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Iatrogen infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#1
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415945/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-endophthalmitis-caused-by-accidental-iatrogenic-ocular-injury-with-a-hypodermic-needle
#2
Cheng-Wei Lu, Ji-Long Hao, Xiu-Fen Liu, Ling-Ling Liang, Dan-Dan Zhou
Iatrogenic traumatic endophthalmitis is a rare but serious ocular infection that can lead to severe vision loss. A 44-year-old man presented with pain and decreased vision in the right eye 4 hours after injury with a hypodermic needle during irrigation of his eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed a penetrating corneal puncture and iris hole in the right eye. Twenty hours later, his visual acuity had decreased to hand motion, and severe fibrinoid uveitis was noted. He immediately underwent irrigation of the anterior chamber and intravitreal antibiotic injection...
April 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414673/purulent-pericarditis-due-to-an-infected-pacemaker-lead
#3
Teresa Backes
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous drug users have a substantially increased risk of infective endocarditis, especially in the setting of implanted cardiac devices. Purulent pericarditis is a rare occurrence that can occur iatrogenically or through direct or hematogenous spread. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 75 year old man with a past medical history significant for hepatitis C, IV drug abuse, and sick sinus syndrome status post pacemaker was brought in by EMS with a chief complaint of diaphoresis and chest pain...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411962/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-malignancy-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#4
REVIEW
A Tak Manesh, G Azizi, A Heydari, F Kiaee, M Shaghaghi, N Hossein-Khannazer, R Yazdani, H Abolhassani, A Aghamohammadi
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a diagnostic category of primary immunodeficiency (PID) which may present with heterogeneous disorders including recurrent infections, autoimmunity, granulomatous diseases, lymphoid and other types of malignancies. Generally, the incidence of malignancy in CVID patients is around 1.5-20.7% and usually occurs during the 4th-6th decade of life. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most frequent malignancy, followed by epithelial tumours of stomach, breast, bladder and cervix...
April 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407245/transvaginal-primary-layered-repair-of-iatrogenic-vesicovaginal-fistula
#5
Rodolfo Milani, Matteo Frigerio, Stefano Manodoro
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a direct communication between the bladder and vagina. In high-income countries, VVF is associated with malignancy, radiation, and pelvic surgery [1]. Classical VVF presentation includes urinary leakage from the vagina, vulvovaginal irritation, and recurrent infections. The diagnosis of VVF is based on the observation of urinary leakage from the vagina, potentially after filling the bladder with dyed solution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387211/olanzapine-induced-pancytopenia-a-rare-but-worrying-complication
#6
N Pang, N Thrichelvam, K O Naing
Unlike clozapine, and despite its structural similarities, olanzapine is not usually associated with haematological suppression. Nonetheless this case report highlights an incident of olanzapine-induced thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in a first-contact patient. We report on a 50-year-old male who presented with 7 years of delusions and hallucinations. A diagnosis of schizophrenia was made in the absence of any suggestive features of mood disorders, substance abuse or organicity, and olanzapine as second-line treatment...
March 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386584/clinical-study-on-the-etiology-of-postthyroidectomy-skin-sinus-formation
#7
Shan Jin, Wuyuntu Bao, Oyungerel Borkhuu, Yun-Tian Yang
Background. Thyroidectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. Despite technical advances and high experience of thyroidectomy of specialized centers, it is still burdened by a significant rate of postoperative complications. Among them, the skin sinus formation is an extremely rare postthyroidectomy complication. Here, we first report the incidence of the skin sinus formation after thyroidectomy to identify the causes for skin sinus formation after thyroidectomy and to discuss its prevention and treatment options...
2017: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382905/hematospermia-a-symptom-with-many-possible-causes
#8
Michael J Mathers, Stefan Degener, Herbert Sperling, Stephan Roth
BACKGROUND: Hematospermia, or blood in the ejaculate, is a symptom with many possible causes that often gives rise to worry. Precise figures on its prevalence are unavailable. It is most common in men under 40, and its cause is usually benign; nonetheless, even a single episode of hematospermia calls for a basic diagnostic evaluation. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles re trieved by a search in PubMed with the key words "hemato spermia," "hemospermia," "ejaculation," "male semen," and "transrectal ultrasound...
March 17, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379721/adverse-events-in-hospitalised-cancer-patients-a-comparison-to-a-general-hospital-population
#9
Ellinor Christin Haukland, Christian von Plessen, Carsten Nieder, Barthold Vonen
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are often treated by many healthcare providers, receive complex and potentially toxic treatments that can increase the risk for iatrogenic harm. The aim of this study is to investigate whether hospitalised cancer patients are at higher risk of adverse events (AEs) compared to a general hospital population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6720 patient records were retrospectively reviewed comparing AEs in hospitalised cancer patients to a general hospital population in Norway, using the IHI Global Trigger Tool method...
April 5, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375516/host-pathogen-interface-progress-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-infection-due-to-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
The diverse responses of critically ill patients to infection with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are determined by many complex factors. These include the nature of the immune response activated by specific organisms. Properties unique to each organism such as adherence proteins, microvesicle formation, toxin production and the propensity to form biofilms are important factors in pathogenesis. Equally important is the variability in the host immune response, whether due to genetic or iatrogenic factors, including the presence of major comorbidities, treatment with immunomodulatory therapy and disruption of the microbiome...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373791/transcatheter-coil-embolization-of-iatrogenic-coronary-artery-left-ventricle-fistula-after-mitral-valve-replacement
#11
Ata Firuzi, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari, Hamid Reza Pouraliakbar
Acquired causes of coronary fistulas are rare disorders and may develop following coronary atherosclerosis, infection, or trauma (iatrogenic). Iatrogenic coronary fistulas may be acquired secondary to surgical or nonsurgical interventions. We describe a case of an iatrogenic coronary artery-left ventricle fistula following mitral valve replacement surgery, presented with ventricular arrhythmia and heart failure. In a unique technique, we implanted three coils with the aid of a Scepter C balloon with inflation at the ostial portion of the left circumflex artery...
