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in vitro maturation

Helena Vlašínová, Vilem Neděla, Biljana Đorđević, Ladislav Havel
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is an important biotechnological technique used for the propagation of many pine species in vitro. However, in bog pine, one of the most endangered tree species in the Czech Republic, limitations were observed, which negatively influenced the development and further germination of somatic embryos. Although initiation frequency was very low-0.95 %, all obtained cell lines were subjected to maturation. The best responding cell line (BC1) was used and subjected to six different variants of the maturation media...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
After reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, unfertilised oocytes undergo a time-dependent process of quality deterioration referred to as oocyte aging. The associated morphological and cellular changes lead to decreased oocyte developmental potential. This study investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin supplementation on in vitro aged bovine oocytes and explored its underlying mechanisms. The levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and DNA damage response in bovine oocytes increased during in vitro aging...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
F M C Caixeta, R V Sousa, A L Guimarães, L O Leme, J F W Sprícigo, S B Senna Netto, I Pivato, M A N Dode
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of meiotic arrest using phosphodiesterase type 3A (PDE 3A) inhibitors, cilostamide and C-type natriuretic peptide (NPPC), on pre-maturation (PM) of oocytes to be used in the production of cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation, in vitro embryo production (IVP), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), and total cells number of cloned embryos were evaluated. The results were analysed by chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis test with a P-value 0.05) between control and PM, both for cleavage (78...
October 26, 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Joachim R Goethert, Patrick G Holt, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone-marrow precursors, however the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Fumiaki Shima, Hirokazu Narita, Ayami Hiura, Hiroshi Shimoda, Mitsuru Akashi
There is considerable global demand for three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues which mimic our native organs and tissues for use as in vitro drug screening systems and in regenerative medicine. In particular, there has been an increasing number of patients who suffer from arterial diseases such as arteriosclerosis. As such, in vitro 3D arterial wall models that can evaluate the effects of novel medicines and a novel artificial graft for the treatment are required. In our previous study, we reported the rapid construction of 3D tissues by employing a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique and revealed their potential applications in the pharmaceutical fields and tissue engineering...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
I Adamska, K Marhelava, D Walkiewicz, U Kedzierska, M Markowska, P M Majewski
Our recent research on the pineal gland of young chickens confirmed that three genes encoding enzymes involved in pineal melatonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (Asmt), are transcribed rhythmically under light:dark (L:D) 12:12 conditions in vivo. Additionally, in the pineal gland of maturing chickens, the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene is transcribed rhythmically at a specific stage of the developmental process...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
G Galeati, E Giaretta, A Zannoni, D Bucci, C Tamanini, M Forni, M Spinaci
Oxidative stress caused from in vitro culture contributes to inadequate oocyte maturation which leads to a poor embryo development. Therefore, it is important to protect oocytes and embryos against oxidative stress. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone), an antioxidant with various pharmacologic activities, on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of pig oocytes as well as on steroidogenesis of cumulus cells (CCs). Another objective was to determine the influence of Embelin on developmental competence of pig oocytes as well as the expression levels of three key genes (Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4) involved in the control of pluripotency in parthenogenetically activated embryos...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Timothy R Valentic, David R Jackson, Sean F Brady, Shiou-Chuan Sheryl Tsai
Arixanthomycins are pentangular polyphenols (PP) with potent antiproliferative activities that were discovered through the heterologous expression of environmental DNA-derived gene clusters. The biosynthesis of arixanthomycin and other PPs is unusual, because it requires several novel type II polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymes for its complete maturation. Most type II PKSs contain a ketoreductase (KR) that mediates the C7-C12 first ring cyclization and C9-reduction. In contrast, based on previous studies of product analysis and genome mining, the arixanthomycin (ARX) gene cluster like harbors a C11-reducing ketoreductase (ARX 27), a C9-C14 first-ring aromatase/cyclase (ARX 19), and an unprecedented C-17 and C-19 reducing KR (ARX 21)...
October 25, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Mehdi Hassanpour, Omid Cheraghi, Vahid Siavashi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Nouri
Introduction: A large number of cardiovascular disorders and abnormalities, notably accelerated vascular deficiencies could be related to aging changes and increased length of life. During the past decades, the discovery of different stem cells facilitates ongoing attempts for attenuating many disorders, especially in vascular beds. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells that have potent capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs). However, some documented studies reported an age-related decline in proliferation and function of many stem cells...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Yuan Shi, Yao Xiong, Yongkang Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Yilin Cao, Jing He, Wei Liu
Tenomodulin (TNMD) is a type II transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in a variety of avascular connective tissues and fat tissue. Its function remains largely unknown except for a marker for mature tenocytes. This study reports the generation of tetracycline (Tet)-on driven conditional TNMD overexpressing mice and thus to provide a tool for systemic investigation of its role in regulating functions of various tissues. The current study focuses on in vitro comparison of tenogenic differentiation potentials induced by doxycycline (Dox) treatment among bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs), adipose derived stem cells (ASCs), dermal fibroblasts (DFs) and tenocytes (TCs) of the same transgenic mice...
