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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666203/efficacy-and-safety-of-pulmonary-application-of-corticosteroids-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mahin Delara, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Mê-Linh Le, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanski, Geert W 'tJong
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids as the frontline treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants are associated with adverse effects on growth and neurodevelopmental outcome, but the pulmonary administration of steroids may help prevent the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) without these side effects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulmonary application of corticosteroids in preterm infants with RDS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665442/carbapenems-versus-alternative-%C3%AE-lactams-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Jenna Lopez, Rebecca Jett, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems have demonstrated efficacy in treating nosocomial pneumonias in clinical trials despite a reported low lung penetration compared to other β-lactams. Preserving the clinical activity of carbapenems through stewardship efforts is essential. This review aims to identify if differences in outcomes exist, potentially as a function of decreased penetration. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for clinical trials comparing carbapenems to other anti-pseudomonal β-lactams for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia through December 2016...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665161/poverty-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-study-in-a-developing-country-population
#3
Hassan Jahanihashemi, Mona Babaie, Soroush Bijani, Maryam Bazzazan, Behzad Bijani
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most severe lower respiratory tract infections with a high in-hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and medical risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pneumonia. The results of this study can mention the value of socioeconomic backgrounds like poverty and illiteracy in clinical practice, even in a well-known biological phenomenon (eg acute pneumonia). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all admitted patients to a tertiary teaching hospital with a diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia in a 12-month period were enrolled...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664837/chronic-alcohol-ingestion-worsens-survival-and-alters-gut-epithelial-apoptosis-and-cd8-t-cell-function-after-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia-induced-sepsis
#4
Nathan J Klingensmith, Katherine T Fay, John D Lyons, Ching-Wen Chen, Shunsuke Otani, Zhe Liang, Deena B Chihade, Eileen M Burd, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Mortality is higher in septic patients with a history of alcohol use disorder than in septic patients without a history of chronic alcohol usage. We have previously described a model of chronic alcohol ingestion followed by sepsis from cecal ligation and puncture in which alcohol-fed septic mice have higher mortality than water-fed septic mice, associated with altered gut integrity and increased production of TNF and IFNγ by splenic CD4 T cells without alterations in CD8 T cell function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this represents a common host response to the combination of alcohol and sepsis by creating a new model in which mice with chronic alcohol ingestion were subjected to a different model of sepsis...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664370/antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-hospitalized-children-cambodia-2007-2016
#5
Andrew Fox-Lewis, Junko Takata, Thyl Miliya, Yoel Lubell, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Kolthida Rith, Gregor McKellar, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Erin McGonagle, Nicole Stoesser, Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry, Claudia Turner, Nicholas P J Day, Ben S Cooper, Paul Turner
To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663160/swallowing-dysfunction-as-risk-factor-for-undernutrition-in-older-people-admitted-to-swedish-short-term-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Patricia Hägglund, Anna Fält, Mary Hägg, Per Wester, Eva Levring Jäghagen
BACKGROUND: Swallowing dysfunction and risk of undernutrition increase the risk of pneumonia, morbidity, and mortality. Short-term care is an unexplored care context, where many older people stay yearly. AIM: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe and analyze the relationship between swallowing dysfunction and risk of undernutrition among older people in short-term care, including potential gender-related differences. METHODS: In total, 391 people (209 women), aged ≥ 65 years (median age 84 years) and admitted to short-term care in five Swedish counties participated...
