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Dark circles

Razek Georges Coussa, Irma Lopez Solache, Robert K Koenekoop
This article is dedicated to Irene Hussels Maumenee, Professor of Human Genetics and Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins' Wilmer Eye Institute, Ocular Genetics Fellowship director in 1994-1995. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) has almost come full circle, from a profound and molecularly uncharacterized form of congenital retinal blindness to one in which a large number of causative genes and disease pathways are known, and the world's first human retinal disease to be treated by gene therapy. Dr. Maumenee's insights, efforts, and leadership have contributed significantly to this remarkable scientific journey...
January 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
M Lee, K Song, B Choe, T Suh
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an CT-MR head and neck phantom which can investigate dose calculation differences between density-assigned MRI and CT, and to compare non-implant inserted registered MR-CT registered image with artifact reduced image of MR-CT registered image. It is to identify potential limitations related to dental implants of MR image and CT image and maximize the advantages to find interactive method to use registered image. METHODS: The phantom comprises half-circled shape which shaped to simulated the anatomical structures of a human head and neck...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx(2TM), on the improvement of the skin radiance in women. METHODS: The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40-70, with facial dull complexion...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Eftychia Platsidaki, Anargyros Kouris, Efthymia Agiasofitou, Christina Antoniou, Georgios Kontochristopoulos
Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum refers to xanthomas that occur more often near the inner canthus of the eyelid. Periorbital hyperpigmentation presents as a dark area surrounding the eyelids. Objective: In the present study, the authors examined the prevalence and the associated factors of periorbital hyperpigmentation among patients with xanthelasma. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with xanthelasma palpebrarum were examined for the presence of dark circles. Detailed questionnaires regarding the history of diabetes, hypothyroidism, smoking status, and weight were completed by all patients...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Stephanie Nouveau, Divya Agrawal, Malavika Kohli, Francoise Bernerd, Namita Misra, Chitra Shivanand Nayak
Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
André Morsnowski, Steffen Maune
HYPOTHESIS: Two approaches to model the test-retest statistics of a localization experiment basing on Gaussian distribution and on surrogate data are introduced. Their efficiency is investigated using different measures describing directional hearing ability. BACKGROUND: A localization experiment in the full horizontal plane is a challenging task for hearing impaired patients. In clinical routine, we use this experiment to evaluate the progress of our cochlear implant (CI) recipients...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Ronald Petie, Anders Garm, Michael R Hall
BACKGROUND: Photoreceptors have evolved numerous times giving organisms the ability to detect light and respond to specific visual stimuli. Studies into the visual abilities of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata) have recently shown that species within this class have a more developed visual sense than previously thought and it has been demonstrated that starfish use visual information for orientation within their habitat. Whereas image forming eyes have been suggested for starfish, direct experimental proof of true spatial vision has not yet been obtained...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Tian-Hua Xu, Yuan-Hong Li, John Z S Chen, Xing-Hua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser to treat infraorbital dark circles. Thirty women with infraorbital dark circles (predominant color: dark/brown) participated in this open-labeled study. The participants received eight sessions of 694-nm fractional Q-switched ruby laser treatment using a fluence of 3.0-3.5 J/cm(2), at an interval of 7 days. The melanin deposition in the lesional skin was observed in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)...
December 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Ivan Vrcek, Omar Ozgur, Tanuj Nakra
Infraorbital dark circles represent a common and multifactorial challenge in the world of aesthetic medicine and are the result of a variety of factors including deep facial anatomy, soft tissue changes, as well as contributions from the skin. A variety of treatment options exist, and a customised management strategy can be developed for the particular anatomic changes present. A literature search using MEDLINE and non-MEDLINE sources was performed utilising keywords including: 'Dark circles' 'infraorbital dark circles', 'infraorbital pigment', 'under-eye circles' and 'lower eyelid bags'...
April 2016: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
Weiwei Tan, Shenghua He, Zhitao Sun, Yeguang Wang, Jian Wang, Juyi Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of establishing intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) model by using minimally invasive acupuncture and rotary-cutting. METHODS: Forty New Zealand white rabbits [male or female, (2.9 ± 0.3) kg in weight] were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and experimental group (n = 20). No treatment was done in the control group; percutaneous puncture was performed on L4,5 and L5,6 intervertebral disc by using 18G needle under C-arm X-ray monitoring for rotary-cutting of nucleus pulposus to promote degeneration of the disc in the experimental group...
March 2016: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
R M Sreesujatha, S Jeyakumar, A Kundu, Chellam Balasundaram
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ovarian status of matured breeding female Japanese quail by means of B Mode portable ultrasound scanning. Active ovaries in various stages of hierarchical development and different morphological structure were observed. The large yellow follicles appeared as a cluster of dark circles with various intensity of hyperechoic concentric ring. Sonographically, these follicles were classified into F1, F2, and F3 measuring 16.20 ± 0.06 mm, 12.48 ± 0.09 mm, and 7...