October 21, 2016: Gene
Erxia Du, Patrick McAllister, Venugopal Reddy Venna, Liping Xiao
Ketamine has been used safely in clinics for decades for analgesia and anesthesia. It is increasingly popular in clinical practice due to its new uses and importance for emergency procedures. It is known that ketamine is sequestered in the bone marrow and the major receptors for ketamine, noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), are expressed in osteoclasts (OCs) and osteoblasts. However, the impact of ketamine on OCs or osteoblasts is unknown. In this study we investigated the effects of ketamine on osteoclastogenesis and regulation of NMDARs expression in vitro...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ivan V Smirnov, Andrey V Golovin, Spyros D Chatziefthimiou, Anastasiya V Stepanova, Yingjie Peng, Olga I Zolotareva, Alexey A Belogurov, Inna N Kurkova, Natalie A Ponomarenko, Matthias Wilmanns, G Michael Blackburn, Alexander G Gabibov, Richard A Lerner
In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents...
October 2016: Science Advances
Ying Liu, Yang Qi, Zhi-Hui Bai, Chen-Xu Ni, Qi-Hui Ren, Wei-Heng Xu, Jing Xu, Hong-Gang Hu, Lei Qiu, Jian-Zhong Li, Zhi-Gao He, Jun-Ping Zhang
AIM: Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, which has shown chemopreventive potential against various cancers. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer efficacy of a novel derivative of matrine, (6aS, 10S, 11aR, 11bR, 11cS)-10- methylamino-dodecahydro- 3a,7a-diaza-benzo (de) (MASM), against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and their corresponding sphere cells in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human HCC cell lines (Hep3B and Huh7) were treated with MASM...
October 24, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Rafał Szatanek, Kazimierz Węglarczyk, Małgorzata Stec, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Anna Gruca, Jarosław Czyż, Maciej Siedlar
Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) play a dual role in the cytoplasm of the cells where it facilitates destruction of some antibody-coated viruses and some bacteria, and initiates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophages and CD16(+) monocyte subset can particularly participate in a proinflammatory response caused by viral infection, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the level of TRIM21-mRNA expression in monocyte subsets including: classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocytes, as well as during in vitro differentiation of the isolated monocytes towards dendritic cells or macrophages...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
J Cvetkovic, L Sofronic-Milosavljevicj, N Ilic, M Gnjatovic, I Nagano, A Gruden-Movsesijan
Excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae can induce the semi-matured status of rat dendritic cells. This may at least partly be the consequence of transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here we investigated the potential of several components of excretory-secretory antigens (native fraction containing 45, 49 and 53kDa proteins and recombinant Tsp53, representing one of the constituents of this fraction) to demonstrate previously observed effects of excretory-secretory antigens on dendritic cells in vitro, characterised by establishment of a particular phenotype (very low MHC II expression, moderate CD86 expression and significant ICAM-1 expression) and functional properties (low production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p70, and high production of IL-10 and TGF-β)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Alice Kunzler, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Juciano Gasparotto, Carolina Saibro Girardi, Karina Klafke, Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Diana Carolina Rostirolla, Alfeu Zanotto-Filho, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Phillip Dickson, Peter Dunkley, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been used as an in vitro model for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and can be induced to a mature neuronal phenotype through retinoic acid (RA) differentiation. However, mechanisms of RA-induced differentiation remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of reactive species (RS) on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under RA differentiation, using the antioxidant Trolox® as co-treatment. We found that RA treatment for 7 days reduced the cell number and proliferative capacity and induced the expression of adult catecholaminergic/neuronal markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), β-III tubulin, and enolase-2...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hiromi Koma, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Ayaka Nishi, Tatsurou Yagami
15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces neuronal cell death via apoptosis independently of its receptors. 15d-PGJ2 inhibits growth factor-induced cell proliferation of primary astrocytes via down-regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. Although 15d-PGJ2-reduced cell viability is accompanied with attenuation of the PI3K signaling in neuroblastoma, it has not been sufficiently clarified how 15d-PGJ2 induces cell death in primary neurons. Here, we found that 15d-PGJ2 exhibited neurotoxicity via inhibiting the PI3K signaling in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
October 19, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Sridhar Sanyasi, Satish Kumar, Arijit Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar Majhi, Navneet Kaur, Priyanka Choudhury, Udai P Singh, Chandan Goswami, Luna Goswami
Bone related problems are increasing as a consequence of increased life expectancy, disorders in life style, and other medical conditions enforcing the need for functional bones prepared in vitro at affordable cost. Lack of suitable surface which promotes growth of both osteogenic and nonosteogenic cells is a major limitation. Here a novel biomaterial is reported that is synthesized from natural polysaccharide, namely, tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP), which is grafted with hydrophilic acrylic acid (AA) by radical polymerization...
October 21, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
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