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Voltage-gated calcium channels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166599/maturation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cell-population-activity-during-postnatal-refinement-of-climbing-fiber-network
#1
Jean-Marc Good, Michael Mahoney, Taisuke Miyazaki, Kenji F Tanaka, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Kazuo Kitamura, Masanobu Kano
Neural circuits undergo massive refinements during postnatal development. In the developing cerebellum, the climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) network is drastically reshaped by eliminating early-formed redundant CF to PC synapses. To investigate the impact of CF network refinement on PC population activity during postnatal development, we monitored spontaneous CF responses in neighboring PCs and the activity of populations of nearby CF terminals using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging. Population activity is highly synchronized in newborn mice, and the degree of synchrony gradually declines during the first postnatal week in PCs and, to a lesser extent, in CF terminals...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163057/synchronicity-and-rhythmicity-of-purkinje-cell-firing-during-generalized-spike-and-wave-discharges-in-a-natural-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#2
Lieke Kros, Sander Lindeman, Oscar H J Eelkman Rooda, Pavithra Murugesan, Lorenzo Bina, Laurens W J Bosman, Chris I De Zeeuw, Freek E Hoebeek
Absence epilepsy is characterized by the occurrence of generalized spike and wave discharges (GSWDs) in electrocorticographical (ECoG) recordings representing oscillatory activity in thalamocortical networks. The oscillatory nature of GSWDs has been shown to be reflected in the simple spike activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and in the activity of their target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, but it is unclear to what extent complex spike activity is implicated in generalized epilepsy. Purkinje cell complex spike firing is elicited by climbing fiber activation and reflects action potential firing in the inferior olive...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163025/bdnf-trkb-induction-of-calcium-transients-through-cav2-2-calcium-channels-in-motoneurons-corresponds-to-f-actin-assembly-and-growth-cone-formation-on-%C3%AE-2-chain-laminin-221
#3
Benjamin Dombert, Stefanie Balk, Patrick Lüningschrör, Mehri Moradi, Rajeeve Sivadasan, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Sibylle Jablonka
Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients and actin dynamics in primary motoneurons correspond to cellular differentiation such as axon elongation and growth cone formation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB support both motoneuron survival and synaptic differentiation. However, in motoneurons effects of BDNF/trkB signaling on spontaneous Ca(2+) influx and actin dynamics at axonal growth cones are not fully unraveled. In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162978/exploring-the-interaction-of-drosophila-tdp-43-and-the-type-ii-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cacophony-in-regulating-motor-function-and-behavior
#4
Kayly M Lembke, David B Morton
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motor neurodegenerative disease. The cause of the disease remains obscure, and as such there is no effective treatment or cure. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases are frequently characterized by dysfunction of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Using model systems to understand the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 dysfunction should accelerate identification of therapeutic targets. A recent report has shown that motor defects caused by the deletion of the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog, tbph, are not driven by changes in the physiology at the neuromuscular junction...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#5
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158540/calcium-binding-and-voltage-gating-in-cx46-hemichannels
#6
Bernardo I Pinto, Amaury Pupo, Isaac E García, Karel Mena-Ulecia, Agustín D Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos Gonzalez
The opening of connexin (Cx) hemichannels in the membrane is tightly regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) and membrane voltage. Electrophysiological and atomic force microscopy experiments indicate that Ca(2+) stabilizes the hemichannel closed state. However, structural data show that Ca(2+) binding induces an electrostatic seal preventing ion transport without significant structural rearrangements. In agreement with the closed-state stabilization hypothesis, we found that the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity is increased as the voltage is made more negative...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158500/use-dependent-potentiation-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-rescues-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a
#7
Phillip H Beske, Katie M Hoffman, James B Machamer, Margaret R Eisen, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins that cleave neuronal SNARE proteins required for neurotransmission, causing flaccid paralysis and death by asphyxiation. Currently, there are no clinical treatments to delay or reverse BoNT-induced blockade of neuromuscular transmission. While aminopyridines have demonstrated varying efficacy in transiently reducing paralysis following BoNT poisoning, the precise mechanisms by which aminopyridines symptomatically treat botulism are not understood. Here we found that activity-dependent potentiation of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) underlies 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP)-mediated rescue of neurotransmission in central nervous system synapses and mouse diaphragm neuromuscular junctions fully intoxicated by BoNT serotype A...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157811/bud-extracts-from-salix-caprea-l-inhibit-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-and-catecholamines-secretion-in-mouse-chromaffin-cells
