work system model to investigate how characteristics of the home interact with the cognitive work of PHIM. We used a 3D virtual reality CAVE that enabled participants who had been diagnosed with diabetes (N=20) to describe how they would perform PHIM in the home context...
February 6, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398767/daily-temporal-pathways-a-latent-class-approach-to-time-diary-data
#19
Sarah M Flood, Rachelle Hill, Katie R Genadek
Research on daily time and how it is allocated has generally considered the time spent in specific activities. However, social theory suggests that time use is socially patterned whether by social organization, heterogeneity, and/or stratification. Drawing on four broad types of time (contracted, committed, necessary, and free), we use Multinomial Logit Latent Class Analysis to discuss eight daily temporal pathways and associations with individual characteristics. Our analysis highlights the variations and similarities across pathways, the impact of paid work in structuring daily life, the social patterning of sleep and leisure, and socio-demographic profiles of the pathways of working-age Americans...
January 2018: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394258/microblog-sentiment-analysis-using-social-and-topic-context
#20
Xiaomei Zou, Jing Yang, Jianpei Zhang
Analyzing massive user-generated microblogs is very crucial in many fields, attracting many researchers to study. However, it is very challenging to process such noisy and short microblogs. Most prior works only use texts to identify sentiment polarity and assume that microblogs are independent and identically distributed, which ignore microblogs are networked data. Therefore, their performance is not usually satisfactory. Inspired by two sociological theories (sentimental consistency and emotional contagion), in this paper, we propose a new method combining social context and topic context to analyze microblog sentiment...
2018: PloS One
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