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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230970/the-dnabii-family-of-proteins-is-comprised-of-the-only-nucleoid-associated-proteins-required-for-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-structure
#1
Aishwarya Devaraj, John Buzzo, Christopher J Rocco, Lauren O Bakaletz, Steven D Goodman
Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone-like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI-induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biofilms from the middle ear...
December 12, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230684/imipenem-relebactam-and-meropenem-vaborbactam-two-novel-carbapenem-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#2
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Courtney K Lawrence, Heather Adam, Frank Schweizer, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael Zhanel, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew Walkty, Andrew Denisuik, Alyssa Golden, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Relebactam (formerly known as MK-7655) is a non-β-lactam, bicyclic diazabicyclooctane, β-lactamase inhibitor that is structurally related to avibactam, differing by the addition of a piperidine ring to the 2-position carbonyl group. Vaborbactam (formerly known as RPX7009) is a non-β-lactam, cyclic, boronic acid-based, β-lactamase inhibitor. The structure of vaborbactam is unlike any other currently marketed β-lactamase inhibitor. Both inhibitors display activity against Ambler class A [including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs)] and class C β-lactamases (AmpC)...
December 12, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229637/elucidating-the-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-aerosolized-colistin-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-mouse-lung-infection-model
#3
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Mei-Ling Han, Ke Chen, Nikolas J Onufrak, Jiping Wang, John D Turnidge, Benjamin P Howden, Alan Forrest, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of aerosolized colistin was investigated against Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae over 24 h in a neutropenic mouse lung infection model. Dose fractionation studies were performed over 2.64 to 23.8 mg/kg/day, and the data were fitted to a sigmoid inhibitory model. AUC/MIC in the epithelial lining fluid was the most predictive PK/PD index for aerosolized colistin against both pathogens. Our study provides important pharmacological information for optimizing aerosolized colistin...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228950/indacaterol-glycopyrronium-is-cost-effective-compared-to-salmeterol-fluticasone-in-copd-flame-based-modelling-in-a-swedish-population
#4
Leif Bjermer, Job F M van Boven, Madlaina Costa-Scharplatz, Dorothy L Keininger, Florian S Gutzwiller, Karin Lisspers, Ronan Mahon, Petter Olsson, Nicolas Roche
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year. METHODS: A previously published and validated patient-level simulation model was adapted using clinical data from the FLAME trial and real-world cost data from the ARCTIC study. Costs (total monetary costs comprising drug, maintenance, exacerbation, and pneumonia costs) and health outcomes (life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) were projected over various time horizons (1, 5, 10 years, and lifetime) from the Swedish payer's perspective and were discounted at 3% annually...
December 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228178/genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-hypermucoviscous-hypervirulent-and-mdr-ctx-m-15-k19-st29-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-human-infection
#5
Quézia Moura, Fernanda Esposito, Miriam R Fernandes, Maria Espinoza-Muñoz, Tiago A Souza, Silvia R Santos, Louise Cerdeira, Valéria Cassettari, Nilton Lincopan
The emergence of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) with multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile is a worrisome public health issue. We report the first draft genome sequence of a hypermucoviscous (positive string test) and MDR K. pneumoniae serotype K19, belonging to ST29, isolated from human infection. This strain harboured multiple antimicrobial resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-15, besides yersiniabactin and type 3 fimbriae virulence genes. In vivo experiments carried out with the Galleria mellonella infection model revealed that K...
December 6, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226698/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-manuka-honey-against-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st11
#6
Muhammad Usman Qamar, Sidrah Saleem, Mark Alexander Toleman, Muhammad Saqalein, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Mohsin Khurshid, Zeeshan Taj, Shah Jahan
AIM: To determine the therapeutic potential of Manuka honey against New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS & METHODS: Carbapenamases and metallo-β-lactamases-producing K. pneumoniae ST11 isolated from blood culture was confirmed by VITEK-2® system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and multilocus sequence typing, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (μg/ml) using VITEK-2 system...
December 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224300/-etiological-analysis-and-establishment-of-a-discriminant-model-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hospitalized-patients
#7
Y S Chen, X H Lin, H R Li, Z D Hua, M Q Lin, W S Huang, T Yu, H Y Lyu, W P Mao, Y Q Liang, X R Peng, S J Chen, H Zheng, S Q Lian, X L Hu, X Q Yao
Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223372/diagnostic-and-prognostic-plasma-biomarkers-for-idiopathic-pneumonia-syndrome-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#8
Sachiko Seo, Jeffrey Yu, Isaac C Jenkins, Wendy M Leisenring, Terry Steven-Ayers, Jane M Kuypers, Meei-Li Huang, Keith R Jerome, Michael Boeckh, Sophie Paczesny
Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a non-infectious pulmonary complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and is difficult to diagnose. We evaluated six candidate proteins in plasma samples at day 7 after HCT and at onset of IPS from 41 IPS cases to identify potential IPS diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Samples at similar times from 162 HCT recipients without documented infections and 37 HCT recipients with respiratory viral pneumonia served as controls. In multivariable models, a combination of Stimulation-2 (ST2, OR 2...