April 16, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662839/the-saposin-like-protein-apld-displays-pore-forming-activity-and-participates-in-defense-against-bacterial-infection-during-a-multicellular-stage-of-dictyostelium-discoideum
#7
Ranjani Dhakshinamoorthy, Moritz Bitzhenner, Pierre Cosson, Thierry Soldati, Matthias Leippe
Due to their archaic life style and microbivor behavior, amoebae may represent a source of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. The amoebic protozoon Dictyostelium discoideum has been a model organism in cell biology for decades and has recently also been used for research on host-pathogen interactions and the evolution of innate immunity. In the genome of D. discoideum , genes can be identified that potentially allow the synthesis of a variety of antimicrobial proteins. However, at the protein level only very few antimicrobial proteins have been characterized that may interact directly with bacteria and help in fighting infection of D...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662129/intracellular-replication-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-inside-splenic-macrophages-serves-as-a-reservoir-for-septicaemia
#8
Giuseppe Ercoli, Vitor E Fernandes, Wen Y Chung, Joseph J Wanford, Sarah Thomson, Christopher D Bayliss, Kornelis Straatman, Paul R Crocker, Ashley Dennison, Luisa Martinez-Pomares, Peter W Andrew, E Richard Moxon, Marco R Oggioni
Bacterial septicaemia is a major cause of mortality, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In experimental pneumococcal murine intravenous infection, an initial reduction of bacteria in the blood is followed hours later by a fatal septicaemia. These events represent a population bottleneck driven by efficient clearance of pneumococci by splenic macrophages and neutrophils, but as we show in this study, accompanied by occasional intracellular replication of bacteria that are taken up by a subset of CD169+ splenic macrophages...
April 16, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656888/animal-models-of-acute-otitis-media-a-review-with-practical-implications-for-laboratory-research
#9
N H Davidoss, Y K Varsak, P L Santa Maria
Considerable animal research has focused on developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Several experimental models of AOM have thus been developed. A PubMed search of the English literature was conducted from 1975 to July 2016 using the search terms "animal model" and "otitis media" from which 91 published studies were included for analysis, yielding 123 animal models. The rat, mouse and chinchilla are the preferred animals for experimental AOM models with their individual advantages and disadvantages...
April 12, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652785/clinical-prediction-rule-for-heterotopic-ossification-of-the-hip-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Eduardo M Suero, Mustafa Citak
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; clinical prediction rule. OBJECTIVE: To construct and internally validate a clinical prediction rule to identify patients at high risk of developing heterotopic ossification (HO) after spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: HO after SCI can lead to loss of joint mobility, loss of function, peripheral nerve entrapment, and pressure sores. HO is usually diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, as no laboratory tests are yet available to identify patients with early HO formation...
April 12, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650555/noninfectious-lung-complications-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Anne Bergeron, Sylvie Chevret, Régis Peffault de Latour, Karine Chagnon, Constance de Margerie-Mellon, Frédéric Rivière, Marie Robin, Jean Mani, Gwenael Lorillon, Gérard Socié, Abdellatif Tazi
Epidemiological data on late noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are derived exclusively from retrospective studies and conflicting. We aimed to evaluate prospectively their incidence, risk factors and outcomes.All consecutive patients scheduled to receive allogeneic HSCT between 2006 and 2008, at the university-teaching Saint Louis Hospital (Paris, France) were screened for inclusion. Eligible patients were those surviving at day 100...
April 12, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650202/impact-of-family-empowerment-model-on-satisfaction-and-children-s-length-of-stay-in-hospital
#12
Nani Nurhaeni, Yeni Rustina, Nur Agustini, Novi Enis Rosuliana
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of family empowerment model intervention on family satisfaction and children's length of stay in the hospital due to pneumonia. METHOD: The design of the study was that of a quasi-experiment. About 83 family-child groups were divided into 42 pair in the intervention group and 41 pair in the control group; which were recruited using consecutive sampling using certain inclusion criteria. Three district hospitals in Jakarta were used in this study...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649952/cefquinome-loaded-microsphere-formulations-against-klebsiella-pneumonia-infection-during-experimental-infections
#13
Shaoqi Qu, Cunchun Dai, Jiajia Zhu, Li Zhao, Yuwen Li, Zhihui Hao
