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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731516/mir-181d-regulates-human-dendritic-cell-maturation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
Xian Wei Su, Gang Lu, Chi Kwan Leung, Qiang Liu, Yi Li, Kam Sze Tsang, Shi Dou Zhao, Danny Tat Ming Chan, Hsiang Fu Kung, Wai Sang Poon
OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as the cellular regulators which post-transcriptionally modulate gene expression in diverse biological processes including cell development and immunity. In this study, we investigated functions of miR-181d in dendritic cells (DCs) maturation, and the underlying mechanisms were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here we did the miRNA screening in human DCs in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
July 21, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731406/reconstructing-human-pancreatic-differentiation-by-mapping-specific-cell-populations-during-development
#2
Cyrille Ramond, Nicolas Glaser, Claire Berthault, Jacqueline Ameri, Jeannette Schlichting Kirkegaard, Mattias Hansson, Christian Honoré, Henrik Semb, Raphaël Scharfmann
Information remains scarce on human development compared to animal models. Here, we reconstructed human fetal pancreatic differentiation using cell surface markers. We demonstrate that at 7 weeks of development, the glycoprotein 2 (GP2) marks a multipotent cell population that will differentiate into the acinar, ductal or endocrine lineages. Development towards the acinar lineage is paralleled by an increase in GP2 expression. Conversely, a subset of the GP2(+) population undergoes endocrine differentiation by down-regulating GP2 and CD142 and turning on NEUROG3, a marker of endocrine differentiation...
July 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730556/stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-the-role-of-pigmentation-as-maturation-marker-and-gene-expression-profile-comparison-with-human-endogenous-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#3
A Bennis, J G Jacobs, L A E Catsburg, J B Ten Brink, C Koster, R O Schlingemann, J van Meurs, T G M F Gorgels, P D Moerland, V M Heine, A A Bergen
In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells...
July 21, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729785/evaluation-of-dentinal-defects-during-root-canal-preparation-using-thermomechanically-processed-nickel-titanium-files
#4
Bertan Kesim, Burak Sagsen, Tugrul Aslan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of root cracks after root canal instrumentation with thermomechanically processed nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files with different instrumentation kinematics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 150 extracted mandibular premolars with mature apices and straight root canals were divided into five groups and used in this study. In Group 1, 30 teeth were prepared using hand K-files and assigned to control group, Group 2 was instrumented using K3XF Rotary files (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA) with continuous rotary motion...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729666/expansion-of-human-midbrain-floor-plate-progenitors-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-increases-dopaminergic-neuron-differentiation-potential
#5
Stefania Fedele, Ginetta Collo, Katharina Behr, Josef Bischofberger, Stephan Müller, Tilo Kunath, Klaus Christensen, Anna Lisa Gündner, Martin Graf, Ravi Jagasia, Verdon Taylor
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are invaluable to study developmental processes and disease mechanisms particularly in the brain. hiPSCs can be differentiated into mature and functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Having robust protocols for the generation of differentiated DA neurons from pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for the use of hiPSCs to study disease mechanisms, for drug discovery, and eventually for cell replacement therapy. Here, we describe a protocol for generating and expanding large numbers of homogeneous midbrain floor plate progenitors (mFPPs) that retain efficient DA neurogenic potential over multiple passages and can be cryobanked...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729420/revisiting-the-substrate-specificity-of-mammalian-%C3%AE-1-6-fucosyltransferase-fut8-reveals-that-it-catalyzes-core-fucosylation-of-n-glycans-lacking-%C3%AE-1-3-arm-glcnac
#6
Qiang Yang, Roushu Zhang, Hui Cai, Lai-Xi Wang
The mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) catalyzes the core fucosylation of N-glycans in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins. Previously, intensive in vitro studies with crude extract or purified enzyme concluded that the attachment of a GlcNAc on the α1,3 mannose arm of N-glycan is essential for FUT8 catalyzed core fucosylation. In contrast, we have recently shown that expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a GnTI-knockout, FUT8 overexpressing cell line results in the production of fully core-fucosylated glycoforms of the oligomannose substrate Man5GlcNAc2, suggesting that FUT8 can catalyze core fucosylation of N-glycans lacking an α1,3arm GlcNAc in cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729348/a-new-target-for-caffeine-in-the-developing-lung-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Philipp Rath, Claudio Nardiello, Rory E Morty
The utility of caffeine to manage apnea of prematurity is widely accepted, however, much controversy surrounds the potential for caffeine to drive post-natal lung maturation in settings of arrested lung development. Many studies have reported pathways relevant to lung injury and lung development are modulated by caffeine in vitro and in vivo, leading to the application of caffeine in experimental animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). These studies have generated exciting, but at times confusing data...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#8
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726794/biological-iron-sulfur-storage-in-a-thioferrate-protein-nanoparticle
#9
Brian J Vaccaro, Sonya M Clarkson, James F Holden, Dong-Woo Lee, Chang-Hao Wu, Farris L Poole Ii, Julien J H Cotelesage, Mark J Hackett, Sahel Mohebbi, Jingchuan Sun, Huilin Li, Michael K Johnson, Graham N George, Michael W W Adams
Iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in biology and function in electron transfer and catalysis. They are assembled from iron and cysteine sulfur on protein scaffolds. Iron is typically stored as iron oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite, encapsulated in 12 nm shells of ferritin, which buffers cellular iron availability. Here we have characterized IssA, a protein that stores iron and sulfur as thioferrate, an inorganic anionic polymer previously unknown in biology. IssA forms nanoparticles reaching 300 nm in diameter and is the largest natural metalloprotein complex known...
