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Ebola eye

Robert A Blair, Benjamin S Morse, Lily L Tsai
Trust in government has long been viewed as an important determinant of citizens' compliance with public health policies, especially in times of crisis. Yet evidence on this relationship remains scarce, particularly in the developing world. We use results from a representative survey conducted during the 2014-15 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Monrovia, Liberia to assess the relationship between trust in government and compliance with EVD control interventions. We find that respondents who expressed low trust in government were much less likely to take precautions against EVD in their homes, or to abide by government-mandated social distancing mechanisms designed to contain the spread of the virus...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jessica G Shantha, Ian Crozier, Brent R Hayek, Beau B Bruce, Catherine Gargu, Jerry Brown, John Fankhauser, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE: To describe the ocular findings, visual impairment, and association of structural complications of uveitis with visual impairment in a cohort of survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia. DESIGN: Retrospective, uncontrolled, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Survivors of EVD who were evaluated in an ophthalmology clinic at Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. METHODS: A cohort of EVD survivors who underwent baseline ophthalmic evaluation at ELWA Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, length of Ebola treatment unit (ETU) stay, visual acuity (VA), and ophthalmic examination findings...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmology
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Reshma Roshania, Michaela Mallow, Nelson Dunbar, David Mansary, Pranav Shetty, Taralyn Lyon, Kacey Pham, Matthew Abad, Erin Shedd, Anh-Minh A Tran, Sarah Cundy, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest ever recorded. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) managed 5 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Liberia and Sierra Leone, which cumulatively cared for about 2,500 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient data collected at the 5 ETUs over 1 year of operations. METHODS: To collect clinical and epidemiological data from the patient care areas, each chart was either manually copied across the fence between the high-risk zone and low-risk zone, imaged across the fence, or imaged in the high-risk zone...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Jessica G Shantha, Steven Yeh, Quan Dong Nguyen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The world has witnessed the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa with an unprecedented number of infected individuals and survivors. Many systemic and ocular complications have been reported in survivors. Herein, we review the ophthalmic complications associated with Ebolavirus. RECENT FINDINGS: EVD causes ocular disease during acute infection and during convalescence. Acute patients manifest with conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhages, and acute vision loss of unclear cause...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Elizabeth A Nelson, Alyson B Barnes, Ronald D Wiehle, Gregory K Fontenot, Thomas Hoenen, Judith M White
The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in Western Africa highlighted the need for anti-EBOV therapeutics. Clomiphene is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug that blocks EBOV entry and infection in cells and significantly protects EBOV-challenged mice. As provided, clomiphene is, approximately, a 60:40 mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene and zuclomiphene. The pharmacokinetic properties of the two isomers vary, but both accumulate in the eye and male reproductive tract, tissues in which EBOV can persist...
2016: Viruses
Amanda Tiffany, Pauline Vetter, John Mattia, Julie-Anne Dayer, Maria Bartsch, Miriam Kasztura, Esther Sterk, Ana Maria Tijerino, Laurent Kaiser, Iza Ciglenecki
BACKGROUND: Thousands of people have survived Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the ongoing outbreak. However, data about the frequency and risk factors of long-term post-EVD complications remain scarce. We describe the clinical characteristics of EVD survivors followed in a survivor clinic in Freetown, Sierra Leone. METHODS: A survivor clinic opened within an Ebola treatment center compound in Freetown, Sierra Leone. At each visit, clinical and psychological assessments were conducted and free treatment was offered...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
F Selcen Kilinc
The threat of emerging infectious diseases including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and SARS has highlighted the need for effective personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors. PPE is a critical component in the hierarchy of controls used to protect HCWs from infectious hazards. HCW PPE may include gowns, respirators, face masks, gloves, eye protection, face shields, and head and shoe coverings. Important research has been conducted in certain areas, such as respirators and protective masks, but studies in other areas, particularly gowns, are scarce...