The aim of this study was to prepare cefquinome-loaded polylactic acid microspheres and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo characteristics and pharmacodynamics for the therapy of pneumonia in a rat model. Microspheres were prepared using a 0.7 mm two-fluid nozzle spray drier in one step resulting in spherical and smooth microspheres of uniform size (9.8 ± 3.6 μm). The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of cefquinome were 91.6 ± 2.6% and 18.7 ± 1.2%, respectively. In vitro release of cefquinome from the microspheres was sustained for 36 h...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649555/paradoxical-acinetobacter-associated-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-incidences-within-prevention-studies-using-respiratory-tract-applications-of-topical-polymyxin-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#14
James C Hurley
BACKGROUND: Regimens containing topical polymyxin appear more effective in preventing Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) than other methods. AIM: To benchmark the incidences Acinetobacter associated VAP (AAVAP) within component (control and intervention) groups from concurrent controlled studies of polymyxin versus studies of various VAP prevention methods other than polymyxin (non-PM studies). METHODS: An AAVAP benchmark was derived using data from 75 observational groups without any VAP prevention method under study...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649227/from-kitchen-to-classroom-assessing-the-impact-of-cleaner-burning-biomass-fuelled-cookstoves-on-primary-school-attendance-in-karonga-district-northern-malawi
#15
Christine A Kelly, Amelia C Crampin, Kevin Mortimer, Albert Dube, Jullita Malava, Deborah Johnston, Elaine Unterhalter, Judith R Glynn
Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644481/efficacious-cefazolin-prophylactic-dose-for-morbidly-obese-women-undergoing-bariatric-surgery-based-on-evidence-from-subcutaneous-microdialysis-and-populational-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#16
Eduardo Celia Palma, Nelson Guardiola Meinhardt, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Isabela Heineck, Maria Isabel Fischer, BibianaVerlindo de Araújo, Teresa Dalla Costa
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacious cefazolin prophylactic dose for bariatric surgery using free subcutaneous concentrations accessed by microdialysis after 2 g or 3 g i.v. bolus dosing to morbidly obese women and POPPK modeling. METHODS: A POPPK model with variable plasma and subcutaneous tissue protein binding was developed to simultaneously describe plasma and tissue data sets. The outcomes was predicted for common surgical site infection (SSI) bacteria over 3, 4, 5 and 6 h periods postdose, as probability of target attainment (PTA) using Monte Carlo simulation...
April 11, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643440/bacterial-pore-forming-toxins-promote-the-activation-of-caspases-in-parallel-to-necroptosis-to-enhance-alarmin-release-and-inflammation-during-pneumonia
#17
Norberto Gonzalez-Juarbe, Kelley M Bradley, Ashleigh N Riegler, Luis F Reyes, Terry Brissac, Sang-Sang Park, Marcos I Restrepo, Carlos J Orihuela
Pore-forming toxins are the most common virulence factor in pathogenic bacteria. They lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Herein, we show that respiratory epithelial cells (REC) undergoing bacterial pore-forming toxin (PFT)-induced necroptosis simultaneously experienced caspase activation independently of RIPK3. MLKL deficient REC treated with a pan-caspase inhibitor were protected in an additive manner against PFT-induced death. Subsequently, cleaved versions of caspases-2, -4 and -10 were detected within REC undergoing necroptosis by immunoblots and monoclonal antibody staining...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642622/colibactin-more-than-a-new-bacterial-toxin
#18
REVIEW
Tiphanie Faïs, Julien Delmas, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Guillaume Dalmasso
Cyclomodulins are bacterial toxins that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle. A new cyclomodulin called colibactin, which is synthetized by the pks genomic island, was discovered in 2006. Despite many efforts, colibactin has not yet been purified, and its structure remains elusive. Interestingly, the pks island is found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ) isolated from different origins, including from intestinal microbiota, septicaemia, newborn meningitis, and urinary tract infections...
April 10, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629769/developing-equipotent-teixobactin-analogues-against-drug-resistant-bacteria-and-discovering-a-hydrophobic-interaction-between-lipid-ii-and-teixobactin
#19
Yu Zong, Xiuyun Sun, Hongying Gao, Kirsten J Meyer, Kim Lewis, Yu Rao
Teixobactin, targeting lipid II, represents a new class of antibiotics with novel structures and has excellent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We developed a new convergent method to synthesize a series of teixobactin analogues and explored structure-activity relationships. We obtained equipotent and simplified teixobactin analogues, replacing the l- allo-enduracididine with lysine, substituting oxygen to nitrogen on threonine, and adding a phenyl group on the d-phenylalanine. On the basis of the antibacterial activities that resulted from corresponding modifications of the d-phenylalanine, we propose a hydrophobic interaction between lipid II and the N-terminal of teixobactin analogues, which we map out with our analogue 35...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628376/childhood-predictors-of-lung-function-trajectories-and-future-copd-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study-from-the-first-to-the-sixth-decade-of-life
#20
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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