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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#1
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#2
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427747/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-for-aspiration-pneumonia-a-10-year-single-center-experience
#3
Hiromi Tomioka, Shyuji Yamashita, Nobuaki Mamesaya, Masahiro Kaneko
BACKGROUND: The significance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with aspiration pneumonia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of aspiration pneumonia patients who underwent PEG. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized with pneumonia who underwent PEG from 2005 to 2014. RESULTS: Of 2281 cases of pneumonia, 92 patients with aspiration pneumonia underwent PEG during their hospital stay...
May 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424287/protective-efficacy-of-formaldehyde-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccine-and-antivirals-in-a-murine-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection
#4
Zhenjie Zhang, Zhaopeng Dong, Juan Li, Michael J Carr, Dongming Zhuang, Jianxing Wang, Yawei Zhang, Shujun Ding, Yigang Tong, Dong Li, Weifeng Shi
Coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). CVA10 infection can cause herpangina and viral pneumonia, which can be complicated by severe neurological sequelae. Morbidity and mortality of CVA10-associated HFMD has been increasing in recent years, particularly in the pan-Pacific region. There are limited studies however on the pathogenesis and immunology of CVA10-associated HFMD infections, and few antiviral drugs or vaccines have been reported...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424241/microbiota-induced-antibodies-are-essential-for-host-inflammatory-responsiveness-to-sterile-and-infectious-stimuli
#5
Daniel Cisalpino, Caio T Fagundes, Camila B Brito, Fernando R Ascenção, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Angélica T Vieira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Flávio A Amaral, Leda Q Vieira, Jacques R Nicoli, Mauro M Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
The indigenous intestinal microbiota is frequently considered an additional major organ of the human body and exerts profound immunomodulating activities. Germ-free (GF) mice display a significantly different inflammatory responsiveness pattern compared with conventional (CV) mice, and this was dubbed a "hyporesponsive phenotype." Taking into account that the deposition of immune complexes is a major event in acute inflammation and that GF mice have a distinct Ig repertoire and B cell activity, we aimed to evaluate whether this altered Ig repertoire interferes with the inflammatory responsiveness of GF mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421062/identification-of-rare-pb2-d701n-mutation-from-a-patient-with-severe-influenza-contribution-of-the-pb2-d701n-mutation-to-the-pathogenicity-of-human-influenza
#6
Amelia Nieto, Francisco Pozo, Matxalen Vidal-García, Manuel Omeñaca, Inmaculada Casas, Ana Falcón
Several amino acid changes have been previously implicated in adaptation of avian influenza viruses to human hosts, among them the D701N change in the PB2 polymerase subunit that also is the main determinant of avian virus pathogenesis in animal models. However, previous studies using recombinant viruses did not provide conclusive information of the contribution of this PB2 residue to pathogenicity in human influenza virus strains. We identified this mutation in an A(H1N1)pdm09-like human influenza virus isolated from an infected patient with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, admitted to the intensive care unit...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420838/factors-associated-with-pneumonia-caused-death-in-older-adults-with-autopsy-confirmed-dementia
#7
Toshie Manabe, Katsuyoshi Mizukami, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Koichiro Kudo, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Objective A better understanding of risk factors for pneumonia-caused death may help to improve the clinical management of dementia. Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted by reviewing the medical charts and autopsy reports of 204 patients who were admitted to hospital, underwent a post-mortem examination, and who were neuropathologically diagnosed with dementia. The risk factors for pneumonia-caused death were examined both as underlying and immediate causes of death using logistic regression models...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416569/association-between-smoking-and-health-outcomes-in-an-economically-deprived-population-the-liverpool-lung-project
#8
F C Sherratt, J K Field, M W Marcus
BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and several health outcomes among those from the most deprived communities in the UK has not previously been detailed. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of smoking on health outcomes specifically among a particularly deprived population in a developed country (Liverpool; one of the most deprived local authorities in England). METHODS: The Liverpool Lung Project recruited a prospective cohort of 8753 participants from across Liverpool, aged 45-79 years between 1998 and 2008...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416558/in-vitro-discordance-with-in-vivo-activity-humanized-exposures-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-aztreonam-and-tigecycline-alone-and-in-combination-against-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-murine-lung-infection-model
#9
M L Monogue, L M Abbo, R Rosa, J F Camargo, O Martinez, R A Bonomo, D P Nicolau
The management of infections with New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM) producing bacteria remains clinically challenging given the multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype associated with these bacteria. Despite resistance in vitro, ceftazidime-avibactam previously demonstrated in vivo activity against NDM+ Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we observed in vitro synergy with ceftazidime-avibactam and aztreonam against a MDR K. pneumoniae harboring NDM. In vivo, humanized doses of ceftazidime-avibactam monotherapy resulted in > 2 log10CFU bacterial reduction, therefore, no in vivo synergy was observed...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415997/dusuqing-granules-dsq-suppress-inflammation-in-klebsiella-pneumonia-rat-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-signaling
#10
Xue Mei, Hao-Xun Wang, Jian-Sheng Li, Xiao-Hui Liu, Xiao-Fan Lu, Ya Li, Wei-Yu Zhang, Yan-Ge Tian
BACKGROUND: Dusuqing granules (DSQ) have been used in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia clinically, with remarkable benefits. This study was initiated to explore the effects of DSQ on pulmonary inflammation by regulating nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bacterial pneumonia rats. METHODS: Rat model was duplicated with Klebsiella pneumonia by a one-time intratracheal injection. Rats were randomized into control, model, DSQ and levofloxacin (LVX) groups...
April 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415969/carbapenem-resistance-inappropriate-empiric-treatment-and-outcomes-among-patients-hospitalized-with-enterobacteriaceae-urinary-tract-infection-pneumonia-and-sepsis
#11
Marya D Zilberberg, Brian H Nathanson, Kate Sulham, Weihong Fan, Andrew F Shorr
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance among gram-negative pathogens is a risk factor for inappropriate empiric treatment (IET), which in turn increases the risk for mortality. We explored the impact of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) on the risk of IET and of IET on outcomes in patients with Enterobacteriaceae infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Premier Perspective database (2009-2013) of 175 US hospitals. We included all adult patients with community-onset culture-positive urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, or sepsis as a principal diagnosis, or as a secondary diagnosis in the setting of respiratory failure, treated with antibiotics within 2 days of admission...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413484/inhibitor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-protein-therapy-alleviates-severe-pneumonia-through-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
Haizhou Xu, Bing Mei, Meitang Wang, Shuogui Xu
To investigate the effect of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) on severe pneumonia and explain the mechanisms of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), the activation of NF-κB was induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The rats were then treated with differing concentrations of IκBα protein. A histological analysis was performed to compare the lung structure prior to and following treatment, and an immunohistochemistry assay was used to detect NF-κB activity. In addition, the expression of certain inflammatory factors was detected using a protein chip assay...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411288/predicting-30-day-pneumonia-readmissions-using-electronic-health-record-data
#13
Anil N Makam, Oanh Kieu Nguyen, Christopher Clark, Song Zhang, Bin Xie, Mark Weinreich, Eric M Mortensen, Ethan A Halm
BACKGROUND: Readmissions after hospitalization for pneumonia are common, but the few risk-prediction models have poor to modest predictive ability. Data routinely collected in the electronic health record (EHR) may improve prediction. OBJECTIVE: To develop pneumonia-specific readmission risk-prediction models using EHR data from the first day and from the entire hospital stay ("full stay"). DESIGN: Observational cohort study using stepwise-backward selection and cross-validation...
