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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040215/role-of-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-regulating-lung-fluid-balance-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-infection-related-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Hao Wang, Tao Wang, Zhicheng Yuan, Yufang Cao, Yongfang Zhou, Junyun He, Yongchun Shen, Ni Zeng, Luqi Dai, Fuqiang Wen, Lei Chen
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its role in pulmonary edema formation remains unclear, especially in infection-related ARDS mainly caused by pneumonia or sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of RAGE in alveolar fluid regulation by using RAGE gene knockout (RAGE) mice in a murine ALI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and by comparing soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) between ARDS patients and control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038424/frequency-dependent-selection-in-vaccine-associated-pneumococcal-population-dynamics
#2
Jukka Corander, Christophe Fraser, Michael U Gutmann, Brian Arnold, William P Hanage, Stephen D Bentley, Marc Lipsitch, Nicholas J Croucher
Many bacterial species are composed of multiple lineages distinguished by extensive variation in gene content. These often cocirculate in the same habitat, but the evolutionary and ecological processes that shape these complex populations are poorly understood. Addressing these questions is particularly important for Streptococcus pneumoniae, a nasopharyngeal commensal and respiratory pathogen, because the changes in population structure associated with the recent introduction of partial-coverage vaccines have substantially reduced pneumococcal disease...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038123/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-l34-attenuates-gut-translocation-induced-bacterial-sepsis-in-murine-models-of-leaky-gut
#3
Wimonrat Panpetch, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Kanthika Bootdee, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well-known but the role of the probiotics, Lactobacillus spp., is still controversial. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 in a new sepsis model of oral administration of pathogenic bacteria, with GI leakage induced by either an antibiotic cocktail (ATB) and/or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).GI-leakage with ATB, DSS and DSS+ATB was demonstrated by FITC-dextran translocation to the circulation. Administration of pathogenic bacteria, either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, enhanced the translocation...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037396/maternal-exposure-to-ambient-air-temperature-during-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-pneumonia
#4
Yufeng Miao, Yong-Ming Shen, Chan Lu, Ji Zeng, Qihong Deng
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia has been widely recognized as the leading cause of death in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between maternal exposure to ambient air temperature during pregnancy and lifetime pneumonia in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 2598 preschool children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed using questionnaire...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034688/end-of-life-characteristics-and-palliative-care-provision-for-patients-with-motor-neuron-disease
#5
Hon Wai Benjamin Cheng, Oi Man Iman Chan, Chun Hung Red Chan, Wan Hung Chan, Koon Sim Fung, Kar Yin Wong
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease and manifested as progressive decline in physical, respiratory, swallowing and communication function, and ultimately death. Traditional model of care was fragmented and did not match with multifacet needs of patients and carers. Furthermore, there could be lack of integrated care at end of life for patients with MND in most lower- and middle-income countries or in places with inadequate palliative care (PC) coverage. In view of this, a special workgroup for patients with MND, which includes neurologist, respiratory physician, rehabilitation specialist, and PC physician was formed in Hong Kong since year 2011...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032897/prevnar-13-vaccine-failure-in-a-mouse-model-for-vitamin-a-deficiency
#6
Rhiannon R Penkert, Amy Iverson, Jason W Rosch, Julia L Hurwitz
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures...
November 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032522/comparative-characteristic-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-geriatric-hospital-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
G Goltsman, E H Mizrahi, A Leibovitz, G Gal, O Gorelik, E Lubart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To examine antimicrobial resistance of commonly isolated pathogens in elderly hospitalized patients. METHODS: Data regarding all clinically significant isolates from blood and urine cultures of patients admitted to a multilevel geriatric hospital during March 2015 to April 2016 were collected. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. RESULTS: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common isolates, with proportions of extended spectrum beta-lactamase positivity of 60, 40, and 61% respectively...
October 14, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031617/steroid-sparing-effects-of-doxofylline
#8
Yanira Riffo-Vasquez, Radhakrishnan Venkatasamy, Clive P Page
Glucocorticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are growing concerns about the side effect profile of this class of drug, particularly an increased risk of pneumonia. Over the last two decades there have been many attempts to find drugs to allow a reduction of glucocorticosteroids, including xanthines such as theophylline. Use of xanthines has been shown to lead to a reduction in the requirement for glucocorticosteroids, although xanthines also have a narrow therapeutic window limiting their wider use...
