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Pneumonia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652534/poly-u-and-cpg-ameliorate-the-unbalanced-t-cell-immunity-and-pneumonia-of-mice-with-rsv-vaccine-enhanced-disease
#1
Ran Jia, Lu Lu, Xiaozhen Liang, Zhiwu Sun, Lingbing Tan, Menghua Xu, Liyun Su, Jin Xu
Respiratory Syncycial Virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen responsible for children's severe lower respiratory tract infection. So far no RSV vaccine has yet been authorized for clinical use. The main impediment that blocked development of RSV vaccine is that inactivated RSV vaccine could cause RSV vaccine-enhanced disease (RVED). The mechanism of RVED remains unclear. Recently some researchers found that insufficient activation of innate immunity, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), might be associated with the onset of RVED...
June 26, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652240/the-non-antibiotic-macrolide-em703-improves-survival-in-a-model-of-quinolone-treated-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-airway-infection
#2
Gopinath Kasetty, Ravi K V Bhongir, Praveen Papareddy, Heiko Herwald, Arne Egesten
Macrolide antibiotics are used as anti-inflammatory agents, e.g. for prevention of exacerbations in COPD and cystic fibrosis. Several studies have shown improved outcomes after addition of macrolides to beta-lactam antibiotics when treating severe community-acquired pneumonia. However, a beneficial effect of macrolides when treating Gram-negative bacterial airway infections, e.g. those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, remains to be shown. Macrolide antibiotics have significant side effects, in particular motility-stimulating activity of the gastrointestinal tract and promotion of bacterial resistance...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651570/methanol-leaves-extract-hibiscus-micranthus-linn-exhibited-antibacterial-and-wound-healing-activities
#3
Berhan Begashaw, Bharat Mishra, Asegedech Tsegaw, Zewdneh Shewamene
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively...
June 26, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649744/mannose-binding-lectin-deficient-donors-increase-the-risk-of-bacterial-infection-and-bacterial-infection-related-mortality-after-liver-transplantation
#4
J Lombardo, G Sanclemente, J Colmenero, M Español-Rego, M T Arias, P Ruiz, E Mauro, L Sastre, G Crespo, A Rimola, A Moreno, F Lozano, M Navasa
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is synthesized by the liver and binds to microbes. MBL2 gene polymorphisms produce intermediate/low/null- or normal-MBL serum levels (MBL-deficient or MBL-sufficient phenotypes, respectively). We aimed to evaluate the incidence and severity of infection, rejection and survival within 1 year after liver transplantation (LT) according to donor and recipient MBL2 gene polymorphisms. A repeated-event analysis for infection episodes (negative binomial regression, Andersen-Gill model) was performed in 240 LT...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648651/the-impact-of-functional-status-on-the-outcomes-of-endovascular-lower-extremity-revascularization-for-critical-limb-ischemia-in-the-elderly
#5
Isidore Dinga Madou, Martin D Slade, Kristine C Orion, Timur Sarac, Cassius Iyad Ochoa Chaar
INTRODUCTION: Functional status is an important predictor of outcomes after infrainguinal bypass surgery. There is little data on the effect of functional status on the outcomes of endovascular LE interventions, especially in the elderly frail population. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons - National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) files for the years 2011-2013 to assess the impact of functional status on outcome after endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia...