#8
Chiara Calorio, Dario Donno, Claudio Franchino, Valentina Carabelli, Andrea Marcantoni
BACKGROUND: Salix caprea L. is an ornamental plant with prominent antioxidant activity. In the last decades Salix caprea bud extracts (SCBEs) have been used for the treatment of oxidative stress related disorders. PURPOSE: A large part of cellular functions depends on the amount of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration which in turn is mainly determined by Ca(2+) ions movements across plasma membrane as well as by Ca(2+) released from the stores. For better evaluating the mechanism of action of SCBEs, we focused on the effect of SCBEs on voltage gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) functioning and related catecholamines secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156097/4-aminopyridine-a-pan-kv-channel-inhibitor-that-enhances-kv7-4-currents-and-inhibits-noradrenaline-mediated-contraction-of-rat-mesenteric-small-arteries
#9
Makhala M Khammy, Sukhan Kim, Bo H Bentzen, Soojung Lee, Inyeoung Choi, Christian Aalkjaer, Thomas A Jepps
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels are regulators of vascular tone. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is considered a broad inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (KV ) channels, with little inhibitory effect on Kv7 family members at millimolar concentrations. However, the effect of 4-AP on Kv7 channels has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of 4-AP on Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels and characterise the effect of 4-AP on rat resistance arteries...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154951/regulation-of-neural-ion-channels-by-muscarinic-receptors
#10
REVIEW
David A Brown
The excitable behaviour of neurons is determined by the activity of their endogenous membrane ion channels. Since muscarinic receptors are not themselves ion channels, the acute effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on neuronal function are governed by the effects of the receptors on these endogenous neuronal ion channels. This review considers some principles and factors determining the interaction between subtypes and classes of muscarinic receptors with neuronal ion channels, and summarizes the effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on a number of different channels, the mechanisms of receptor - channel transduction and their direct consequences for neuronal activity...
November 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149324/pyrethroid-insecticide-cypermethrin-modulates-gonadotropin-synthesis-via-calcium-homeostasis-and-erk1-2-signaling-in-l%C3%AE-t2-mouse-pituitary-cells
#11
Feixue Li, Huihui Ma, Jing Liu
Pyrethroids are a class of widely used insecticides. Cypermethrin (CP) is one of most commonly used pyrethroid insecticides and its residue has been frequently detected in environmental media. Our recent animal study reported that early postnatal exposure to CP induced an increase in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as the expression of gonadotropin subunit genes [chorionic gonadotropin α (CGα), LHβ and FSHβ] in pituitary tissues. In this study, we further investigated the precise mechanism by which CP at concentrations of 1-100 nM affected the synthesis of gonadotropins using a murine pituitary gonadotropic cell line LβT2...
November 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145442/downregulation-of-kcnmb4-expression-and-changes-in-bk-channel-subtype-in-hippocampal-granule-neurons-following-seizure-activity
#12
Luke E Whitmire, Ling Ling, Vladslav Bugay, Chase M Carver, Santosh Timilsina, Hui-Hsiu Chuang, David B Jaffe, Mark S Shapiro, Jose E Cavazos, Robert Brenner
A major challenge is to understand maladaptive changes in ion channels that sets neurons on a course towards epilepsy development. Voltage- and calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels contribute to early spike timing in neurons, and studies indicate that the BK channel plays a pathological role in increasing excitability early after a seizure. Here, we have investigated changes in BK channels and their accessory β4 subunit (KCNMB4) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons of the hippocampus, key neurons that regulate excitability of the hippocampus circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141003/trpa1-and-trpv1-are-required-for-lidocaine-evoked-calcium-influx-and-neuropeptide-release-but-not-cytotoxicity-in-mouse-sensory-neurons
#13
Mirjam Eberhardt, Thomas Stueber, Jeanne de la Roche, Christine Herzog, Andreas Leffler, Peter W Reeh, Katrin Kistner
BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics (LA) reduce neuronal excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na+ channels. When applied at high concentrations in the direct vicinity of nerves, LAs can also induce relevant irritation and neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving an increase of intracellular Ca2+. In the present study we explored the role of the Ca2+-permeable ion channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 for lidocaine-induced Ca2+-influx, neuropeptide release and neurotoxicity in mouse sensory neurons. METHODS: Cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wildtype and mutant mice lacking TRPV1, TRPA1 or both channels were explored by means of calcium imaging, whole-cell patch clamp recordings and trypan blue staining for cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140302/danger-high-voltage-the-role-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-central-nervous-system-pathology
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Schampel, Stefanie Kuerten
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel blockers have been in clinical practice for many years so that their toxicity and side effects are well studied. However, these drugs are primarily used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and most if not all effects on brain functions are secondary to peripheral effects on blood pressure and circulation...