April 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348622/cervical-lymphadenopathy-unwinding-the-hidden-truth
#12
Athira Aruna Ramadas, Renju Jose, Beena Varma, Marina Lazar Chandy
Lymphadenopathy is a common clinical finding in a patient seeking oral health care. It may be in a localized, limited, or generalized form. Malignancies, infections, autoimmune disorders, iatrogenic, and other miscellaneous conditions are considered as the causes for cervical lymphadenopathy. Unexplained cervical lymphadenopathy is a cause of concern for physician and patient because sometimes it could be the manifestation of an underlying malignancy. However, a methodological approach to lymphadenopathy can disclose the accurate diagnosis causing minimal discomfort for the patient and in a short time...
January 2017: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341069/open-surgery-versus-ultrasound-guided-corticosteroid-injection-for-trigger-finger-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-1-year-follow-up
#13
Rehne L Hansen, Morten Søndergaard, Jeppe Lange
PURPOSE: Trigger finger is a common condition with a lifetime prevalence of 2%. Corticosteroid injection is a treatment often considered as a first-line intervention with reported cure rates between 60% and 90% in observational cohorts. Nevertheless, open surgery remains the most effective treatment with reported cure rates near 100%. Head-to-head trials on these treatments are limited. We investigated the efficacy of open surgery compared with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338158/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-duodenal-injury-and-fistula
#14
Kunmei Gong, Shikui Guo, Kunhua Wang
Duodenal injury is a serious abdominal organ injury. Duodenal fistula is one of the most serious complications in gastrointestinal surgery, which is concerned for its critical status, difficulty in treatment and high mortality. Thoracic and abdominal compound closed injury and a small part of open injury are common causes of duodenal injury. Iatrogenic or traumatic injury, malnutrition, cancer, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease etc. are common causes of duodenal fistula, however, there has been still lacking of ideal diagnosis and treatment by now...
March 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333947/surgical-interventions-to-treat-humerus-shaft-fractures-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Jia-Guo Zhao, Jia Wang, Xiao-Hui Meng, Xian-Tie Zeng, Shi-Lian Kan
BACKGROUND: There are three main surgical techniques to treat humeral shaft fractures: open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF), intramedullary nail (IMN) fixation, and minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO). We performed a network meta-analysis to compare three surgical procedures, including ORPF, IMN fixation, and MIPO, to provide the optimum treatment for humerus shaft fractures. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, and Cochrane library were researched for reports published up to May 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333712/disseminated-lichtheimia-ramosa-infection-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-child-with-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#16
Michael Winstead, John Ozolek, Andrew Nowalk, John Williams, Mark Vander Lugt, Philana Lin
Mucormycosis is uncommon in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). We report a 7-year-old boy with X-linked CGD and absent oxidative burst who developed fatal Lichtheimia ramosa infection with fungal thrombosis of the kidneys, spleen, and other organs following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lichtheimia infection is rarely reported in patients with CGD and could be related to iatrogenic immunosuppression.
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332471/cjd-surveillance-in-the-republic-of-ireland-from-2005-to-2015-a-suggested-algorithm-for-referrals
#17
Teresa Loftus, Daphne Chen, Seamus Looby, Albi Chalissery, Rachel Howley, Ciara Heaney, Josephine Heffernan, Michael Farrell, Francesca Brett
Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD) remains tissue-based. Possible and probable CJD are useful clinical terms but may be used indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Irish surveillance system and to ascertain how diagnostic accuracy in identifying clinically "definite" cases might be improved. We reviewed the clinical information, relevant investigations, and samples n = 100; (autopsy n = 87; biopsy n = 13) in 96 patients between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332306/impact-of-iatrogenic-iron-overload-on-the-course-of-hepatitis-c-in-dialysis-population-a-plea-for-caution
#18
Guy Rostoker, Nosratola D Vaziri
About 2.5% of the world population, corresponding to about 177 million individuals, are infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), a small, single-stranded RNA virus. The prevalence of HCV infection among dialysis patients in Japan, Europe, and North America during the 2012 to 2015 period was found to be 8.7% in the DOPPS study. Nosocomial HCV spread in hemodialysis facilities still occurs. Increased hepatic tissue iron has been shown to play a deleterious role in the course of hepatitis C, favor development of fibrosis and cirrhosis and possibly increase the risk of liver cancer in the general population...
March 23, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331018/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-host-resulting-in-bandemia-and-death
#19
Aung Myint, Courtney Chapman, Isabel Almira-Suarez, Nupur Mehta
Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic but can result in a hyperinfection syndrome, most commonly triggered by acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression. Here, we present a case of a man aged 60 years originally from a strongyloides endemic area with a medical history of alcohol abuse who presents with strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) complicated by partial small bowel obstruction, pulmonary haemorrhage, large bandemia without eosinophilia and cardiac arrest resulting in death...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#20
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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