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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463618/evaluation-of-the-role-of-stat3-in-antibody-and-t-h-17-mediated-responses-to-pneumococcal-immunization-and-infection-using-a-mouse-model-of-autosomal-dominant-hyper-ige-syndrome
#1
Kristin Moffitt, Elaine Cheung, John Manis, Richard Malley
Loss-of-function mutations in Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 gene ( stat3 ) result in Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome (AD-HIES), a condition in which patients have recurrent debilitating infections, including frequent pneumococcal and staphylococcal pneumonias. Stat3 mutations cause defective adaptive TH 17-cellular responses, an immune mechanism believed to be critical for clearance of pneumococcal colonization, and diminished antibody responses. Here we wished to evaluate the role of stat3 in clearance of pneumococcal carriage and immunity using mice with a stat3 mutation recapitulating AD-HIES...
February 20, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463546/treatment-with-atorvastatin-provides-additional-benefits-to-imipenem-in-a-model-of-gram-negative-pneumonia-induced-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mice
#2
Talles Prosperi de Paula, Patrícia Campi Santos, Raquel Duque do Nascimento Arifa, Angélica T Vieira, Ludmila de Matos Baltazar, Thiago Vinícius Ávila, Caio Tavares Fagundes, Zélia Menezes Garcia, Renata Lacerda Lima, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
The clinical pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a relevant cause of nosocomial infections and resistance to current treatment with carbapenem antibiotics is becoming a significant problem. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) used for controlling plasma cholesterol levels. There is clinical evidence showing other effects of statins, including decrease of lung inflammation. In the current study, we show that pretreatment with atorvastatin markedly attenuated lung injury, which was correlated with a reduction in the cellular influx into the alveolar space and lungs and down-modulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in the initial phase of infection in C57BL/6 mice with K...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461044/antibiotic-susceptibility-determination-within-one-cell-cycle-at-single-bacterium-level-by-stimulated-raman-metabolic-imaging
#3
Weili Hong, Caroline W Karanja, Nader S Abutaleb, Waleed Younis, Xueyong Zhang, Mohamed N Seleem, Ji-Xin Cheng
The widespread use of antibiotics has significantly increased the number of resistant bacteria, which has also increased the urgency of rapid bacterial detection and profiling their antibiotic response. Current clinical methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) rely on culture and require at least 16 to 24 h to conduct. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a rapid method that can test the susceptibility of bacteria in a culture-free manner. Here we demonstrate a rapid AST method by monitoring the glucose metabolic activity of live bacteria at the single cell level with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460423/excess-pneumonia-and-influenza-hospitalizations-associated-with-influenza-epidemics-in-portugal-from-season-1998-1999-to-2014-2015
#4
Emanuel Rodrigues, Ausenda Machado, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate excess pneumonia and influenza (P&I) hospitalizations during influenza epidemics and measure their correlation with influenza vaccine coverage in the 65 and more years old, according to the type/subtype of influenza virus. METHODS: The study period comprised week 40/1998-40/2015. Age-specific weekly P&I hospitalizations (ICD-9: 480-487) as main diagnosis were extracted from the National Hospital Discharge database...
