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in vitro maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101788/embling-production-in-althaea-officinalis-l-through-somatic-embryogenesis-and-their-appraisal-via-histological-and-scanning-electron-microscopical-studies
#1
Ruphi Naz, Mohammad Anis, Abdulrahman A Alatar
In vitro propagation of a medicinally important plant, Althaea officinalis, has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos (globular to torpedo-shaped embryos) were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium augmented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, and 25.0) alone or combined with N6-benzylaminopurine (BA, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μM). These were directly formed from the cut ends and subsequently spread on the whole surface of internodal explants...
January 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#2
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of CNS complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Since reports that hNPCs are infectable remain controversial, we rigorously examined hNPC infection and ability to propagate infection, and determined whether HIV effects on hNPC function required infection...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099147/ctla-4-positive-breast-cancer-cells-suppress-dendritic-cells-maturation-and-function
#3
Xi Chen, Qianqian Shao, Shengnan Hao, Zhonghua Zhao, Yang Wang, Xiaofan Guo, Ying He, Wenjuan Gao, Haiting Mao
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a potent immunoregulatory molecule, can down-regulate T-cell activation and inhibit anti-tumor immune response. This study showed that LPS-stimulated human dendritic cells (DCs) decreased the expression of HLA-DR, CD83 and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) following coculturing with CTLA-4+ breast cancer cells. Moreover, the suppressed DCs further inhibited proliferation of allogeneic CD4+/CD8+ T-cells, differentiation of Th1 and function of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs)...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098517/antiobesity-effects-of-sansa-crataegi-fructus-on-3t3-l1-cells-and-on-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-obese-rats
#4
Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun-Joo Lee, Seon-Woo Oh
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Crataegi fructus ethanol extracts (CFEEs) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and to evaluate the effects of C. fructus powder (CFP) on lipid metabolism and its antiobesity effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed for physiological activity and antiobesity effects on the serum, liver, and adipose tissues in obesity-induced rats. CFEEs showed significant inhibitory action on differentiation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 mature cells in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097507/in-vitro-phase-i-and-phase-ii-drug-metabolism-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs
#5
Els Van Peer, Frank Jacobs, Jan Snoeys, Jos Van Houdt, Ils Pijpers, Christophe Casteleyn, Chris Van Ginneken, Steven Van Cruchten
PURPOSE: In view of pediatric drug development, juvenile animal studies are gaining importance. However, data on drug metabolizing capacities of juvenile animals are scarce, especially in non-rodent species. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the in vitro biotransformation of four human CYP450 substrates and one UGT substrate in the livers of developing Göttingen minipigs. METHODS: Liver microsomes from late fetal, Day 1, Day 3, Day 7, Day 28, and adult male and female Göttingen minipigs were incubated with a cocktail of CYP450 substrates, including phenacetin, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and midazolam...
January 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097475/svct2-is-expressed-by-cerebellar-precursor-cells-which-differentiate-into-neurons-in-response-to-ascorbic-acid
#6
Karina Oyarce, Carmen Silva-Alvarez, Luciano Ferrada, Fernando Martínez, Katterine Salazar, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA) is a known antioxidant that participates in a wide range of processes, including stem cell differentiation. It enters the cell through the sodium-ascorbate co-transporter SVCT2, which is mainly expressed by neurons in the adult brain. Here, we have characterized SVCT2 expression in the postnatal cerebellum in situ, a model used for studying neurogenesis, and have identified its expression in granular precursor cells and mature neurons. We have also detected SVCT2 expression in the cerebellar cell line C17...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097093/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-suppresses-tnfsf15-production-in-endothelial-cells-by-stimulating-mir-31-and-mir-20a-expression-via-activation-of-akt-and-erk-signals
#7
Hui-Ting Deng, Hai-Lin Liu, Bei-Bei Zhai, Kun Zhang, Guo-Ce Xu, Xue-Mei Peng, Qiang-Zhe Zhang, Lu-Yuan Li