July 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726774/interleukin-22-ameliorated-renal-injury-and-fibrosis-in-diabetic-nephropathy-through-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#10
Shaofei Wang, Yubin Li, Jiajun Fan, Xuyao Zhang, Jingyun Luan, Qi Bian, Tao Ding, Yichen Wang, Ziyu Wang, Ping Song, Daxiang Cui, Xiaobin Mei, Dianwen Ju
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most lethal complications of diabetes mellitus with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammation. Although the cytokine IL-22 was initially implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, recent studies suggested that IL-22 could suppress inflammatory responses and alleviate tissue injury. Herein, we examined the role of IL-22 in DN. We found that serum levels of IL-22 were significantly downregulated in both patients and mice with DN. The expression of IL-22 was further decreased with the progression of DN, whereas IL-22 gene therapy significantly ameliorated renal injury and mesangial matrix expansion in mice with established nephropathy...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724910/investigating-glycemic-potential-of-rice-by-unraveling-compositional-variations-in-mature-grain-and-starch-mobilization-patterns-during-seed-germination
#11
Maria Krishna de Guzman, Sabiha Parween, Vito M Butardo, Crisline Mae Alhambra, Roslen Anacleto, Christiane Seiler, Anthony R Bird, Chung-Ping Chow, Nese Sreenivasulu
Rice lines with slower starch digestibility provide opportunities in mitigating the global rise in type II diabetes and related non-communicable diseases. However, screening for low glycemic index (GI) in rice breeding programs is not possible due to time and cost constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using in vitro cooked grain amylolysis, starch mobilization patterns during seed germination, and variation in starch structure and composition in the mature seed to differentiate patterns of starch digestibility...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723877/human-spinal-bone-dust-as-a-potential-local-autograft-in-vitro-potent-anabolic-effect-on-human-osteoblasts
#12
Ryan Gao, Matthew Street, Mei Lin Tay, Karen E Callon, Dorit Naot, Alistair Lock, Jacob T Munro, Jillian Cornish, John Ferguson, David Musson
STUDY DESIGN: In Vitro Study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect that factors released from human posterior spinal bone dust have on primary human osteoblast growth and maturation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Bone dust, created during spinal fusion surgeries has the potential to be used as an autologous bone graft by providing a source of viable autologous osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells with osteogenic potential. To date, no information is available on whether bone dust also provides a source of anabolic factors with the potential to enhance osteoblast proliferation and maturation, which would enhance its therapeutic potential...