January 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460284/dementia-and-risk-of-30-day-readmission-in-older-adults-after-discharge-from-acute-care-hospitals
#5
Nobuo Sakata, Yasuyuki Okumura, Kiyohide Fushimi, Miharu Nakanishi, Asao Ogawa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between dementia and risk of hospital readmission and to evaluate whether the effect of dementia on hospital readmission varies according to primary diagnosis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide discharge database of acute care hospitals in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older diagnosed with one of the 30 most common diagnoses and discharged from 987 hospitals between April 2014 and September 2015 (N = 1,834,378)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454592/effective-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-cost-effective-utilization-of-telavancin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-hospital-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
James A McKinnell, Shelby Corman, Dipen Patel, Grace H Leung, Lynne M Gordon, Thomas P Lodise
PURPOSE: Clinicians and stewardship programs are challenged with positioning of novel, higher priced antibiotic agents for the treatment of clinical infections. We developed a decision-analytic model to describe costs, including drug, total treatment costs, and health care outcomes, associated with telavancin (TLV) compared with vancomycin (VAN) for patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP). METHODS: This decision-analytic model assessed the treatment of SA-HABP with TLV versus VAN...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451838/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-potential-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Kaile Chen, Xiyan Zhang, Wei Shan, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) was licensed for optional use in mainland China since 2017, but the uptake is low. To update the research evidence for the pneumococcal serotype distribution of pre-PCV era and to estimate the potential impact of PCVs, we performed a meta-analysis on the relevant publications concerning the Chinese population. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on the pneumococcal serotype distribution publications in mainland China from 2000 to 2016...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451184/the-long-term-outcomes-of-cirrhotic-patients-with-pleural-effusion
#9
Tsung-Hsing Hung, Chih-Wei Tseng, Chih-Chun Tsai, Chen-Chi Tsai, Kuo-Chih Tseng, Yu-Hsi Hsieh
Background/Aim: A pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space and may cause related morbidity or mortality in cirrhotic patients. Currently, there are insufficient data to support the long-term prognosis for cirrhotic patients with pleural effusion. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of pleural effusion on mortality in cirrhotic patients and evaluated the benefit of liver transplantation in these patients. Patients and Methods: The National Health Insurance Database, derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, was used to identify 3,487 cirrhotic patients with pleural effusion requiring drainage between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449834/peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-3-does-not-alter-the-outcome-of-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-mice
#10
Anshu Shrivastav, Alexander N Dabrowski, Claudia Conrad, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Stephanie Plog, Kristina Dietert, Achim D Gruber, Philippe D N'Guessan, Sahar Aly, Norbert Suttorp, Janine Zahlten
Pneumococci frequently cause community-acquired pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates, particularly in young children and in the elderly. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins such as PGLYRP3 may contribute to the progression and outcome of this disease. Since increasing antibiotic resistant strains occur all over the world, these endogenous antimicrobial molecules are interesting new targets for future therapies. In this study, the expression pattern of PGLYRP3 was analyzed in alveolar epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447284/influenza-interaction-with-cocirculating-pathogens-and-its-impact-on-surveillance-pathogenesis-and-epidemic-profile-a-key-role-for-mathematical-modelling
#11
REVIEW
Lulla Opatowski, Marc Baguelin, Rosalind M Eggo
Evidence is mounting that influenza virus interacts with other pathogens colonising or infecting the human respiratory tract. Taking into account interactions with other pathogens may be critical to determining the real influenza burden and the full impact of public health policies targeting influenza. This is particularly true for mathematical modelling studies, which have become critical in public health decision-making. Yet models usually focus on influenza virus acquisition and infection alone, thereby making broad oversimplifications of pathogen ecology...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447205/aggressive-fluid-accumulation-is-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-severe-pneumonia-caused-by-influenza-a-h1n1-virus
#12
Gustavo Alejandro Casas-Aparicio, Isabel León-Rodríguez, Rafael de Jesús Hernández-Zenteno, Manuel Castillejos-López, Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera, Christopher E Ormsby, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
INTRODUCTION: Fluid accumulation is associated with adverse outcomes such as acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. This study aimed to describe the factors associated with AKI in individuals with influenza A H1N1 severe pneumonia, and explore the relation of fluid accumulation with AKI and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of individuals with influenza A H1N1 severe pneumonia and no history of chronic kidney disease, attending a national referral center for respiratory diseases between November 2014 and May 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444834/accuracy-of-high-throughput-nanofluidic-pcr-based-pneumococcal-serotyping-and-quantification-assays-using-sputum-samples-for-diagnosing-vaccine-serotype-pneumococcal-pneumonia-analyses-by-composite-diagnostic-standards-and-bayesian-latent-class-models
#13
Satoshi Kakiuchi, Motoi Suzuki, Bhim Gopal Dhoubhadel, Akitsugu Furumoto, Hiroyuki Ito, Kei Matsuki, Yoshiko Tsuchihashi, Norichika Asoh, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto