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily-15 (TNFSF15; VEGI; TL1A) is a negative modulator of angiogenesis for blood vessel homeostasis and is produced by endothelial cells in a mature vasculature. It is known to be downregulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major regulator of neovascularization but the mechanism of this interaction is unclear. Here we report that VEGF is able to stimulate the production of two microRNAs, miR-20a and miR-31, which directly target the 3'-UTR of TNFSF15. Additionally, we show that two VEGF-stimulated cell growth signals, Erk and Akt, are responsible for promoting the expression of miR-20a and miR-31...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096300/enhanced-suppression-of-polyclonal-cd8-25-regulatory-t-cells-via-exosomal-arming-of-antigen-specific-peptide-mhc-complexes
#8
Chuanyong Mu, Xueshu Zhang, Lu Wang, Aizhang Xu, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Xueqin Pang, Rajni Chibbar, Andrew Freywald, Jianan Huang, Yehan Zhu, Jim Xiang
Compared with CD4(+)25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), the mechanisms for natural, polyclonal CD8(+)25(+) Treg immune suppression have been significantly less studied. We previously showed that polyclonal T cells can acquire antigen-specific targeting activity through arming with exosomal peptide-MHC (pMHC). In this study, we assessed the suppressive effect of CD8(+)25(+) Tregs or CD8(+)25(+) Tregs armed with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific exosomes on other immune cells and OVA-specific dendritic cell (DCOVA)-stimulated antitumor immunity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095627/melatonin-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-porcine-oocytes
#9
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Byeong Chun Lee
It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095448/distribution-of-cathepsin-k-in-late-stage-of-tooth-germ-development-and-its-function-in-degrading-enamel-matrix-proteins-in-mouse
#10
Tao Jiang, Fen Liu, Wei-Guang Wang, Xin Jiang, Xuan Wen, Kai-Jin Hu, Yang Xue
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is a member of cysteine proteinase family, and is predominantly expressed in osteoclastsfor degradationof bone matrix proteins. Given the similarity in physical properties of bone and dental mineralized tissues, including enamel, dentin and cementum, CTSK is likely to take part in mineralization process during odontogenesis. On the other hand, patients with pycnodysostosis caused by mutations of the CTSK gene displayedmultipledental abnormalities, such as hypoplasia of the enamel, obliterated pulp chambers, hypercementosis and periodontal disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093975/molecular-modeling-and-dynamics-simulation-analysis-of-katnal1-for-identification-of-novel-inhibitor-of-sperm-maturation
#11
Kishore Sarma, Shubhadeep Roychoudhury, Sudipta Sankar Bora, Budheswar Dehury, Pratap Parida, Saurav Das, Robin Das, Chandrajit Dohutia, Sangeeta Nath, Bibhas Deb, Mahendra K Modi
Rapid growth of world population is one of the biggest challenges faced by the human race. Hormone based birth control often causes various side effects, as such development of non-hormonal based contraceptives is the need of the hour. A recent study revealed that temporary infertility without changing hormone levels can be attained by inhibiting Katanin p60 ATPase-containing subunit A-like 1 protein (KATNAL1) which is critical in sperm maturation in the testes. This study revealed that, KATNAL1 is a soluble protein retained in the cytoplasm having molecular weight of 55,392 Dalton...
January 16, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093470/active-site-maturation-and-activity-of-the-copper-radical-oxidase-glxa-is-governed-by-a-tryptophan-residue
#12
Amanda K Chaplin, Dimitri A Svistunenko, Michael Hough, Michael T Wilson, Erik Vijgenboom, Jonathan Ar Worrall
GlxA from Streptomyces lividans is a mononuclear copper-radical oxidase and a member of the auxiliary activity family 5 (AA5). Its domain organisation and low sequence homology make it a distinct member of the AA5 family in which the fungal galactose 6-oxidase (Gox) is the best-characterized. GlxA is a key cuproenzyme in the copper-dependent morphological development of S. lividans with a function that is linked to the processing of an extracytoplasmic glycan. The catalytic site in GlxA and Gox contain two distinct one-electron acceptors comprising the copper ion and a 3'-(S-cysteinyl) tyrosine...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093199/effect-of-different-cryo-devices-on-in-vitro-maturation-and-development-of-vitrified-warmed-immature-buffalo-oocytes
#13
Yelisetti Uma Mahesh, Henderson Rose Winnie Gibence, Sisinthy Shivaji, Brahmasani Sambasiva Rao
The aim of the study was to identify a cryo-device that would be best suited for the vitrification of buffalo immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) as judged by viability and meiotic competence of the vitrified-warmed oocytes and their development ability following in vitro fertilization (IVF). The expression of oocyte secreting factors and their receptors (GDF9, BMP15, BMPR2, TGFBR1) and apoptosis related genes (BCL2, BAX, P53, C-MYC) were compared in vitrified-warmed oocytes after in vitro maturation. COCs from the ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes were vitrified in a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose using either a conventional straw (CS), open pulled straw (OPS), cryoloop (CL), hemistraw (HS) or cryotop (CT)...
