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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286563/antispasmodic-drugs-in-colonoscopy-a-review-of-their-pharmacology-safety-and-efficacy-in-improving-polyp-detection-and-related-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Santosh Sanagapalli, Kriti Agnihotri, Rupert Leong, Crispin John Corte
Antispasmodic drugs are cheap, effective and generally safe. They may improve outcomes in colonoscopy, however their use has not been consistent or widespread. This manuscript reviews the three most commonly used antispasmodics in colonoscopy, namely, hyoscine butylbromide (and related ammonium compounds), glucagon and peppermint oil. The pharmacology, action and safety of the agents, as well as the evidence for them improving colonoscopic outcomes will be discussed. In addition to polyp detection, other colonoscopic outcome endpoints of interest include cecal and ileal intubation, and patient comfort...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258604/the-effect-of-lunisolar-tidal-acceleration-upon-stem-elongation-growth-nutations-and-leaf-movements-in-peppermint-mentha-%C3%A3-piperita-l
#2
Urszula Zajączkowska, Peter W Barlow
• Orbital movement of the Moon generates a system of gravitational fields which periodically alters the gravitational force on Earth. This lunar tidal acceleration (Etide) is known to act as an external environmental factor affecting many growth and developmental phenomena in plants. Our study has focused on the lunar tidal influence on stem elongation growth, nutations, and leaf movements of peppermint. • Plants were continuously recorded by time-lapse photography under constant illumination as well in constant illumination following five days of alternating dark-light cycles...
March 3, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244666/when-the-low-fodmap-diet-does-not-work
#3
REVIEW
Emma P Halmos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is heterogeneous. Patients need proper assessment and explanation of IBS pathophysiology and appropriate therapies. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet effectively reduces symptoms in 75% of patients. Best treatment for those nonresponsive will depend on the pathophysiological basis for symptom genesis, with the following possible abnormalities: (i) Visceral hypersensitivity and/or enhanced gut-brain communication: a low FODMAP diet is mainly targeted for this patient group...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238460/-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation-and-functional-constipation-in-adults-treatment-part-2-of-2
#4
F Mearin, C Ciriza, M Mínguez, E Rey, J J Mascort, E Peña, P Cañones, J Júdez
In this Clinical practice guide we examine the diagnostic and therapeutic management of adult patients with constipation and abdominal discomfort, at the confluence of the spectrum of irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. Both fall within the framework of functional intestinal disorders and have major personal, health and social impact, altering the quality of life of the patients affected. The former is a subtype of irritable bowel syndrome in which constipation and altered bowel habit predominate, often along with recurring abdominal pain, bloating and abdominal distension...
February 23, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236087/gastrointestinal-pharmacology
#5
Miguel Saps, Adrian Miranda
There is little evidence for most of the medications currently used to treat functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) in children. Not only are there very few clinical trials, but also most have significant variability in the methods used and outcomes measured. Thus, the decision on the most appropriate pharmacological treatment is frequently based on adult studies or empirical data. In children, peppermint oil, trimebutine, and drotaverine have shown significant benefit compared with placebo, each of them in a single randomized clinical trial...
February 25, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208614/a-comparative-analysis-of-the-chemical-composition-anti-inflammatory-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-the-essential-oils-from-three-species-of-mentha-cultivated-in-romania
#6
Cristina Mogosan, Oliviu Vostinaru, Radu Oprean, Codruta Heghes, Lorena Filip, Georgeta Balica, Radu Ioan Moldovan
This work was aimed at correlating the chemotype of three Mentha species cultivated in Romania with an in vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of essential oils. The selected species were Mentha piperita L. var. pallescens (white peppermint), Mentha spicata L. subsp. crispata (spearmint), and Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (pineapple mint). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oils isolated from the selected Mentha species was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
February 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177705/aerobic-capacity-is-not-improved-following-10-day-supplementation-with-peppermint-essential-oil
#7
Kyle Shepherd, Daniel James Peart
This study examined the effects of peppermint essential oil (PEP) on aerobic capacity. Seven healthy participants performed a graded maximal exercise test following 10-days of ingesting either PEP or a control in a randomised cross-over design. There was no significant difference between control and PEP trials for expired gas variables (V ̇O2 peak 3.54 vs. 3.52 L/min) or performance measures (time to exhaustion 583.33 vs. 587.04 seconds). Similarly, resting cardio-pulmonary measures were also unchanged between visits...
January 30, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150115/green-synthesis-of-rifampicin-loaded-copper-nanoparticles-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#8
Marta J Woźniak-Budych, Łucja Przysiecka, Krzysztof Langer, Barbara Peplińska, Marcin Jarek, Maciej Wiesner, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Stefan Jurga
The antimicrobial properties of copper and rifampicin-loaded copper nanoparticles were investigated using four strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus pumilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Spherical-shaped copper nanoparticles were synthesized via green reduction method from the peppermint extract. It was found that adsorption of rifampicin on the copper nanosurface enhances its biological activity and prevents the development of resistance. The interactions between rifampicin-copper nanoparticles and bacteria cells were monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)...
March 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137527/use-of-herbal-product-among-pregnant-women-in-turkey
#9
Aygül Kıssal, Ümran Çevik Güner, Döndü Batkın Ertürk
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. METHODS: It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy...