The lack of reliable diagnostic tests for detecting vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia (VTPP) remains a challenging issue in pneumococcal vaccine studies. This study assessed the performances of high-throughput nanofluidic PCR-based pneumococcal serotyping and quantification assay methods using sputum samples (nanofluidic Sp-qPCR) to diagnose the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate VTPP compared with that of the serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay using urine samples. Adult pneumonia patients from Japan were enrolled in this study between September 2012 and August 2014...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444418/circuitry-rewiring-directly-couples-competence-to-predation-in-the-gut-dweller-streptococcus-salivarius
#14
Johann Mignolet, Laetitia Fontaine, Andrea Sass, Catherine Nannan, Jacques Mahillon, Tom Coenye, Pascal Hols
Small distortions in transcriptional networks might lead to drastic phenotypical changes, especially in cellular developmental programs such as competence for natural transformation. Here, we report a pervasive circuitry rewiring for competence and predation interplay in commensal streptococci. Canonically, in streptococci paradigms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans, the pheromone-based two-component system BlpRH is a central node that orchestrates the production of antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins) and incorporates signal from the competence activation cascade...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444151/predicting-1-year-mortality-after-hospitalization-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Ane Uranga, Jose M Quintana, Urko Aguirre, Amaia Artaraz, Rosa Diez, Silvia Pascual, Aitor Ballaz, Pedro P España
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major public health problem with high short- and long-term mortality. The main aim of this study was to develop and validate a specific prognostic index for one-year mortality in patients admitted for CAP. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective study of adults aged ≥18 years admitted to Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital (Bizkaia, Spain) from January 2001 to July 2009 with a diagnosis of CAP surviving the first 15 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443839/how-common-and-how-serious-is-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-geriatric-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-nsqip-dataset
#16
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: Patients with geriatric hip fractures may be at increased risk for postoperative Clostridium difficile colitis, which can cause severe morbidity and can influence hospital quality metrics. However, to our knowledge, no large database study has calculated the incidence of, factors associated with, and effect of C. difficile colitis on geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To use a large national database with in-hospital and postdischarge data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP®]) to (1) determine the incidence and timing of C...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442335/early-assessment-of-the-likely-cost-effectiveness-of-single-use-flexible-video-bronchoscopes
#17
Christoffer Lilja Terjesen, Julia Kovaleva, Lars Ehlers
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic procedures are common in the clinical setting, with estimates indicating 500,000 are undertaken per year in the USA alone. These procedures are generally regarded as safe. Unfortunately, a risk of cross-contamination between patients, with possible subsequent infection, is associated with the re-usable technology typically used in these procedures. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct an early cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of single-use flexible video bronchoscope technology compared with the current reusable technology in a US hospital intensive care setting...
June 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438527/effects-of-hospital-practice-patterns-for-antibiotic-administration-for-pneumonia-on-hospital-lengths-of-stay-and-costs
#18
Eric W Christensen, Alicen Burns Spaulding, William F Pomputius, Steven P Grapentine
Background: Hospital practice patterns vary for switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric patients, but it is unknown how these practice patterns affect hospital lengths of stay and costs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 78673 pediatric patients (aged 3 months to 17 years) hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Analyses were performed with data from the Pediatric Health Information System between 2007 and 2016, including discharge data from 48 freestanding children's hospitals...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437221/the-complexity-of-determining-whether-a-nursing-home-transfer-is-avoidable-at-time-of-transfer
#19
Kathleen T Unroe, Jennifer L Carnahan, Susan E Hickman, Greg A Sachs, Zachary Hass, Greg Arling
OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between nursing facility resident risk conditions and signs and symptoms at time of acute transfer and diagnosis of conditions associated with potentially avoidable acute transfers (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma, dehydration, pressure sores). DESIGN: As part of a demonstration project to reduce potentially avoidable hospital transfers, Optimizing Patient Transfers, Impacting Medical Quality, Improving Symptoms: Transforming Institutional Care (OPTIMISTIC) project clinical staff collected data on residents who transferred to the emergency department (ED) or hospital...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436560/the-role-of-non-invasive-ventilation-used-immediately-after-planned-extubation-for-adults-with-chronic-respiratory-disorders
#20
Jinnan Ou, Huaying Chen, Lezhi Li, Liping Zhao, Na Nie
OBJECTIVE:  To estimate the benefits of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) used immediately after planned postextubation in patients with chronic respiratory disorders. METHODS:  Cochrane Library, PubMed, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database of clinical trials (CBD) and Embase were searched for pertinent studies by 2 trained investigators. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by employing both fixed-effects and random-effects models...
February 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
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