June 22, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648477/time-to-antibiotics-administration-and-outcome-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Christophe Marti, Gregor John, Daniel Genné, Virginie Prendki, Olivier T Rutschmann, Jérôme Stirnemann, Nicolas Garin
BACKGROUND: The association between early antibiotic administration and outcomes remains controversial in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing two antibiotic treatment strategies for patients hospitalized for moderately severe CAP. The univariate and multivariate associations between time to antibiotic administration (TTA) and time to clinical stability were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642142/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infections-in-177-severe-burn-patients-from-an-industrial-disaster-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#7
Chenqi Tang, Junqiang Li, Beiming Shou, Bohan Pan, Tiansheng Chen, Yongqiang Xiao, Xiaopeng Zheng, Shichu Xiao, Qian Tan, Zhaofan Xia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and to evaluate the impact of BSIs on mortality in severe burn patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in 20 tertiary hospitals. A total of 185 Patients who experienced a massive dust explosion in eastern China were included. RESULTS: After exclusion, 177 patients were analyzed. The median total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 85%-98%)...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640002/trends-in-diagnoses-among-hospitalizations-of-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-the-us-2003-2012
#8
Stacey A Hurst, Alexander C Ewing, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis
OBJECTIVE: Using data from 2003-2012, we updated a previous analysis of trends in hospitalizations of HIV-infected children and adolescents in the US. METHODS: We used data from the Kids´ Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project to derive nationally representative estimates of the number of hospitalizations and the rates per 1000 hospitalizations of select discharge diagnoses and procedures in 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012 among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and adolescents ≤18 years, excluding hospitalizations for conditions related to pregnancy/delivery and neonatal diagnoses...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638106/protective-efficacy-of-the-trivalent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-vaccine-candidate-pcrv-opri-hcp1-in-murine-pneumonia-and-burn-models
#9
Feng Yang, Jiang Gu, Liuyang Yang, Chen Gao, Haiming Jing, Ying Wang, Hao Zeng, Quanming Zou, Fenglin Lv, Jinyong Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a formidable pathogen that is responsible for a diverse spectrum of human infectious diseases, resulting in considerable annual mortality rates. Because of biofilm formation and its ability of rapidly acquires of resistance to many antibiotics, P. aeruginosa related infections are difficult to treat, and therefore, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating infection. In the present study, we designed a novel trivalent vaccine, PcrV28-294-OprI25-83-Hcp11-162 (POH), and evaluated its protective efficacy in murine pneumonia and burn models...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636854/cluster-randomized-crossover-trial-of-head-positioning-in-acute-stroke
#10
Craig S Anderson, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo Lavados, Laurent Billot, Maree L Hackett, Verónica V Olavarría, Paula Muñoz Venturelli, Alejandro Brunser, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Lily Song, Kris Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Joyce Y Lim, Denise Forshaw, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Mark Woodward, Octavio Pontes-Neto, H Asita De Silva, Ruey-Tay Lin, Tsong-Hai Lee, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Gillian E Mead, Thompson Robinson, Caroline Watkins
BACKGROUND: The role of supine positioning after acute stroke in improving cerebral blood flow and the countervailing risk of aspiration pneumonia have led to variation in head positioning in clinical practice. We wanted to determine whether outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke could be improved by positioning the patient to be lying flat (i.e., fully supine with the back horizontal and the face upwards) during treatment to increase cerebral perfusion. METHODS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, crossover trial conducted in nine countries, we assigned 11,093 patients with acute stroke (85% of the strokes were ischemic) to receive care in either a lying-flat position or a sitting-up position with the head elevated to at least 30 degrees, according to the randomization assignment of the hospital to which they were admitted; the designated position was initiated soon after hospital admission and was maintained for 24 hours...