September 15, 2016: Theriogenology
Sarah Zylinski, D Osorio, Sonke Johnsen
Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles...
March 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
George Kontochristopoulos, Anargyros Kouris, Eftychia Platsidaki, Vasiliki Markantoni, Maria Gerodimou, Christina Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Dark circles (DC), seen in the periorbital area, are defined as bilateral, round, homogeneous pigmented macules whose aetiology is thought to be multifactorial. Available treatments include bleaching creams, topical retinoic acid, chemical peels, lasers, autologous fat transplantation, injectable fillers and surgery (blepharoplasty). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of microneedling and 10% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peels in the treatment of DC...
October 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Rashmi Sarkar, Rashmi Ranjan, Shilpa Garg, Vijay K Garg, Sidharth Sonthalia, Shivani Bansal
Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a commonly encountered condition. There is very little scientific data available on the clinical profile and pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation. Periorbital hyperpigmentation is caused by various exogenous and endogenous factors. The causative factors include genetic or heredity, excessive pigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation secondary to atopic and allergic contact dermatitis, periorbital edema, excessive vascularity, shadowing due to skin laxity and tear trough associated with aging...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
Amit Sinha, Sumit Kar, Nidhi Yadav, Bhushan Madke
BACKGROUND: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. OBJECTIVE: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it's implication in the Indian rural scenario. METHODOLOGY: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Thomas A Stidham, Jaelyn J Eberle
Fossils attributable to the extinct waterfowl clade Presbyornithidae and the large flightless Gastornithidae from the early Eocene (~52-53 Ma) of Ellesmere Island, in northernmost Canada are the oldest Cenozoic avian fossils from the Arctic. Except for its slightly larger size, the Arctic presbyornithid humerus is not distinguishable from fossils of Presbyornis pervetus from the western United States, and the Gastornis phalanx is within the known size range of mid-latitude individuals. The occurrence of Presbyornis above the Arctic Circle in the Eocene could be the result of annual migration like that of its living duck and geese relatives, or it may have been a year-round resident similar to some Eocene mammals on Ellesmere and some extant species of sea ducks...
February 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
José Chacón, Miguel Ángel Castellanos, Ignacio Serrano-Pedraza
Previous research has shown a visual asymmetry in shaded stimuli where the perceived contrast depended on the polarity of their dark and light areas (Chacón, 2004). In particular, circles filled out with a top-dark luminance ramp were perceived with higher contrast than top-light ones although both types of stimuli had the same physical contrast. Here, using shaded stimuli, we conducted four experiments in order to find out if the perceived contrast depends on: (a) the contrast level, (b) the type of shading (continuous vs...
2015: Journal of Vision
David L Chen, Joel L Cohen
Periorbital veins (POVs) are a common cosmetic concern. Anatomically, POVs are formed by superficial facial veins that start from the bridge of the nose, travel as supraorbital and infraorbital veins, and join venous branches from the lateral forehead and scalp. In patients with fair skin, or in patients whose facial skin is atrophied, POVs can become prominent. This can lead to a fatigued appearance, with perceived "dark circles" around the patients' eyes. Previously described surgical therapies for prominent POVs are invasive and can leave unsightly scars, and sclerotherapy has been reported to lead to embolization that could lead to blindness...
November 2015: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Mary S Matsui, Sérgio Schalka, Garrett Vanderover, Christina G Fthenakis, J Christopher, Patricia Camarano Pinto Bombarda, Juliana Regina Bueno, Bianca Lenci Inácio Viscomi, Mário Sérgio Bombarda Júnior
BACKGROUND: Peri-orbital dark circles are a cosmetic concern worldwide, and have been attributed to hyperpigmentation from allergy or atopic dermatitis, blood stasis, structural shadowing effects, and a thin epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark circles. OBJECTIVE: To compare by non-invasive imaging the impact of biological factors to a visual grading scale for Peri-orbital dark circles, and test the correlation of various demographic factors with Peri-orbital dark circles...
July 2015: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
S R Park, H J Kim, H K Park, J Y Kim, N S Kim, K S Byun, T K Moon, J W Byun, J H Moon, G S Choi
BACKGROUND: Dark circles refer to a symptom that present darkness under the eyes. Because of improvement in the quality of life, the dark circles have been recognized as one of major cosmetic concerns. However, it is not easy to classify the dark circles because they have various causes. METHODS: To select suitable instruments and detailed evaluation items, the dark circles were classified according to the causes through visual assessment, Wood's lamp test, and medical history survey for 100 subjects with dark circles...
August 2016: Skin Research and Technology
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