October 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030637/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-binding-and-specificity-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-sortase-c-enzymes-for-pilin-subunits
#9
Emmanuel B Naziga, Jeff Wereszczynski
Pili are elongated structures that protrude from bacteria and increase their virulence. The Streptococcus pnuenomae pilus island 1 pili are composed of three subunits, RrgA, RrgB, and RrgC, and are assembled by three class C sortase C (SrtC) enzymes: SrtC-1, SrtC-2, and SrtC-3. Pilin subunits are recognized by SrtC proteins through a pentapeptide sorting signal, and while previous studies have sought to characterize the selectivities of SrtC isoforms for these subunits, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain unclear...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030310/dysphagia-in-nursing-homes-results-from-the-nutritionday-project
#10
Melanie Streicher, Rainer Wirth, Karin Schindler, Cornel Christian Sieber, Michael Hiesmayr, Dorothee Volkert
OBJECTIVES: Dysphagia is a major healthcare problem as it increases the risk of malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and death. The aims of this analysis of data from nursing homes (NHs) worldwide were to examine prevalence rates of dysphagia, to identify characteristics of residents with dysphagia, and to describe which type of nutrition residents with dysphagia receive. DESIGN: One-day cross-sectional study, repeated in yearly intervals since 2007...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026876/avoiding-icu-admission-by-using-a-fast-track-protocol-is-safe-in-selected-adult-to-adult-live-donor-liver-transplant-recipients
#11
Juan Echeverri, Nicolas Goldaracena, Akhil Kant Singh, Gonzalo Sapisochin, Nazia Selzner, Mark S Cattral, Paul D Greig, Les Lilly, Ian D McGilvray, Gary A Levy, Anand Ghanekar, Eberhard L Renner, David R Grant, Stuart A McCluskey, Markus Selzner
BACKGROUND: We evaluated patient characteristics of live donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients undergoing a fast-track protocol without intensive care unit (ICU) admission versus LDLT patients receiving posttransplant ICU care. METHODS: Of the 153 LDLT recipients, 46 patients were included in our fast-track protocol without ICU admission. Both, fast-tracked patients and ICU-admitted patients were compared regarding donor and patient characteristics, perioperative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes and complications...
October 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024796/comparative-analysis-of-clinics-pathologies-and-immune-responses-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6j-mice-infected-with-streptobacillus-moniliformis
#12
Juliane Fornefett, Jaqueline Krause, Kristin Klose, Felix Fingas, Rayk Hassert, Tobias Eisenberg, Wieland Schrödl, Thomas Grunwald, Uwe Müller, Christoph G Baums
Streptobacillus (S.) moniliformis is a rat-associated zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes disease in other species. We investigated the working hypothesis that intranasal infection might lead to different immune responses in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice associated with distinct pathologies. This study confirmed with 75% mortality the known high susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to S. moniliformis infection in comparison to BALB/c mice which did not develop signs of disease. Main pathologies in C57BL/6 mice were purulent to necrotizing lymphadenitis and pneumonia...
October 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024319/prognostic-significance-of-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Hye S Kang, Kang W Cho, Soon S Kwon, Yong H Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) reflects the host systemic inflammatory response and is a validated independent prognostic factor in lung cancer. We investigated GPS as a potential predictive factor of clinical outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients with acute exacerbation (AE). METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed between January 2006 and March 2016 in Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea...