December 6, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222409/immune-stealth-driven-o2-serotype-prevalence-and-potential-for-therapeutic-antibodies-against-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#9
Meghan E Pennini, Anna De Marco, Mark Pelletier, Jessica Bonnell, Romana Cvitkovic, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Siro Bianchi, Fabrizia Zatta, Wei Zhao, Xiaodong Xiao, Maria M Camara, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Elena Semenova, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Paul Warrener, JoAnn Suzich, Qun Wang, Davide Corti, C Kendall Stover
Emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria are a challenge for modern medicine, but how these pathogens are so successful is not fully understood. Robust antibacterial vaccines have prevented and reduced resistance suggesting a pivotal role for immunity in deterring antibiotic resistance. Here, we show the increased prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lipopolysaccharide O2 serotype strains in all major drug resistance groups correlating with a paucity of anti-O2 antibodies in human B cell repertoires. We identify human monoclonal antibodies to O-antigens that are highly protective in mouse models of infection, even against heavily encapsulated strains...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221736/differential-effects-of-operative-complications-on-survival-after-surgery-for-primary-lung-cancer
#10
Felix G Fernandez, Andrzej S Kosinski, Anthony P Furnary, Mark Onaitis, Sunghee Kim, Robert H Habib, Betty C Tong, Patricia Cowper, Daniel Boffa, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Cameron D Wright, Joe B Putnam
OBJECTIVE: Complications adversely affect survival after lung cancer surgery. We tested the hypothesis that effects of complications after lung cancer surgery on survival vary substantially across the spectrum of postoperative complications. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database was linked to Medicare data for lung cancer resections from 2002 through 2013. Linkage was achieved for 29,899 patients. A survival model was created that included operative complications as explanatory variables and adjusted for relevant baseline covariates...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218109/rational-lung-tissue-and-animal-models-for-rapid-breath-tests-to-determine-pneumonia-and-pathogens
#11
Yong Zhou, Enguo Chen, Xiaohong Wu, Yanjie Hu, Huiqing Ge, Peifeng Xu, Yingchang Zou, Joy Jin, Ping Wang, Kejing Ying
OBJECTIVE: This study works to develop novel models that may be adopted for earlier non-invasive breathomics tests to determine pneumonia pathogens. METHODS: Two types of pneumonia models were created, both in vitro and in vivo. Paraneoplasm lung tissue and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were adopted and separately challenged with sterile saline solution control or three pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After inoculation, headspace air or exhaled air were absorbed by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215596/rsv-infection-in-human-macrophages-promotes-cxcl10-ip-10-expression-during-bacterial-co-infection
#12
Daniela Machado, Jonathan Hoffmann, Marie Moroso, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Hubert Endtz, Olivier Terrier, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212838/long-term-macrolides-in-diffuse-interstitial-lung-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Paola Faverio, Francesco Bini, Adriano Vaghi, Alberto Pesci
In the present review we provide currently available evidence for the use of macrolides in the treatment of diffuse interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Up to now, research on macrolides has mainly focused on three areas. First, macrolides have shown some promising results in cellular models and case reports as antifibrotic agents, by promoting autophagy and clearance of intracellular protein aggregates and acting as regulators of surfactant homeostasis. Secondly, macrolides have an immunomodulatory effect, which has been applied in some organising pneumonia cases...
December 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212467/excess-pneumonia-and-influenza-mortality-attributable-to-seasonal-influenza-in-subtropical-shanghai-china
#14
Xinchun Yu, Chunfang Wang, Tao Chen, Wenyi Zhang, Huiting Yu, Yuelong Shu, Wenbiao Hu, Xiling Wang
BACKGROUND: Disease burden attributable to influenza is substantial in subtropical regions. Our study aims to estimate excess pneumonia and influenza (P&I) mortality associated with influenza by subtypes/lineages in Shanghai, China, 2010-2015. METHODS: Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted to weekly numbers of deaths from causes coded as P&I for Shanghai general and registered population. Three proxies for influenza activity were respectively used as an explanatory variable...
December 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211921/infections-and-the-relationship-to-treatment-in-neuromuscular-autoimmunity
#15
Devin E Prior, Emily Nurre, Stephanie L Roller, David Kline, Ramit Panara, Amro M Stino, John A Davis, Miriam L Freimer, W David Arnold
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify infections in patients with myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and investigate the relationship between infection and immunomodulation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review examined 631 patients with myasthenia gravis (n=358), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n=124), and dermatomyositis (n=149) patients over a 10 year time period. RESULTS: Infection rates were similar at approximately 19% in all three diseases...
December 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209602/economic-evaluation-and-budget-impact-analysis-of-vaccination-against-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-infection-in-thailand
#16
Surachai Kotirum, Charung Muangchana, Sirirat Techathawat, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, David Bin-Chia Wu, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0) and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1) compared with no vaccination...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#17
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208540/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activities-extracts-of-mangrove-leaf-against-the-growth-of-some-pathogenic-bacteria
#18
Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Fakhri Shahidi, Hamid Noorbakhsh, Alireza Vasiee, Ali Alghooneh
In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels (0, 31.25, 83.33, 125 and 250 ml) were investigated on the efficiency of mangrove leaf extraction using mixture optimal design. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. The mangrove leaf extraction components were identified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
December 2, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203882/pasta-repeats-of-the-protein-kinase-stkp-interconnect-cell-constriction-and-separation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Laure Zucchini, Chryslène Mercy, Pierre Simon Garcia, Caroline Cluzel, Virginie Gueguen-Chaignon, Frédéric Galisson, Céline Freton, Sébastien Guiral, Céline Brochier-Armanet, Patrice Gouet, Christophe Grangeasse
Eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) with extracellular PASTA repeats are key membrane regulators of bacterial cell division. How PASTA repeats govern eSTK activation and function remains elusive. Using evolution- and structural-guided approaches combined with cell imaging, we disentangle the role of each PASTA repeat of the eSTK StkP from Streptococcus pneumoniae. While the three membrane-proximal PASTA repeats behave as interchangeable modules required for the activation of StkP independently of cell wall binding, they also control the septal cell wall thickness...
December 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#20
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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