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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531912/from-bench-to-market-preparing-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-various-applications
#1
REVIEW
Sung-Hwan Moon, Daekyeong Bae, Taek-Hee Jung, Eun-Bin Chung, Young-Hoon Jeong, Soon-Jung Park, Hyung-Min Chung
Human cardiomyocytes (CMs) cease to proliferate and remain terminally differentiated thereafter, when humans reach the mid-20s. Thus, any damages sustained by myocardium tissue are irreversible, and they require medical interventions to regain functionality. To date, new surgical procedures and drugs have been developed, albeit with limited success, to treat various heart diseases including myocardial infarction. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop more effective treatment methods to address the increasing mortality rate of the heart diseases...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531287/bacterial-rna-polymerase-caps-rna-with-various-cofactors-and-cell-wall-precursors
#2
Christina Julius, Yulia Yuzenkova
Bacterial RNA polymerase is able to initiate transcription with adenosine-containing cofactor NAD+, which was proposed to result in a portion of cellular RNAs being 'capped' at the 5΄ end with NAD+, reminiscent of eukaryotic cap. Here we show that, apart from NAD+, another adenosine-containing cofactor FAD and highly abundant uridine-containing cell wall precursors, UDP-Glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine are efficiently used to initiate transcription in vitro. We show that the affinity to NAD+ and UDP-containing factors during initiation is much lower than their cellular concentrations, and that initiation with them stimulates promoter escape...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531251/ca2-dependent-phosphoregulation-of-the-plasma-membrane-ca2-atpase-aca8-modulates-stimulus-induced-calcium-signatures
#3
Alex Costa, Laura Luoni, Claudia Adriana Marrano, Kenji Hashimoto, Philipp Köster, Sonia Giacometti, Maria Ida De Michelis, Jörg Kudla, Maria Cristina Bonza
Ca2+ signals are transient, hence, upon a stimulus-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, cells have to re-establish resting Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ extrusion is operated by a wealth of transporters, such as Ca2+ pumps and Ca2+/H+ antiporters, which often require a rise in Ca2+ concentration to be activated. Here, we report a regulatory fine-tuning mechanism of the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane-localized Ca2+-ATPase isoform ACA8 that is mediated by calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) complexes...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531193/raman-microscopy-investigation-of-vitrification-induced-structural-damages-in-mature-bovine-oocytes
#4
Giulia Rusciano, Carolina De Canditiis, Gianluigi Zito, Marcello Rubessa, Maria Serena Roca, Rosa Carotenuto, Antonio Sasso, Bianca Gasparrini
Although oocyte cryopreservation has great potentials in the field of reproductive technologies, it still is an open challenge in the majority of domestic animals and little is known on the biochemical transformation induced by this process in the different cellular compartments. Raman micro-spectroscopy allows the non-invasive evaluation of the molecular composition of cells, based on the inelastic scattering of laser photons by vibrating molecules. The aim of this work was to assess the biochemical modifications of both the zona pellucida and cytoplasm of vitrified/warmed in vitro matured bovine oocytes at different post-warming times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531166/-epiafzelechin-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-adult-mice-and-modulate-osteoblastic-and-osteoclastic-functions-in-vitro
#5
Ka-Chun Wong, Sisi Cao, Xiaoli Dong, Man-Chun Law, Tak-Hang Chan, Man-Sau Wong
The present study was designed to characterize the bone protective effects of (-)-epiafzelechin (EAF), a flavan-3-ol, in mature ovariectomized mice model and its ability to stimulate osteoblastic activity and inhibit osteoclastic activity. Mature C57BL/6 mice (three to four months old) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham-operated and subjected to treatment (vehicle, 17β-oestradiol (E2, 200 μg/kg/day) or EAF (500 μg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. EAF and E2 significantly reduced urinary calcium (Ca) excretion, serum osteocalcin (OCN), and urinary deoxy-pyridinoline (DPD); increased bone mineral density (BMD); and improved micro-architectural properties in OVX mice...