January 13, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093043/electrospun-yarn-reinforced-nanoha-composite-matrix-as-a-potential-bone-substitute-for-enhanced-regeneration-of-segmental-defects
#14
Anitha A Nair, John Joseph, Deepthy Menon, Shantikumar Nair, Manitha Nair
Nanohydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-established synthetic bone substitute with excellent osteoconduction and osteointegration. However, brittleness coupled with slow degradation curtail its load bearing and bone regeneration potential respectively. To address these limitations, nanoHA composite matrix reinforced with electrospun 1D fibrous yarns was fabricated and tested in vitro and in vivo. Different weight percentages (5, 10, 15 wt%) and varying lengths (short and continuous) of PLLA yarns were randomly dispersed in a gelatinous matrix containing nanoHA...
January 17, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092776/periosteum-tissue-engineering-in-an-orthotopic-in%C3%A2-vivo-platform
#15
J G Baldwin, F Wagner, L C Martine, B M Holzapfel, C Theodoropoulos, O Bas, F M Savi, C Werner, E M De-Juan-Pardo, D W Hutmacher
The periosteum plays a critical role in bone homeostasis and regeneration. It contains a vascular component that provides vital blood supply to the cortical bone and an osteogenic niche that acts as a source of bone-forming cells. Periosteal grafts have shown promise in the regeneration of critical size defects, however their limited availability restricts their widespread clinical application. Only a small number of tissue-engineered periosteum constructs (TEPCs) have been reported in the literature. A current challenge in the development of appropriate TEPCs is a lack of pre-clinical models in which they can reliably be evaluated...
November 20, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#16
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090714/transplantation-of-cd51-stem-leydig-cells-a-new-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-testosterone-deficiency
#17
Zhi Jun Zang, Jiancheng Wang, Zhihong Chen, Yan Zhang, Yong Gao, Zhijian Su, Ying Tuo, Yan Liao, Min Zhang, Qunfang Yuan, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Andy Peng Xiang
Stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation could provide a new strategy for treating the testosterone deficiency. Our previous study demonstrated that CD51 (also called integrin αv) might be a putative cell surface marker for SLCs, but the physiological function and efficacy of CD51(+) SLCs treatment remain unclear. Here, we explore the potential therapeutic benefits of CD51(+) SLCs transplantation and whether these transplanted cells can be regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. CD51(+) cells were isolated from the testes of 12-weeks-old C57BL/6 mice, and we showed that such cells expressed SLC markers and that they were capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and differentiation into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages and LCs in vitro...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090462/pretreatment-of-normal-responders-in-fresh-in-vitro-fertilization-cycles-a-comparison-of-transdermal-estradiol-and-oral-contraceptive-pills
#18
Nigel Pereira, Allison C Petrini, Zhen N Zhou, Jovana P Lekovich, Isaac Kligman, Zev Rosenwaks
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089586/natural-uranium-impairs-the-differentiation-and-the-resorbing-function-of-osteoclasts
#19
Tatiana Gritsaenko, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Thomas Lorivel, Véronique Breuil, Georges F Carle, Sabine Santucci-Darmanin
BACKGROUND: Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide ubiquitously present in the environment. The skeleton is the main site of uranium long-term accumulation. While it has been shown that natural uranium is able to perturb bone metabolism through its chemical toxicity, its impact on bone resorption by osteoclasts has been poorly explored. Here, we examined for the first time in vitro effects of natural uranium on osteoclasts. METHODS: The effects of uranium on the RAW 264...
January 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#20
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
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