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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106720/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-concentration-is-not-affected-by-severe-or-non-severe-pneumonia-or-inflammation-in-young-children
#1
Johanne Haugen, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Maria Mathisen, Sudha Basnet, Karl A Brokstad, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Prakash S Shrestha, Tor A Strand
Poor vitamin D status has been associated with increased risk and severity of respiratory tract infections. Whether or not inflammation and infection affects 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is controversial and is important in the interpretation of observational studies using plasma-25(OH)D as a biomarker for status. Our objectives were to measure whether 25(OH)D concentration was altered by an episode of acute lower respiratory tract infection and whether markers of inflammation predicted the 25(OH)D concentration...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103277/protection-elicited-by-nasal-immunization-with-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-rpspa-adjuvanted-with-whole-cell-pertussis-vaccine-wp-against-co-colonization-of-mice-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#2
Rafaella O Tostes, Tasson C Rodrigues, Josefa B da Silva, Alessandra S Schanoski, Maria Leonor S Oliveira, Eliane N Miyaji
A promising alternative vaccine candidate to reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases is the protein antigen PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A). Since concomitant colonization with two or more pneumococcal strains is very common in children, we aimed to determine if immunization with PspA would be able to control co-colonization. We evaluated nasal immunization with recombinant PspA (rPspA) in a model of co-colonization with two strains expressing different PspAs. Mice were immunized intranasally with rPspAs from clades 1 to 4 (rPspA1, rPspA2, rPspA3 or rPspA4) using whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP) as adjuvant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103139/endotoxin-neutralization-by-an-o-antigen-specific-monoclonal-antibody-a-potential-novel-therapeutic-approach-against-klebsiella-pneumoniaest258
#3
Valéria Szijártó, Luis M Guachalla, Katharina Hartl, Cecília Varga, Adriana Badarau, Irina Mirkina, Zehra C Visram, Lukas Stulik, Christine A Power, Eszter Nagy, Gábor Nagy
Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 is a globally distributed multi-drug resistant pathogen responsible for severe invasive infections. In this study, the different virulence potential of K. pneumoniae ST258 isolates in endotoxin susceptible versus resistant animal models was shown. Furthermore, ST258 clinical isolates were found highly sensitive to the bactericidal effect of naive animal and human serum. These observations imply that LPS, released from the rapidly lysed bacteria, may contribute to the high mortality associated with ST258 bacteremia cases...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102754/enhancement-of-antibody-functions-through-fc-multiplications
#4
Qun Wang, Yan Chen, Mark Pelletier, Romana Cvitkovic, Jessica Bonnell, Chien-Ying Chang, Adem C Koksal, Ellen O'Connor, Xizhe Gao, Xiang-Qing Yu, Herren Wu, C Kendall Stover, William F Dall'Acqua, Xiaodong Xiao
Antibodies carry out a plethora of functions through their crystallizable fragment (Fc) regions, which can be naturally tuned by the adoption of several isotypes and post-translational modifications. Protein engineering enables further Fc function modulations through modifications of the interactions between the Fc and its functional partners, including FcγR, FcRn, complement complex, and additions of auxiliary functional units. Due to the many functions embedded within the confinement of an Fc, a suitable balance must be maintained for a therapeutic antibody to be effective and safe...
January 19, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101913/nasopharyngeal-colonization-with-streptococcus%C3%A2-pneumoniae-triggers-dendritic-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-against-invasive-disease-in-mice
#5
Anne Dommaschk, Nadine Ding, Meritxell Tort Tarres, Lara F Bittersohl, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Danny Jonigk, Peter Braubach, Torsten Lippmann, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is an important precondition for the development of pneumococcal pneumonia. At the same time, nasopharyngeal colonization with Spn has been shown to mount adaptive immune responses against Spn in mice and humans. Cellular responses of the nasopharyngeal compartment, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), to pneumococcal colonization and their importance for developing adaptive immune responses are poorly defined. We show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100714/the-dynamics-of-the-pulmonary-microbiome-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-the-association-with-occurrence-of-pneumonia
#6
Tetyana Zakharkina, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sébastien Matamoros, Pedro Povoa, Antoni Torres, Janine B Kastelijn, Jorrit J Hofstra, B de Wever, Menno de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Peter J Sterk, Antonio Artigas, Lieuwe D J Bos
RATIONALE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the ICU. The adapted island model predicts several changes in the respiratory microbiome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that mechanical ventilation and antibiotic administration decrease the diversity of the respiratory microbiome and that these changes are more profound in patients who develop VAP. METHODS: Intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU-patients were included...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099388/valproic-acid-mitigates-the-inflammatory-response-and-prevents-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-murine-model-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-at-the-expense-of-bacterial-clearance
#7
George Kasotakis, Manuel Galvan, Elizabeth King, Beda Sarkar, Arthur Stucchi, Joseph P Mizgerd, Peter A Burke, Daniel Remick
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are members of a family of epigenetic modifying agents with broad anti-inflammatory properties. These anti-inflammatory properties may have important therapeutic implications in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, administration of HDACI may create an immunosuppressive environment conducive to bacterial growth. Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of HDACI Valproic Acid (VPA) on host inflammatory response and bacterial burden in a murine model of E...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099038/an-exome-sequencing-study-to-assess-the-role-of-rare-genetic-variation-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Slavé Petrovski, Jamie L Todd, Michael T Durheim, Quanli Wang, Jason W Chien, Fran L Kelly, Courtney Frankel, Caroline M Mebane, Zhong Ren, Joshua Bridgers, Thomas J Urban, Colin D Malone, Ashley Finlen Copeland, Christie Brinkley, Andrew S Allen, Thomas O'Riordan, John G McHutchison, Scott M Palmer, David B Goldstein
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an increasingly recognized, often fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We performed a case-control exome-wide collapsing analysis including 262 unrelated individuals with pulmonary fibrosis; clinically classified as IPF according to ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines (81...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097633/meropenem-dosing-based-on-a-population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-in-elderly-patients-with-infection-of-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#9
Qing-Tao Zhou, Bei He, Ning Shen, Ying Liang, Li-Na Sun
BACKGROUND: Meropenem is used for the treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the clinical benefits of a strategy of meropenem dosing based on a population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model in elderly patients with an LRTI. METHODS: In this prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial, 79 elderly patients with an LRTI caused by Gram-negative bacilli were randomized to a study group (SG) or a control group (CG)...