July 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722264/ultrastructure-changes-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-oocytes-before-and-after-maturation-in%C3%A2-vitro-with-sericin
#13
Sri Gustina, Hasbi Hasbi, Ni Wayan Kurniani Karja, Mohamad Agus Setiadi, Iman Supriatna
The aim of this research was to identify the changes in the cytoplasmic ultrastructure of immature and matured oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Oocytes were matured in vitro in tissue culture medium-199 with and without sericin, and then analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The experiment result showed that the nuclear maturation rate of buffalo oocytes was significantly higher in the presence of sericin (80.6%) than without sericin (68.1%) (P < 0.05). The immature oocytes were characterized by cortical granule clusters in the ooplasm and the absence of perivitelline space (PVS)...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722118/at2-r-deficiency-mediated-podocyte-loss-via-activation-of-ectopic-hedgehog-interacting-protein-hhip-gene-expression
#14
Min-Chun Liao, Xin-Ping Zhao, Shiao-Ying Chang, Chao-Sheng Lo, Isabelle Chenier, Tomoko Takano, Julie R Ingelfinger, Shao-Ling Zhang
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) deficiency in AT2 R knockout (KO) mice has been linked to congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether AT2 R deficiency impaired glomerulogenesis and mediated podocyte loss/dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. Nephrin-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-transgenic (Tg) and Nephrin/AT2 RKO mice were used to assess glomerulogenesis, while wild-type and AT2 RKO mice were used to evaluate maturation of podocyte morphology/function...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721540/temporal-expression-of-cumulus-cell-marker-genes-during-in-vitro-maturation-and-oocyte-developmental-competence
#15
Arindam Dhali, Pradeep Krishna Javvaji, Atul P Kolte, Joseph Rabinson Francis, Sudhir C Roy, Veerasamy Sejian
PURPOSE: Cumulus cells (CC) play important roles in oocyte development and cumulus expressed genes can be used as markers for oocyte quality. This study aimed to investigate temporal changes in the expression of cumulus marker genes during oocyte maturation as possible biomarkers of embryo developmental competence in ovine. METHODS: Gene expression was assessed in the CC of the BCB+ (developmentally competent) and BCB- (developmentally poor) oocytes at 0, 12, and 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720900/low-frequency-ultrasound-induced-vegf-suppression-and-synergy-with-dendritic-cell-mediated-anti-tumor-immunity-in-murine-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#16
Wei Zhang, Wen-De Shou, Yan-Jun Xu, Wen-Kun Bai, Bing Hu
High tumor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are associated with poor treatment outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa), and immune deficiency in the PCa microenvironment, especially suppression of dendritic cell (DC) proliferation, has been confirmed. In this study, we (1) investigated whether VEGF participates in DC suppression in murine PCa cells (RM-1), (2) down-regulated VEGF expression using low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles (UM), and (3) further explored any synergistic effect on immunological activation...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720797/commensal-gut-microbiota-immunomodulatory-actions-in-bone-marrow-and-liver-have-catabolic-effects-on-skeletal-homeostasis-in-health
#17
Chad M Novince, Carolyn R Whittow, Johannes D Aartun, Jessica D Hathaway, Nicole Poulides, Michael B Chavez, Heidi M Steinkamp, Kaeleigh A Kirkwood, Emily Huang, Caroline Westwater, Keith L Kirkwood
Despite knowledge the gut microbiota regulates bone mass, mechanisms governing the normal gut microbiota's osteoimmunomodulatory effects on skeletal remodeling and homeostasis are unclear in the healthy adult skeleton. Young adult specific-pathogen-free and germ-free mice were used to delineate the commensal microbiota's immunoregulatory effects on osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, marrow T-cell hematopoiesis, and extra-skeletal endocrine organ function. We report the commensal microbiota has anti-anabolic effects suppressing osteoblastogenesis and pro-catabolic effects enhancing osteoclastogenesis, which drive bone loss in health...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720648/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-activate-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#18
Shi-Lin Qiu, Hui Zhang, Qi-Ya Tang, Jing Bai, Zhi-Yi He, Jian-Quan Zhang, Mei-Hua Li, Jing-Min Deng, Guang-Nan Liu, Xiao-Ning Zhong
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) represent a distinct strategy by which neutrophils trap, confine and eliminate invading microorganisms. Emerging evidence suggests that NETs exert a deleterious effect to the host in the absence of microbial stimuli. However, the role of NETs in smoking-related lung diseases remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the formation of NETs in the context of chronic inflammation induced by cigarette smoking and explore its potential role in an experimental mouse model of emphysema...
July 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720584/protein-kinase-n2-regulates-amp-kinase-signaling-and-insulin-responsiveness-of-glucose-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#19
Maxwell A Ruby, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marcus Åhlin, Juleen R Zierath
Insulin resistance is central to the development of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. As skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, regulation of glucose metabolism in this tissue is of particular importance. While Rho GTPases and many of their affecters influence skeletal muscle metabolism, there is a paucity of information on the protein kinase N (PKN) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. We investigated the impact of PKN2 on insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells in vitro and mouse tibialis anterior muscle in vivo...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720134/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-antimalarial-activities-of-leaves-pods-and-bark-extracts-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del
#20
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Pattamon Tharaphan, Kesinee Chotivanich, Joel Tarning, Anil Kumar Anal
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. METHODS: The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay...
July 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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