May 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531096/the-lys-asp-tyr-triad-within-the-mite-allergen-der-p-1-propeptide-is-a-critical-structural-element-for-the-ph-dependent-initiation-of-the-protease-maturation
#6
Andy Chevigné, Vincenzo Campizi, Martyna Szpakowska, David Bourry, Marie-Eve Dumez, José C Martins, André Matagne, Moreno Galleni, Alain Jacquet
The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530130/injectable-graft-substitute-active-on-bone-tissue-regeneration
#7
Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Massimiliano Leigheb, Prasad Shastri, Mario Cannas
With the aim to obtain an injectable bioactive scaffold that can accelerate bone formation in sinus lift augmentation, in bony void and in fracture repair, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) jelly collagen containing Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). Using an in vitro 3D culture model of bone fracture we show that the contraction of the collagen gel is mediated by Rho-kinase activation in osteoblasts. This contraction was cell concentration dependent and was increased by LPA which favored apposition and fastening of bone fragments approach...
May 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529974/a-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-carbonic-anhydrase-related-protein-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-rhoptry-biogenesis-and-virulence
#8
Nathan M Chasen, Beejan Asady, Leandro Lemgruber, Rossiane C Vommaro, Jessica C Kissinger, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529939/naturally-engineered-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes
#9
REVIEW
Gaetano J Scuderi, Jonathan Butcher
Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528699/steps-toward-maturation-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-by-defined-physical-signals
#10
Nian Shen, Anne Knopf, Claas Westendorf, Udo Kraushaar, Julia Riedl, Hannah Bauer, Simone Pöschel, Shannon Lee Layland, Monika Holeiter, Stefan Knolle, Eva Brauchle, Ali Nsair, Svenja Hinderer, Katja Schenke-Layland
Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) may offer significant advances in creating in vitro cardiac tissues for disease modeling, drug testing, and elucidating developmental processes; however, the induction of ESCs to a more adult-like CM phenotype remains challenging. In this study, we developed a bioreactor system to employ pulsatile flow (1.48 mL/min), cyclic strain (5%), and extended culture time to improve the maturation of murine and human ESC-CMs...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528122/probdnf-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-differentiation-of-mouse-neural-stem-cells
#11
Jia-Yi Li, Jia Liu, Nimshitha Pavathuparambil Abdul Manaph, Larisa Bobrovskaya, Xin-Fu Zhou
ProBDNF, a precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is an important regulator of neurodegeneration, hippocampal long-term depression, and synaptic plasticity. ProBDNF and its receptors pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), vps10p domain-containing receptor Sortilin and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) are expressed in neuronal and glial cells. The role of proBDNF in regulation of neurogenesis is not fully defined. This study aims to uncover the function of proBDNF in regulating the differentiation, migration and proliferation of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527383/tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-exposure-promotes-in-vitro-adipogenic-differentiation-but-alters-the-adipocyte-phenotype-in-rainbow-trout
#12
Esmail Lutfi, Natàlia Riera-Heredia, Marlon Córdoba, Cinta Porte, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro
Numerous environmental pollutants have been identified as potential obesogenic compounds affecting endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis. Among them, well-known organotins such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), can be found in significant concentrations in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effects of TBT and TPT on the development and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) primary cultured adipocytes. Results showed that TBT and TPT induced lipid accumulation and slightly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) protein expression when compared to a control, both in the presence or absence of lipid mixture...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526652/retinoic-acid-induces-differentiation-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-embryonic-stem-cells-into-germ-cells
#13
Syed Mohmad Shah, Suresh Kumar Singla, Prabhat Palta, Radhey Sham Manik, Manmohan Singh Chauhan
Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells...