January 17, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096183/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-a-nana-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-synergizes-with-influenza-a-virus-in-nasal-colonization-and-middle-ear-infection
#10
John T Wren, Lance K Blevins, Bing Pang, Ankita Basu Roy, Melissa B Oliver, Jennifer L Reimche, Jessie E Wozniak, Martha A Alexander-Miller, W Edward Swords
Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S...
January 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#11
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095814/risk-factors-for-aspiration-pneumonia-after-definitive-chemoradiotherapy-or-bio-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-a-monocentric-case-control-study
#12
Sadayuki Kawai, Tomoya Yokota, Yusuke Onozawa, Satoshi Hamauchi, Akira Fukutomi, Hirofumi Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Onoe, Tetsuro Onitsuka, Takashi Yurikusa, Akiko Todaka, Takahiro Tsushima, Yukio Yoshida, Yosuke Kito, Keita Mori, Hirofumi Yasui
BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and bio-radiotherapy (BRT) are recognized as standard therapies for head and neck cancer (HNC). Aspiration pneumonia after CRT or BRT is a common late adverse event. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the cause-specific incidence of aspiration pneumonia after CRT or BRT and to identify its clinical risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 305 patients with locally advanced HNC treated by CRT or BRT between August 2006 and April 2015...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093837/effects-of-simulation-education-on-oral-care-practices%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Miia M Jansson, Hannu P Syrjälä, Pasi P Ohtonen, Merja H Meriläinen, Helvi A Kyngäs, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Implementation of evidence-based oral care protocols, nurse education programmes and assessment tools may reduce the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia by increasing critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in adhering to current oral care recommendations. AIMS: To evaluate the longitudinal effects of single-dose simulation education with structured debriefing and verbal feedback on critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in adhering to current oral care recommendations...
January 16, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090673/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-integration-and-modelling-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-porcine-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#14
L Dorey, L Pelligand, Z Cheng, P Lees
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (Cav0-48 h )/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089736/antibacterial-activity-of-limonium-brasiliense-baicuru-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-using-a-statistical-mixture-design
#15
Andressa Blainski, Barbara Gionco, Admilton G Oliveira, Galdino Andrade, Ieda S Scarminio, Denise B Silva, Norberto P Lopes, João C P Mello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been populary used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089635/venetoclax-plus-rituximab-in-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-phase-1b-study
#16
John F Seymour, Shuo Ma, Danielle M Brander, Michael Y Choi, Jacqueline Barrientos, Matthew S Davids, Mary Ann Anderson, Anne W Beaven, Steven T Rosen, Constantine S Tam, Betty Prine, Suresh K Agarwal, Wijith Munasinghe, Ming Zhu, L Leanne Lash, Monali Desai, Elisa Cerri, Maria Verdugo, Su Young Kim, Rod A Humerickhouse, Gary B Gordon, Thomas J Kipps, Andrew W Roberts
BACKGROUND: Selective BCL2 inhibition with venetoclax has substantial activity in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Combination therapy with rituximab enhanced activity in preclinical models. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of venetoclax in combination with rituximab. METHODS: Adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (according to the 2008 Modified International Workshop on CLL guidelines) or small lymphocytic lymphoma were eligible for this phase 1b, dose-escalation trial...
January 12, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089599/impact-of-oral-chlorhexidine-on-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
REVIEW
Luciano Silvestri, William I Weir, Dario Gregori, Nia Taylor, Durk F Zandstra, Joris J M van Saene, Hendrick K F van Saene
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal overgrowth of microorganisms in the critically ill is a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection and subsequent invasion of the bloodstream. Oral chlorhexidine has been used to prevent pneumonia, but its effect on bloodstream infection never has been assessed in meta-analyses. The authors explored the effect of oral chlorhexidine on the incidence of bloodstream infection, the causative microorganism, and on all-cause mortality in critically ill patients...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087547/risk-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-isolated-minor-rib-fractures-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#18
Sai-Wai Ho, Ying-Hock Teng, Shun-Fa Yang, Han-Wei Yeh, Yu-Hsun Wang, Ming-Chih Chou, Chao-Bin Yeh
OBJECTIVES: Isolated minor rib fractures (IMRFs) after blunt chest traumas are commonly observed in emergency departments. However, the relationship between IMRFs and subsequent pneumonia remains controversial. This nationwide cohort study investigated the association between IMRFs and the risk of pneumonia in patients with blunt chest traumas. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based cohort study. SETTING: Patients with IMRFs were identified between 2010 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#19
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081446/host-to-host-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-is-driven-by-its-inflammatory-toxin-pneumolysin
#20
M Ammar Zafar, Yang Wang, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Jeffrey N Weiser
Host-to-host transmission is a critical step for infection. Here we studied transmission of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model. Transmission from nasally colonized pups required high levels of bacterial shedding in nasal secretions and was temporally correlated with, and dependent upon, the acute inflammatory response. Pneumolysin, a pore-forming cytotoxin and major virulence determinant, was both necessary and sufficient to promote inflammation, which increased shedding and allowed for intralitter transmission...
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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