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Social work theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933426/social-representations-of-violence-against-women-for-a-group-of-rural-elderly
#1
Maiara Carmosina Hirt, Marta Cocco da Costa, Jaqueline Arboit, Marinês Tambara Leite, Lilian Zielke Hesler, Ethel Bastos da Silva
OBJECTIVE: Understand the social representations of violence against rural women, from the perspective of the elderly, considering how the generation and gender influence this aggravation. METHODS: Qualitative study, based on the Theory of Social Representations.It was carried out with 12 elderly rural women from a city of Rio Grande do Sul, in July and August of 2013. The data obtained through a projective technique and semi-structured interviews has been analyzed through the reference of the Social Representations and content analysis...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933178/theory-of-mind-and-social-competence-in-children-and-adolescents-with-genetic-generalised-epilepsy-gge-relationships-to-epilepsy-severity-and-anti-epileptic-drugs
#2
Elizabeth Stewart, Cathy Catroppa, Deepak Gill, Richard Webster, John Lawson, Anna Mandalis, Mark Sabaz, Belinda Barton, Suncica Lah
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine Theory of Mind (ToM) and social competence in children and adolescents with genetic generalised epilepsy (GGE), and explore how they relate to neurocognitive and epilepsy variables. METHODS: Twenty-two children and adolescents with GGE (8-16 years old) and 22 typically developing controls completed two behavioural tasks (faux-pas, strange stories) assessing cognitive and affective ToM, and a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests...
June 18, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928686/selection-in-utero-and-population-health-theory-and-typology-of-research
#3
REVIEW
Tim A Bruckner, Ralph Catalano
Public health researchers may assume, based on the fetal origins literature, that "scarring" of birth cohorts describes the population response to modern-day stressors. We contend, based on extensive literature concerned with selection in utero , that this assumption remains questionable. At least a third and likely many more of human conceptions fail to yield a live birth. Those that survive to birth, moreover, do not represent their conception cohort. Increasing data availability has led to an improved understanding of selection in utero and its implications for population health...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924702/household-waste-and-health-risks-affecting-waste-pickers-and-the-environment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Jutta Gutberlet, Sayed Mohammad Nazim Uddin
Household waste has evolved into a core urban challenge, with increased quantities of waste being generated and with more complex material compositions, often containing toxic and hazardous elements. Critical systems theory understands cities as urban metabolisms, with different material and energy flows, highlighting the circularity in production, consumption, and discard. Waste pickers in low- and medium-income countries work on dumps and landfills, sifting through highly contaminated household waste and are exposed to health hazards...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923348/schizotypal-personality-traits-and-social-cognition-are-associated-with-childhood-trauma-exposure
#5
Yann Quidé, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Nicole O'Reilly, Vaughan J Carr, Bernet M Elzinga, Melissa J Green
OBJECTIVES: Childhood trauma is a common risk factor for adult psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar-I disorder (BD). However, its association with schizotypal personality traits, as well as cognitive and social cognitive abilities, is less well studied in these populations. METHODS: In a cohort of 79 SZ cases, 84 BD cases, and 75 healthy controls (HCs), clinically significant levels of childhood trauma exposure (according to scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; CTQ) were evident in 54 SZ, 55 BD, and 26 HC individuals...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916603/-oncological-disease-dimensions-of-the-phenomenon-and-role-ionizing-radiation
#6
Giuseppe Taino, Lorenzo Bordini, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The continuous scientific advances against neoplastic diseases affecting all areas of oncology biomedical research. Age is an extremely important factor in cancer development, since the incidence of cancer increases significantly with age. Because of aging of the Italian population, although the incidence is kept constant, the number of cancer diagnosis is inevitably going to increase over time only to increasing age. METHODS: Survival after the diagnosis of cancer is one of the main indicators that allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the health system against the cancer disease...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916302/a-realist-review-to-understand-the-efficacy-and-outcomes-of-interventions-designed-to-minimise-reverse-or-prevent-the-progression-of-frailty
#7
Holly Gwyther, Elzbieta Bobrowicz Campos, João Apóstolo, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Carol Holland
Interventions to minimise, reverse or prevent the progression of frailty in older adults represent a potentially viable route to improving quality of life and care needs in older adults. Intervention methods used across European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) collaborators were analysed, along with findings from literature reviews to determine "what works for whom in what circumstances". A realist review of FOCUS study literature reviews, 'real world' studies and grey literature was conducted according to RAMESES standards, and used to populate a framework analysis of theories of why frailty interventions worked, and theories of why frailty interventions did not work...
