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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227842/ideation-social-construction-and-drug-policy-a-scoping-review
#1
Vanessa Gstrein
Within drug policy scholarship there is a growing body of literature applying ideational and social constructionist approaches to address the complexity of drug policy making and the apparent failure of the evidence-based policy paradigm to free the process from controversy and contestation. Ideational approaches are concerned with the roles played by ideas and beliefs in policy making, while social construction explores the way policy problems are constructed, and agendas are set and delineated by dominant frames and narratives...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#2
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220705/therapeutic-landscapes-and-longevity-wellness-tourism-in-bama
#3
Liyuan Huang, Honggang Xu
Due to the rising demand for healthcare products and concern over environmental pollution, wellness tourism has been booming in China in recent years. The therapeutic landscape theory provides a multi-scale interpretation of wellness tourism to explore how wellness tourists achieve health in healing places. By presenting the results of 83 interviews conducted in Bama, China, this study reveals that the "longevity village" Bama, endorsed by centenarians, provides a retreat that combines natural beauty and a harmonious neighbourhood for wellness tourists...
November 28, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#4
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218961/the-black-and-white-and-shades-of-grey-of-boundary-violations
#5
Andrew Gardner, Helen McCutcheon, Maria Fedoruk
Using a Constructivist Grounded Theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this research examined the social construct of the “professional boundary” necessary in mental health therapeutic work and the problem of professional boundary violations in the therapeutic relationship. Thirteen mental health clinicians from various professional disciplines commonly found in mental health clinical practice responded to three specific questions designed to gain an understanding about how clinicians gauge the differences between minor and serious boundary violations...
2017: Collegian: Journal of the Royal College of Nursing, Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208000/dynamics-behind-the-scale-up-of-evidence-based-obesity-prevention-protocol-for-a-multi-site-case-study-of-an-electronic-implementation-monitoring-system-in-health-promotion-practice
#6
Kathleen P Conte, Sisse Groen, Victoria Loblay, Amanda Green, Andrew Milat, Lina Persson, Christine Innes-Hughes, Jo Mitchell, Sarah Thackway, Mandy Williams, Penelope Hawe
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of many interventions to promote health and prevent disease has been well established. The imperative has therefore shifted from amassing evidence about efficacy to scale-up to maximise population-level health gains. Electronic implementation monitoring, or 'e-monitoring', systems have been designed to assist and track the delivery of preventive policies and programs. However, there is little evidence on whether e-monitoring systems improve the dissemination, adoption, and ongoing delivery of evidence-based preventive programs...
December 6, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205496/critical-caring-theory-and-public-health-nursing-advocacy-for-comprehensive-sexual-health-education
#7
Elizabeth Dickson, Marie L Lobo
Public health nurses (PHNs) often work with adolescent populations at risk for unplanned pregnancies who do not have access to comprehensive sexual health education (CSHE). Evidence-based CSHE can have a significant protective effect on adolescent sexual behaviors. This article applies critical caring theory to public health nursing advocacy for CSHE. Critical caring theory defines the social justice work of PHNs as an expression of their caring as nurses. The lack of CSHE in schools for adolescents is a social justice issue, and PHNs can be important advocates...
December 4, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205471/gender-and-mental-health-an-examination-of-procedural-justice-in-a-specialized-court-context
#8
Logan J Somers, Kristy Holtfreter
The procedural justice framework has been applied in the criminal justice contexts of policing, corrections, and courts. According to this perspective, fair treatment, respectful dialogue and being given a proper voice will contribute to citizens' positive views of authority figures. While this literature has grown immensely, several questions remain unanswered. Do males and females perceive similar levels of procedural justice? Does mental health status influence perceptions of fair treatment? Whether procedural justice is a general perspective that can be applied across social groupings has important implications for correctional treatment in that programs that truly "work" for all are more cost-effective...
December 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203695/random-factors-an-interview-with-2017-thomas-hunt-morgan-medal-recipient-richard-c-lewontin
#9
Richard C Lewontin
The Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal is awarded to an individual member of the Genetics Society of America for lifetime achievement in the field of genetics. It recognizes the full body of work of an exceptional geneticist. The 2017 recipient is Richard C. Lewontin, whose contributions and influence have profoundly shaped the field of evolutionary genetics. As a testament to this legacy, his nomination for the Morgan Medal was cosigned by 160 faculty members from around the world. A student of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Lewontin's early work established the two-locus theory, which laid the foundation for our understanding of linkage disequilibrium...
December 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198528/an-integrative-review-of-the-enjoyment-of-sadness-associated-with-music
#10
REVIEW
Tuomas Eerola, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Henna-Riikka Peltola, Vesa Putkinen, Katharina Schäfer
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology...
November 23, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190383/bionic-vision-social-work-and-community-development-a-research-participant-s-reflections
#11
Dianne Ashworth
This article discusses bionic vision through the author's experiences as Australia's first research participant in an early prototype bionic eye trial. During her two-year participation, she drew on various theoretical perspectives, including critical and community development approaches that not only influence her professional social work perspective, but extend to her personal worldview. In a rapidly emerging biotechnological age, this article contributes a holistic perspective, bringing into focus theory and practice; issues of human experience, human rights, and oppressive relationships; tensions between agency and structure (particularly relating to disability from a social model of disability and the medical model); and practical applications of artificial vision...