June 22, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#11
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#12
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#13
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630178/efficacy-of-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-immunocompetent-rat-respiratory-tract-infection-models-recreating-human-plasma-pharmacokinetics
#14
Shuhei Matsumoto, Christine M Singley, Jennifer Hoover, Rio Nakamura, Roger Echols, Stephen Rittenhouse, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266), a novel siderophore cephalosporin, shows potent activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of cefiderocol against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in immunocompetent rat respiratory tract infection models recreating plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in healthy human subjects. A total of 6 clinical isolates (1 cephalosporin-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1 multidrug-resistant P...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630064/pneumolysin-dependent-calpain-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-macrophages-infected-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Rendong Fang, Rui Wu, Huihui Du, Meilan Jin, Yajing Liu, Guihua Lei, Bing Jiang, Zehui Lei, Yuanyi Peng, Kui Nie, Kohsuke Tsuchiya
Pneumolysin (PLY), a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a pore-forming cytolysin that modulates host innate responses contributing to host defense against and pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) has been shown to be involved in tissue damage in a pneumococcal pneumonia model, however, the mechanism by which this cytokine is produced during S. pneumoniae infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of PLY in IL-1α production. Although the strains induced similar levels of pro-IL-1α expression, wild-type S...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629241/a-model-to-predict-risk-of-postpartum-infection-after-caesarean-delivery
#16
Laura J Moulton, J Eric Jelovsek, Mark Lachiewicz, Kevin Chagin, Oluwatosin Goje
PURPOSE: To build and validate a statistical model to predict infection after Caesarean delivery (CD). METHODS: Patient and surgical variables within 30 days of CD were collected on 2419 women. Postpartum infection included surgical site infection, urinary tract infection, endomyometritis and pneumonia. The data were split into model development and internal validation (1 Jan - 31 Aug; N=1641) and temporal validation subsets (1 Sept - 31 Dec; N=778). Logistic regression models were fit to the data with concordance index and calibration curves used to assess accuracy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626461/neoglycoconjugate-of-tetrasaccharide-representing-one-repeating-unit-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-type-14-capsular-polysaccharide-induces-the-production-of-opsonizing-igg1-antibodies-and-possesses-the-highest-protective-activity-as-compared-to-hexa-and-octasaccharide
#17
Ekaterina A Kurbatova, Nelli K Akhmatova, Elina A Akhmatova, Nadezhda B Egorova, Natalya E Yastrebova, Elena V Sukhova, Dmitriy V Yashunsky, Yury E Tsvetkov, Marina L Gening, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Identifying protective synthetic oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CPs) is an indispensable step in the development of third-generation carbohydrate pneumococcal vaccines. Synthetic tetra-, hexa-, and octasaccharide structurally related to CP of S. pneumoniae type 14 were coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and tested for their immunogenicity in mice upon intraperitoneal prime-boost immunizations. Injections of the conjugates induced production of opsonizing anti-OS IgG1 antibodies (Abs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624864/the-clinical-significance-of-pneumonia-in-patients-with-respiratory-specimens-harbouring-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-a-5-year-retrospective-study-following-5667-patients-in-four-general-icus
#18
B Borgatta, S Gattarello, C A Mazo, A T Imbiscuso, M N Larrosa, M Lujàn, J Rello
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs), with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains posing a serious threat. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of MDR Pseudomonas isolates in respiratory clinical specimens. A 5-year retrospective observational study in four medical-surgical ICUs from a referral hospital was carried out. Of 5667 adults admitted to the ICU, 69 had MDR-PA in respiratory samples: 31 were identified as having pneumonia (HAP/VAP): 21 ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and ten hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622786/dairy-cow-disability-weights
#19
Craig S McConnel, Ashleigh A McNeil, Joleen C Hadrich, Jason E Lombard, Franklyn B Garry, Jane Heller
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies...
August 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619956/a-longitudinal-modelling-study-estimates-acute-symptoms-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-recover-to-baseline-by-10%C3%A2-days
#20
Daniel G Wootton, Laura Dickinson, Henry Pertinez, Joanne Court, Odiri Eneje, Lynne Keogan, Laura Macfarlane, Sarah Wilks, Jane Gallagher, Mark Woodhead, Stephen B Gordon, Peter J Diggle
Our aims were to address three fundamental questions relating to the symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): Do patients completely recover from pneumonia symptoms? How long does this recovery take? Which factors influence symptomatic recovery?We prospectively recruited patients at two hospitals in Liverpool, UK, into a longitudinal, observational cohort study and modelled symptom recovery from CAP. We excluded patients with cancer, immunosuppression or advanced dementia, and those who were intubated or palliated from admission...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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