June 19, 2018: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914458/developing-a-realist-theory-of-psychosocial-rehabilitation-the-clubhouse-model
#8
Christina Mutschler, Jen Rouse, Kelly McShane, Criss Habal-Brosek
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial rehabilitation is a service that supports recovery from mental illness by providing opportunities for skill development, self-determination, and social interaction. One type of psychosocial rehabilitation is the Clubhouse model. The purpose of the current project was to create, test, and refine a realist theory of psychosocial rehabilitation at Progress Place, an accredited Clubhouse. METHOD: Realist evaluation is a theory driven evaluation that uncovers contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes, in order to develop a theory as to how a program works...
June 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911318/generalized-information-theory-meets-human-cognition-introducing-a-unified-framework-to-model-uncertainty-and-information-search
#9
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911311/behaviour-change-techniques-associated-with-adherence-to-prescribed-exercise-in-patients-with-persistent-musculoskeletal-pain-systematic-review
#10
Laura B Meade, Lindsay M Bearne, Louise H Sweeney, Samah H Alageel, Emma L Godfrey
PURPOSE: Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive movement) improves pain and function in people with persistent musculoskeletal pain (PMSK), but adherence is often poor. This systematic review evaluates the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of interventions to improve exercise adherence in people with PMSK and describes the content, context, and theoretical underpinning of behaviour change interventions designed to increase adherence. METHODS: Nine electronic databases were searched from inception dates to August 2017...
June 17, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905654/cultural-influences-on-parental-responses-to-children-s-pain
#11
Olof Kristjansdottir, Patrick J McGrath, G Allen Finley, Gudrun Kristjansdottir, Pulsuk Siripul, Sean P Mackinnon, Yoko Yoshida
There is a scarcity of work examining the relationship between culture and pain-related caregiver behaviors. Moreover, no pediatric pain studies have examined the relationship between caregiver cultural values and pain-related caregiver behaviors, specifically, if this process is mediated by caregiver parenting styles and moderated by eco-social context. Based on cross-cultural developmental theories, this study hypothesized that eco-social context would moderate the relationship between cultural values, parenting styles, and pain-related caregiver behaviors; and that parenting styles mediate the effect of cultural values on pain-related caregiver behaviors...
June 12, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902989/adversities-and-mental-health-needs-of-pregnant-adolescents-in-kenya-identifying-interpersonal-practical-and-cultural-barriers-to-care
#12
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Keng-Yen Huang, Nancy Grote, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies present a great public health burden in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNFPA, Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy, 2013). The disenfranchisement from public institutions and services is further compounded by cultural stigma and gender inequality creating emotional, psychosocial, health, and educational problems in the lives of vulnerable pregnant adolescents (Int J Adolesc Med Health 15(4):321-9, 2003; BMC Public Health 8:83, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901032/emotion-recognition-and-its-relation-to-prefrontal-function-and-network-in-heroin-plus-nicotine-dependence-a-pilot-study
#13
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898811/critical-reflection-a-general-practice-support-group-experience
#14
Sophia Samuel, Heather Thompson
The problem of medical practitioner burnout and loss of morale remains an ongoing challenge in the Australian health workforce. Collegiate recommendations are individualistic or personalised, or worse, punitive. Critical reflection in supervision is a long-accepted and key aspect of social work theory and practice. The use of critical reflection within a general practitioner support group is examined and key learnings from our findings over 3years are discussed. All participants reported the group enhanced individual and team workplace satisfaction, and wellbeing...