September 2015: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
Travis K Warren, Robert Jordan, Michael K Lo, Adrian S Ray, Richard L Mackman, Veronica Soloveva, Dustin Siegel, Michel Perron, Roy Bannister, Hon C Hui, Nate Larson, Robert Strickley, Jay Wells, Kelly S Stuthman, Sean A Van Tongeren, Nicole L Garza, Ginger Donnelly, Amy C Shurtleff, Cary J Retterer, Dima Gharaibeh, Rouzbeh Zamani, Tara Kenny, Brett P Eaton, Elizabeth Grimes, Lisa S Welch, Laura Gomba, Catherine L Wilhelmsen, Donald K Nichols, Jonathan E Nuss, Elyse R Nagle, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Gustavo Palacios, Edward Doerffler, Sean Neville, Ernest Carra, Michael O Clarke, Lijun Zhang, Willard Lew, Bruce Ross, Queenie Wang, Kwon Chun, Lydia Wolfe, Darius Babusis, Yeojin Park, Kirsten M Stray, Iva Trancheva, Joy Y Feng, Ona Barauskas, Yili Xu, Pamela Wong, Molly R Braun, Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Shan-Shan Chen, Rachel Fearns, Swami Swaminathan, Douglas L Mayers, Christina F Spiropoulou, William A Lee, Stuart T Nichol, Tomas Cihlar, Sina Bavari
The most recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was unprecedented in the number of cases and fatalities, geographic distribution, and number of nations affected, highlights the need for safe, effective, and readily available antiviral agents for treatment and prevention of acute Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) or sequelae. No antiviral therapeutics have yet received regulatory approval or demonstrated clinical efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule GS-5734, a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue, with antiviral activity against EBOV...
March 17, 2016: Nature
Johan van Griensven, Tansy Edwards, Xavier de Lamballerie, Malcolm G Semple, Pierre Gallian, Sylvain Baize, Peter W Horby, Hervé Raoul, N'Faly Magassouba, Annick Antierens, Carolyn Lomas, Ousmane Faye, Amadou A Sall, Katrien Fransen, Jozefien Buyze, Raffaella Ravinetto, Pierre Tiberghien, Yves Claeys, Maaike De Crop, Lutgarde Lynen, Elhadj Ibrahima Bah, Peter G Smith, Alexandre Delamou, Anja De Weggheleire, Nyankoye Haba
BACKGROUND: In the wake of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in several African countries, the World Health Organization prioritized the evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma derived from patients who have recovered from the disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of EVD in Guinea. METHODS: In this nonrandomized, comparative study, 99 patients of various ages (including pregnant women) with confirmed EVD received two consecutive transfusions of 200 to 250 ml of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, with each unit of plasma obtained from a separate convalescent donor...
January 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
U Pleyer, V Klauß, H Wilking, M M Nentwich
A number of "new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing and becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now expanding worldwide and causing significant morbidity and even mortality. "Globalization" and human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, and may lead to autochthonous transmission of infectious pathogens...
January 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Amesh A Adalja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Health Security
Noah Rosenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Hastings Center Report
Jennifer DeMatteo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: JAMA Ophthalmology
A Rousseau, M Labetoulle
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, which was declared as such in West Africa in March 2014, has become the largest EVD epidemic to date. It is the first time that EVD has been responsible for cases imported to the US as well as locally-acquired cases in Europe. Research on pathophysiology and treatment has been considerably accelerated, and more precise descriptions of various forms of ocular involvement have been obtained. Conjunctival hyperemia is often present during the acute phase, and it may contribute to the diagnosis of EVD in an epidemic context...
October 2015: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Lee M Jampol, Frederick L Ferris, Rachel J Bishop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: JAMA Ophthalmology
Naomi Attar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Derron A Alves, Anna N Honko, Mark G Kortepeter, Mei Sun, Joshua C Johnson, Luis A Lugo-Roman, Lisa E Hensley
A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Naomi Attar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Ho Yeon Lee, Hansaem Jeong, Il Young Jung, Bora Jang, Young Chang Seo, Haeshin Lee, Hyukjin Lee
H. Lee and co-workers demonstrate, on page 3513, the novel platform for rapid and accurate detection of infectious pathogens. "DNA hydrogel formation by isothermal amplification of complementary target in fluidic channels" (DhITACT) enables the naked-eye detection of ebola and Bacillus Anthracis using a microfluidic array chip by selective blockage of the matching channels through in situ hydrogel formation when target pathogen strands are present.
June 2015: Advanced Materials
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