November 15, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137729/the-shear-wave-elastic-modulus-and-the-increased-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-kb-p65-and-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-expression-in-the-area-of-myofascial-trigger-points-activated-in-a-rat-model-by-blunt-trauma-to-the-vastus-medialis
#15
Hengyong Lv, Zhen Li, Tiantian Hu, Yuexiang Wang, Jinpeng Wu, Yingxin Li
We aimed to elucidate the increased inflammatory cytokines expression such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in the area of activated myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in a rat model by blunt trauma to the vastus medialis and to evaluate the feasibility of a quantitative analysis of muscle elastic modulus using shear wave elastography (SWE). Twelve 7-week-old male SD rats were divided into normal (NM, n = 6) and model groups (MO, n = 6)...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125390/responsiveness-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-sh-sy5y-human-neuroblastoma-cells-on-micropillar-substrates
#16
Wenxu Wang, Donghuo Zhong, Yu Lin, Rong Fan, Zhengjun Hou, Xiumei Cao, Yubin Ren
In this study, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) micropillar substrates were fabricated to evaluate the influence of topographic substrates on cell morphological and functional characteristics, such as spreading area, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and membrane potential. The proliferation, spreading area, perimeter and circularity of SH-SY5Y cells interfaced with different substrates were first investigated. In addition, the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion of a cell as important manifestations of cell morphology were analyzed by immunofluorescence...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125190/lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-mouse-passive-transfer-model-illuminates-disease-pathology-and-facilitates-testing-therapeutic-leads
#17
REVIEW
Stephen D Meriney, Tyler B Tarr, Kristine S Ojala, Man Wu, Yizhi Li, David Lacomis, Adolfo Garcia-Ocaña, Mary Liang, Guillermo Valdomir, Peter Wipf
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies directed against the voltage-gated calcium channels that provide the calcium ion flux that triggers acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. To study the pathophysiology of LEMS and test candidate therapeutic strategies, a passive-transfer animal model has been developed in mice, which can be created by daily intraperitoneal injections of LEMS patient serum or IgG into mice for 2-4 weeks. Results from studies of the mouse neuromuscular junction have revealed that each synapse has hundreds of transmitter release sites but that the probability for release at each one is likely to be low...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123133/aip-limits-neurotransmitter-release-by-inhibiting-calcium-bursts-from-the-ryanodine-receptor
#18
Bojun Chen, Ping Liu, Edward J Hujber, Yan Li, Erik M Jorgensen, Zhao-Wen Wang
Pituitary tumors are frequently associated with mutations in the AIP gene and are sometimes associated with hypersecretion of growth hormone. It is unclear whether other factors besides an enlarged pituitary contribute to the hypersecretion. In a genetic screen for suppressors of reduced neurotransmitter release, we identified a mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans AIPR-1 (AIP-related-1), which causes profound increases in evoked and spontaneous neurotransmitter release, a high frequency of spontaneous calcium transients in motor neurons and an enlarged readily releasable pool of vesicles...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116659/type-1-astrocyte-like-stem-cells-harboring-cacna1d-gene-deletion-exhibit-reduced-proliferation-and-decreased-neuronal-fate-choice
#19
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
In the central nervous system, CaV 1.2 and CaV 1. 3 constitute the main L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) coupling membrane depolarization to gene transcription. We have previously demonstrated that inducible disruption of Cav1.2 in type-1 astrocyte-like stem cells of the adult dentate gyrus (DG) impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in a cell-autonomous fashion. To address the role of Cav1.3 channels (encoded by the Cacna1d gene), we here generated Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1d(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice which facilitate inducible deletion of Cacna1d in tandem with induction of EGFP expression in type-1 cells, allowing tracking of recombined cells and their descendants...
November 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110470/emerging-functional-differences-between-the-synaptotagmin-and-ferlin-calcium-sensor-families
#20
Colin P Johnson
The ferlin family of proteins have emerged as multi-C2 domain regulators of calcium triggered membrane fusion and fission events. While initially determined to share many of the features of the synaptotagmins family of calcium sensors, more recent studies have determined that ferlins directly interact with non-neuronal voltage gated calcium channels and nucleate the assembly of membrane trafficking protein complexes, functions that distinguish them from the more well studied synaptotagmins family. Here we highlight some of the recent findings that have advanced our understanding of ferlins and their functional differences with the synaptotagmins family...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
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