April 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410368/comprehensive-bioinformatics-analysis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-genomes-to-investigate-underlying-population-structure-and-type-specific-determinants
#14
Maureen H Diaz, Heta P Desai, Shatavia S Morrison, Alvaro J Benitez, Bernard J Wolff, Jason Caravas, Timothy D Read, Deborah Dean, Jonas M Winchell
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Despite a minimal and highly conserved genome, genetic diversity within the species may impact disease. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 107 M. pneumoniae isolates, including 67 newly sequenced using the Pacific BioSciences RS II and/or Illumina MiSeq sequencing platforms. Comparative genomic analysis of 107 genomes revealed >3,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in total, including 520 type-specific SNPs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409125/colibactin-contributes-to-the-hypervirulence-of-pks-k1-cc23-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-meningitis-infections
#15
Min-Chi Lu, Ying-Tsong Chen, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yao-Chen Wang, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Yi-Jhen Huang, Ching-Ting Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Chih-Lung Liang, Yi-Chyi Lai
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired meningitis in Taiwan. However, the lack of a physiologically relevant meningitis model for K. pneumoniae has impeded research into its pathogenesis mechanism. Based on the core genome MLST analyses, the hypervirulent K1 K. pneumoniae strains, which are etiologically implicated in adult meningitis, mostly belong to a single clonal complex, CC23. Some K1 CC23 K. pneumoniae strains carry a gene cluster responsible for colibactin production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408366/acute-brain-trauma-lung-injury-and-pneumonia-more-than-just-altered-mental-status-and-decreased-airway-protection
#16
Parker J Hu, Jean-Francois Pittet, Jeffrey D Kerby, Patrick L Bosarge, Brant M Wagener
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Even when patients survive the initial insult, there is significant morbidity and mortality secondary to subsequent pulmonary edema, acute lung injury and nosocomial pneumonia. While the relationship between TBI and secondary pulmonary complications is recognized, little is known about the mechanistic interplay of the two phenomena. Changes in mental status secondary to acute brain injury certainly impair airway- and lung-protective mechanisms...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408365/immunomodulators-targeting-marco-expression-improve-resistance-to-post-influenza-bacterial-pneumonia
#17
Muzo Wu, John G Gibbons, Glen M Deloid, Alice S Bedugnis, Rajesh K Thimmulappa, Shyam Biswal, Lester Kobzik
Down-regulation of the alveolar macrophage (AM) macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) leads to susceptibility to post-influenza bacterial pneumonia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether immunomodulation of MARCO could improve host defense and resistance to secondary bacterial pneumonia. RNAseq analysis identified a striking increase of MARCO expression between days 9 and 11 after influenza infection and indicated important roles for Akt and Nrf2 in MARCO recovery...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400957/sociodemographic-behavioral-and-environmental-factors-of-child-mortality-in-eastern-region-of-cameroon-results-from-a-social-autopsy-study
#18
Alain K Koffi, Romain S Wounang, Félicitée Nguefack, Seidou Moluh, Paul-Roger Libite, Henry D Kalter
BACKGROUND: While most child deaths are caused by highly preventable and treatable diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria, several sociodemographic, cultural and health system factors work against children surviving from these diseases. METHODS: A retrospective verbal/social autopsy survey was conducted in 2012 to measure the biological causes and social determinants of under-five years old deaths from 2007 to 2010 in Doume, Nguelemendouka, and Abong-Mbang health districts in the Eastern Region of Cameroon...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400955/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-revised-who-guidelines-for-management-of-childhood-pneumonia-in-74-countdown-countries
#19
Shanshan Zhang, Beatrice Incardona, Shamim A Qazi, Karin Stenberg, Harry Campbell, Harish Nair
BACKGROUND: Treatment of childhood pneumonia is a key priority in low-income countries, with substantial resource implications. WHO revised their guidelines for the management of childhood pneumonia in 2013. We estimated and compared the resource requirements, total direct medical cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood pneumonia management in 74 countries with high burden of child mortality (Countdown countries) using the 2005 and 2013 revised WHO guidelines. METHODS: We constructed a cost model using a bottom up approach to estimate the cost of childhood pneumonia management using the 2005 and 2013 WHO guidelines from a public provider perspective in 74 Countdown countries...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400189/predicting-complications-following-robot-assisted-partial-nephrectomy-with-the-acs-nsqip-universal-surgical-risk-calculator
#20
Jared S Winoker, David J Paulucci, Harry Anastos, Nikhil Waingankar, Ronney Abaza, Daniel D Eun, Akshay Bhandari, Ashok K Hemal, John P Sfakianos, Ketan K Badani
PURPOSE: We evaluated the predictive value of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) surgical risk calculator in a tertiary referral cohort of patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried our prospectively maintained multi-institutional database of RAPN patients and input the preoperative details of 300 randomly selected patients into the calculator. Accuracy of the calculator was assessed by receiver-operator area under the curve (AUC) and also by Brier score (BS)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Urology
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