June 14, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897260/leader-follower-attachment-implications-for-personality-assessment-in-organizational-contexts
#15
Hal S Shorey, Jason S Chaffin
As a life-span theory of personality that is supported by more than 40 years of empirical research, attachment theory and associated measures have contributed immensely to our understanding of emotion regulation, social dynamics, and behavior. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to how attachment dynamics influence relationships at work or the extent to which adult attachment patterns are mirrored in leaders' perceptions and behaviors toward their direct reports. Moreover, attachment measures that use romantic relationships as their referent might not be appropriate for use in organizational settings with executive clients...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895285/exploration-of-dynamics-in-a-complex-person-centred-intervention-process-based-on-health-professionals-perspectives
#16
Febe Friberg, Catarina Wallengren, Cecilia Håkanson, Eva Carlsson, Frida Smith, Monica Pettersson, Elisabeth Kenne Sarenmalm, Richard Sawatzky, Joakim Öhlén
BACKGROUND: The assessment and evaluation of practical and sustainable development of health care has become a major focus of investigation in health services research. A key challenge for researchers as well as decision-makers in health care is to understand mechanisms influencing how complex interventions work and become embedded in practice, which is significant for both evaluation and later implementation. In this study, we explored nurses' and surgeons' perspectives on performing and participating in a complex multi-centre person-centred intervention process that aimed to support patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer to feel prepared for surgery, discharge and recovery...
June 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891730/neural-prediction-errors-distinguish-perception-and-misperception-of-speech
#17
Helen Blank, Marlene Spangenberg, Matthew H Davis
Humans use prior expectations to improve perception, especially of sensory signals that are degraded or ambiguous. However, if sensory input deviates from prior expectations, correct perception depends on adjusting or rejecting prior expectations. Failure to adjust or reject the prior leads to perceptual illusions especially if there is partial overlap (hence partial mismatch) between expectations and input. With speech, "Slips of the ear" occur when expectations lead to misperception. For instance, a entomologist, might be more susceptible to hear "The ants are my friends" for "The answer, my friend" (in the Bob Dylan song "Blowing in the Wind")...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889120/mixed-methods-development-of-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-instrument-for-chronic-low-back-pain-part-2-the-patient-assessment-for-low-back-pain-impacts-pal-i
#18
Donald M Bushnell, Steven I Blum, Hiltrud Liedgens, Mona L Martin, Rainer Freynhagen, Mark Wallace, Charles Argoff, Mariёlle Eerdekens, Maurits Kok, Donald L Patrick
We describe qualitative and quantitative development and preliminary validation of the Patient Assessment for Low Back Pain - Impacts (PAL-I), a patient-reported outcome measure for use in chronic low back pain (cLBP) clinical trials. Concept elicitation and cognitive interviews (qualitative methods) were used to identify and refine symptom concepts. Classical test theory and Rasch measurement theory (quantitative methods) were used to evaluate item-level and scale-level performance of the PAL-I using an iterative approach between qualitative and quantitative methods...
June 7, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885929/factors-influencing-unsafe-behaviors-a-supervised-learning-approach
#19
Yang Miang Goh, Chalani U Ubeynarayana, Karen Le Xin Wong, Brian H W Guo
Despite its potential, the use of machine learning in safety studies had been limited. Considering machine learning's advantage in predictive accuracy, this study used a supervised learning approach to evaluate the relative importance of different cognitive factors within the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in influencing safety behavior. Data were collected from 80 workers in a tunnel construction project using a TRA-based questionnaire. At the same time, behavior-based safety (BBS) observation data, % unsafe behavior, was collected...
June 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883322/marginal-structural-models-with-counterfactual-effect-modifiers
#20
Wenjing Zheng, Zhehui Luo, Mark J van der Laan
In health and social sciences, research questions often involve systematic assessment of the modification of treatment causal effect by patient characteristics. In longitudinal settings, time-varying or post-intervention effect modifiers are also of interest. In this work, we investigate the robust and efficient estimation of the Counterfactual-History-Adjusted Marginal Structural Model (van der Laan MJ, Petersen M. Statistical learning of origin-specific statically optimal individualized treatment rules. Int J Biostat...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Biostatistics
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