May 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526530/insights-into-the-early-stage-of-pinus-nigra-arn-somatic-embryogenesis-using-discovery-proteomics
#14
Katarína Klubicová, Lubica Uvácková, Maksym Danchenko, Peter Nemecek, Ludovít Skultéty, Ján Salaj, Terézia Salaj
The somatic embryogenesis in conifers represents a suitable model of plant regeneration system facilitating studies of fundamental aspects of an early development as well as in vitro micropropagation. The aim of our study was to deeper understand the somatic embryogenesis in the conifer tree Pinus nigra Arn. Comparative proteomic analysis based on 2D-PAGE in 1) proliferating embryogenic tissues (E) initiated from immature zygotic embryos, 2) non-embryogenic calli (NEC) initiated from cotyledons of somatic seedlings of the same genotypes, 3) embryogenic tissues that lost the maturation capacity (E-L) of two cell lines (E362, E366)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525970/the-immunoregulatory-role-of-alpha-enolase-in-dendritic-cell-function-during-chlamydia-infection
#15
Khamia Ryans, Yusuf Omosun, Danielle N McKeithen, Tankya Simoneaux, Camilla C Mills, Nathan Bowen, Francis O Eko, Carolyn M Black, Joseph U Igietseme, Qing He
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that interleukin-10 (IL-10) deficient dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells that induced elevated protective immunity against Chlamydia. To further investigate the molecular and biochemical mechanism underlying the superior immunostimulatory property of IL-10 deficient DCs we performed proteomic analysis on protein profiles from Chlamydia-pulsed wild-type (WT) and IL-10(-/-) DCs to identify differentially expressed proteins with immunomodulatory properties...
May 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525345/in-vitro-production-of-sudanese-camel-camelus-dromedarius-embryos-from-epididymal-spermatozoa-and-follicular-oocytes-of-slaughtered-animals
#16
A E Abdelkhalek, Sh A Gabr, W A Khalil, Sh M Shamiah, L Pan, G Qin, M H Farouk
Application of assisted reproductive technology in camelidea, such as artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer, has been slow in comparison to that for other livestock species. In Egypt, there are few attempts to establish in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF) techniques in dromedary camel. The present study was carried out to produce Sudanese camel embryos using in vitro matured oocytes and epididymal spermatozoa. Dromedary camel ovaries were collected from abattoirs and then, the oocytes were aspirated from all the visible follicles on the ovarian surface (~2-8 mm in a diameter)...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525327/in-vitro-fertilizing-potential-of-urethral-and-epididymal-spermatozoa-collected-from-domestic-cats-felis-catus
#17
S Prochowska, W Niżański
The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of in vitro fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed urethral and epididymal feline spermatozoa. Both types of semen were collected from 7 cats and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. To perform in vitro fertilization, both urethral and epididymal samples from the same individual were thawed and spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro matured cat oocytes. Obtained embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days in a commercial medium. Cleavage rate, morula rate and blastocyst rate were calculated...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524375/bioprinted-osteogenic-and-vasculogenic-patterns-for-engineering-3d-bone-tissue
#18
Batzaya Byambaa, Nasim Annabi, Kan Yue, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago, Mario Moisés Alvarez, Weitao Jia, Mehdi Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Su Ryon Shin, Ali Tamayol, Ali Khademhosseini
Fabricating 3D large-scale bone tissue constructs with functional vasculature has been a particular challenge in engineering tissues suitable for repairing large bone defects. To address this challenge, an extrusion-based direct-writing bioprinting strategy is utilized to fabricate microstructured bone-like tissue constructs containing a perfusable vascular lumen. The bioprinted constructs are used as biomimetic in vitro matrices to co-culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells in a naturally derived hydrogel...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524267/synaptic-activity-suppresses-expression-of-neurogenic-differentiation-factor-2-in-an-nmda-receptor-dependent-manner
#19
Fading Chen, Benjamin J Hall
Neurogenic differentiation factor 2 (NeuroD2) is a highly expressed transcription factor in the developing central nervous system. In newborn neurons, NeuroD2-mediated gene expression promotes differentiation, maturation, and survival. In addition to these early, cell-intrinsic developmental processes, NeuroD2 in post-mitotic neurons also regulates synapse growth and ion channel expression to control excitability. While NeuroD2 transactivation can be induced in an activity-dependent manner, little is known about how expression of NeuroD2 itself is regulated...
May 19, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523233/a-new-method-allowing-long-term-potentiation-recordings-in-hippocampal-organotypic-slices
#20
Paula Paci, Sylvain Gabriele, Laurence Ris
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal organotypic slices are used to improve the understanding of synaptic plasticity mechanisms because they allow longer term studies compared to acute slices. However, it is more delicate to keep cultures alive in the recording system outside in vitro conditions. Experiments from the organotypic cultures are common but the handling of slices is rarely described in the literature, even though tissue preservation is crucial. Instruments are sometimes required to extract the slices from the culture inserts but this approach is delicate and can lead to damage, given how strongly the slices are attached to the insert...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
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