October 12, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023363/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-does-not-alter-atherosclerotic-plaque-area-or-inflammation-in-apoe3-leiden-mice-in-the-early-phase-up-to-15-days
#14
Wessel W Fuijkschot, Martine C Morrison, Ilse P A Zethof, Paul A J Krijnen, Robert Kleemann, Hans W M Niessen, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational studies show a peak incidence in cardiovascular events during and early after clinical conditions associated with substantial systemic inflammation, such as pneumonia. The acuteness of this increased risk suggests rapid plaque destabilization and associated intra-plaque inflammation. We evaluated whether LPS-evoked acute systemic inflammation would induce such detrimental vascular changes in murine aortas with manifest atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE3*Leiden mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 20 weeks to establish atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022382/opposing-effect-of-lactobacillus-on-in-vitro-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-biofilm-and-in-an-in-vivo-intestinal-colonisation-model
#15
R Lagrafeuille, S Miquel, D Balestrino, M Vareille-Delarbre, F Chain, P Langella, C Forestier
Beneficial bacteria represent potential sources of therapy, particularly in the battle against antibiotic-resistant pathogens. The Gram-negative bacillus Klebsiella pneumoniae is not only a paradigm of multi-resistant opportunistic pathogen, but it is also able to colonise the human intestine and displays a high capacity to form biofilm. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of 140 neutralised Lactobacillus supernatants was assessed against K. pneumoniae. Among the 13 strains whose supernatant significantly impaired biofilm formation, Lactobacillus plantarum CIRM653 was selected because it was also able to impair K...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021534/quorum-sensing-integrates-environmental-cues-cell-density-and-cell-history-to-control-bacterial-competence
#16
Stefany Moreno-Gámez, Robin A Sorg, Arnau Domenech, Morten Kjos, Franz J Weissing, G Sander van Doorn, Jan-Willem Veening
Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes competent for genetic transformation when exposed to an autoinducer peptide known as competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). This peptide was originally described as a quorum-sensing signal, enabling individual cells to regulate competence in response to population density. However, recent studies suggest that CSP may instead serve as a probe for sensing environmental cues, such as antibiotic stress or environmental diffusion. Here, we show that competence induction can be simultaneously influenced by cell density, external pH, antibiotic-induced stress, and cell history...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020471/culture-positive-endogenous-endophthalmitis-an-eleven-year-retrospective-study-in-the-central-region-of-thailand
#17
Sukhum Silpa-Archa, Alisa Ponwong, Janine M Preble, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To report the characteristics of infection and prognostic factors of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) over an 11-year period. METHODS: The clinical records of 41 eyes of 36 patients diagnosed with culture-proven EE at the Rajavithi Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Median age at presentation was 58 years. Liver abscess (19%) and urinary tract infections (19%) were the most common sources of infection. The most common causative agents were gram-negative organisms (48%)...
October 11, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020279/cost-drivers-of-a-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-and-ventilator-associated-bacterial-pneumonia-habp-vabp-phase-three-clinical-trial
#18
Stella Stergiopoulos, Sara B Calvert, Carrie A Brown, Josephine Awatin, Pamela Tenaerts, Thomas L Holland, Joseph A DiMasi, Kenneth A Getz
Background: Studies indicate that the prevalence of multi-drug resistant infections, including hospital acquired and ventilator associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), has been rising. There are many challenges associated with these disease conditions and the ability to develop new treatments. Additionally, HABP/VABP clinical trials are very costly to conduct given their complex protocol designs and the difficulty in recruiting and retaining patients. Methodology: With input from clinicians, representatives from industry, and the Food and Drug Administriation (FDA), we conducted a study to (1) evaluate the drivers of HABP/VABP phase 3 direct and indirect clinical trial costs, (2) to identify opportunities to lower these costs, and (3) to compare (1) and (2) to endocrine and oncology clinical trials...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020273/the-transmissibility-of-antibiotic-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-intensive-care-units
#19
Tanya Gurieva, Mirjam J D Dautzenberg, Marek Gniadkowski, Lennie P G Derde, Marc J M Bonten, Martin C J Bootsma
Background: The global emergence of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in intensive care units (ICUs) is, at least partly, driven by cross-transmission. Yet, individual transmission capacities of bacterial species have not been quantified. Methods: In this post-hoc analysis of a multicenter study in 13 European ICUs prospective surveillance data and a mathematical model were used to estimate transmission capacities and single admission reproduction numbers (RA) of Escherichia coli and non-E...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020218/pan-serotype-reduction-in-progression-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-otitis-media-after-rollout-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines
#20
Joseph A Lewnard, Noga Givon-Lavi, Daniel M Weinberger, Marc Lipsitch, Ron Dagan
Background: Reductions in otitis media (OM) burden following rollout of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have exceeded predictions of vaccine impact. In settings with active surveillance, reductions in OM caused by vaccine-targeted pneumococcal serotypes have co-occurred with reductions in OM caused by other pathogens carried in the upper-respiratory tract of children. To understand these changes, we investigated the progression of vaccine-targeted and non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes from carriage to OM before and after vaccine rollout...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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