February 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124962/-investigation-of-the-in-vitro-effects-of-melissa-officinalis-l-mentha-x-piperita-l-and-ocimum-basilicum-l-lamiaceae-essential-oils-on-the-cysts-and-trophozoites-of-acanthamoeba-castellani
#10
Ceren Ergüden, Soykan Özkoç, Bintuğ Öztürk, Songül Bayram Delibaş
Acanthamoeba species are free living amoeba found widely all over the world. They are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), an infection which is especially seen in contact lens users and after minor corneal traumas, that may lead blindness. At present, antifungals and antiseptics are used for the treatment of AK cases, however, some problems such as long treatment periods and the occurrence of side effects, resistance of cyst forms against drugs, emphasize the need for new drugs. There are some published studies that pointed out the effectiveness of plant extracts and essential oils on Acanthamoeba spp...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079933/co-expression-of-peppermint-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-small-subunit-enhances-monoterpene-production-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#11
Jun-Lin Yin, Woon-Seng Wong, In-Cheol Jang, Nam-Hai Chua
Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070851/development-of-a-sustained-antiplaque-and-antimicrobial-chewing-gum-of-a-decapeptide
#12
Abeer M Al-Ghananeem, Kai P Leung, Jabar Faraj, Patrick P DeLuca
The objective of this paper was to design a chewing gum formulation delivery system in situations where typical dental hygiene practice is not practical. Thus, an analog of decapeptide KSL (KSL-W), known to possess antimicrobial and antiplaque activity, was incorporated into a chewing gum formulation containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The effect of the excipients, xylitol, and peppermint oil on active ingredients in vitro release was also assessed. Gum formulations were prepared with different excipient parameters, including heating xylitol and gum base at 65 or 85°C, using ground and unground xylitol, and the addition of 1...
January 9, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070176/advances-in-ibs-2016-a-review-of-current-and-emerging-data
#13
Philip S Schoenfeld
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic intermittent abdominal pain and associated diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), or both. IBS can significantly impact patient function and quality of life. The diagnosis of IBS is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms, the exclusion of concerning features, and selected tests to exclude organic diseases that can mimic IBS. The pathophysiology of IBS remains incompletely understood, and new contributing factors have been identified over the past decade...
August 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063268/evaluation-of-the-quality-of-herbal-teas-by-dart-tof-ms
#14
Jana Prchalová, František Kovařík, Aleš Rajchl
The paper focuses on the optimization, settings and validation of direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with time of flight detector (TOF) when used for the evaluation of the quality of selected herbal teas (fennel, chamomile, nettle, linden, peppermint, thyme, lemon balm, marigold, sage, rose hip, St. John's Wort). The ionization mode, the optimal ionization temperature and the type of solvent for sample extraction were optimized. The characteristic compounds of the analysed herbal teas (glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic and terpenic substances, such as chamazulene, anethole, menthol, thymol, salviol, hypericin etc...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011360/effects-of-peppermint-tea-consumption-on-the-activities-of-cyp1a2-cyp2a6-xanthine-oxidase-n-acetyltranferase-2-and-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-1a1-1a6-in-healthy-volunteers
#15
Elias Begas, Athanasia Tsioutsiouliti, Evangelos Kouvaras, Serkos A Haroutounian, Konstantinos M Kasiotis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Eftihia Asprodini
Peppermint leaves are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders. Previous studies have shown significant effects of its natural products on human enzyme activity; however, there is no study available concerning the effects of peppermint tea on metabolizing enzymes in humans. Aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peppermint tea on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, Xanthine Oxidase (XO), N-acetyltranferase-2 (NAT2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases-1A1/1A6 (UGT1A1/1A6) activities in healthy subjects...
February 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867107/draft-genome-sequence-of-mentha-longifolia-and-development-of-resources-for-mint-cultivar-improvement
#16
Kelly J Vining, Sean R Johnson, Amirhossein Ahkami, Iris Lange, Amber N Parrish, Susan C Trapp, Rodney B Croteau, Shannon C K Straub, Iovanna Pandelova, B Markus Lange
The genus Mentha encompasses mint species cultivated for their essential oils, which are formulated into a vast array of consumer products. Desirable oil characteristics and resistance to the fungal disease Verticillium wilt are top priorities for the mint industry. However, cultivated mints have complex polyploid genomes and are sterile. Breeding efforts, therefore, require the development of genomic resources for fertile mint species. Here, we present draft de novo genome and plastome assemblies for a wilt-resistant South African accession of Mentha longifolia (L...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785084/effectiveness-of-topical-peppermint-oil-on-symptomatic-treatment-of-chronic-pruritus
#17
Lotfy T Elsaie, Abdelraouf M El Mohsen, Ibrahim M Ibrahim, Mahmoud H Mohey-Eddin, Mohamed L Elsaie
BACKGROUND: Pruritus is one of the commonest skin complaints. Peppermint oil can be effective in reducing the severity of such a condition. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topically applied peppermint oil in the treatment of chronic pruritus. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty selected subjects diagnosed with chronic pruritus due to hepatic, renal, or diabetic cause were studied and divided into two groups of 25 patients each...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775966/essential-oils-part-v-peppermint-oil-lavender-oil-and-lemongrass-oil
#18
Anton de Groot, Erich Schmidt
Some aspects of peppermint oil, lavender oil, and lemongrass oil are discussed including their botanical origin, uses of the plants and the oils, chemical composition, contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from these essential oils, and causative allergenic ingredients.
November 2016: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698173/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mastitis-in-two-goats-associated-with-an-essential-oil-based-teat-dip
#19
E Jane Kelly, David J Wilson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696378/probiotics-fiber-and-herbal-medicinal-products-for-functional-and-inflammatory-bowel-disorders
#20
Diego Currò, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Giovanni Cammarota
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs), mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC, also called chronic idiopathic constipation), are highly diffused worldwide. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, although less common, has a strong impact on patients' quality of life, as well as is highly expensive for our healthcare. A definite cure for those disorders is still yet to come. Over the years, several therapeutic approaches complementary or alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fiber and herbal medicinal products, have been investigated for the management of both groups of diseases...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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