November 28, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190149/teacher-perspectives-of-interdisciplinary-coteaching-relationships-in-a-clinical-skills-course-a-relational-coordination-theory-analysis
#12
Michelle M Daniel, Paula Ross, Renée E Stalmeijer, Willem de Grave
Phenomenon: Interdisciplinary coteaching has become a popular pedagogic model in medical education, yet there is insufficient research to guide effective practices in this context. Coteaching relationships are not always effective, which has the potential to affect the student experience. The purpose of this study was to explore interdisciplinary coteaching relationships between a physician (MD) and social behavioral scientist (SBS) in an undergraduate clinical skills course. We aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of what teachers perceive as influencing the quality of relationships to begin to construct a framework for collaborative teaching in medical education...
November 30, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189930/periodization-theory-confronting-an-inconvenient-truth
#13
John Kiely
Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies...
November 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189895/acceptance-and-barriers-to-access-of-occupational-e-mental-health-cross-sectional-findings-from-a-health-risk-population-of-employees
#14
Severin Hennemann, Michael Witthöft, Matthias Bethge, Katja Spanier, Manfred E Beutel, Rüdiger Zwerenz
PURPOSE: Occupational e-mental-health (OEMH) may extend existing instruments for preservation or restoration of health and work ability. As a key precondition to efficient implementation, this study examined acceptance and person-centered barriers to potential uptake of OEMH for work-related distress in employees with an elevated risk of early retirement. METHODS: Within the framework of the "Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees", 1829 employees with prior sickness absence payments filled out a self-administered questionnaire...
November 30, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189701/expressive-writing-a-tool-to-help-health-workers-research-project-on-the-benefits-of-expressive-writing
#15
Annalisa Tonarelli, Chiara Cosentino, Diletta Artioli, Stefania Borciani, Elena Camurri, Barbara Colombo, Antonio D'Errico, Liana Lelli, Laura Lodini, Giovanna Artioli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Numerous studies in the international literature hold that expressive writing is a useful tool to take care of the person as a whole. It gives voice to emotions, moods and intimate thoughts of patients, as well as caregivers and family members. The reference model is based on Pennebaker's theory (2004), which posits that expressing our deeper thoughts and feelings can result in significant health benefits in the short and long term. Studies over the past 25 years have shown that expressive writing, that is, simple writing on deeper thoughts and emotional sensations, is a useful tool to alleviate both physical and psychological symptoms...
November 30, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185826/series-practical-guidance-to-qualitative-research-part-2-context-research-questions-and-designs
#16
Irene Korstjens, Albine Moser
In the course of our supervisory work over the years, we have noticed that qualitative research tends to evoke a lot of questions and worries, so-called frequently asked questions (FAQs). This series of four articles intends to provide novice researchers with practical guidance for conducting high-quality qualitative research in primary care. By 'novice' we mean Master's students and junior researchers, as well as experienced quantitative researchers who are engaging in qualitative research for the first time...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182029/strategies-to-keep-working-among-workers-with-common-mental-disorders-a-grounded-theory-study
#17
Louise Danielsson, Mikael Elf, Gunnel Hensing
PURPOSE: Most people with common mental disorders (CMDs) are employed and working, but few studies have looked into how they manage their jobs while ill. This study explores workers' experiences of strategies to keep working while suffering from CMDs. METHODS: In this grounded theory study, we interviewed 19 women and eight men with depression or anxiety disorders. They were 19-65 years old and had different occupations. Constant comparison method was used in the analysis...
November 28, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179809/factors-that-affect-general-practice-as-a-choice-of-medical-speciality-implications-for-policy-development
#18
Amit Vohra, Richard Ladyshewsky, Stephen Trumble
Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners.Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle...
November 28, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175206/stochastic-simulation-of-multiscale-complex-systems-with-piskas-a-rule-based-approach
#19
Tomas Perez-Acle, Ignacio Fuenzalida, Alberto J M Martin, Rodrigo Santibañez, Rodrigo Avaria, Alejandro Bernardin, Alvaro M Bustos, Daniel Garrido, Jonathan Dushoff, James H Liu
Computational simulation is a widely employed methodology to study the dynamic behavior of complex systems. Although common approaches are based either on ordinary differential equations or stochastic differential equations, these techniques make several assumptions which, when it comes to biological processes, could often lead to unrealistic models. Among others, model approaches based on differential equations entangle kinetics and causality, failing when complexity increases, separating knowledge from models, and assuming that the average behavior of the population encompasses any individual deviation...
November 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173103/social-norm-family-communication-and-hbv-screening-among-asian-americans
#20
Hee-Soon Juon, Rajiv N Rimal, Ann Klassen, Sunmin Lee
Individuals' behaviors are influenced by those of others in their social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as by how individuals perceive they should behave in that environment (e.g., injunctive norms). Although social norms are thought to play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening, limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. In addition, norms are social phenomena that are spread through family discussion about the importance of getting HBV screening...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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