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Metabolic diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667921/glycemic-control-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-across-stages-of-renal-impairment-information-for-primary-care-providers
#1
Lili Tong, Sharon Adler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevates individuals' risk for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in T2DM. Achieving and maintaining tight glycemic control is key to preventing development or progression of CKD; however, improving glycemic control may be limited by effects of renal impairment on the efficacy and safety of T2DM treatments, necessitating dosing adjustments and careful evaluation of contraindications...
April 18, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667589/a-rare-cause-of-dysregulated-metabolic-syndrome-cortisol-producing-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#2
L Saes, I A Boere, J Hofland, M Mulder, R A Feelders
Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and highly malignant disease which can cause hypercortisolism leading to dysregulation of blood pressure and glucose levels. Most patients present with advanced disease. We describe the classic presentation of a functional adrenocortical carcinoma in a patient with metabolic syndrome.
April 2018: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#3
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667130/beneficial-effects-of-the-calcium-channel-blocker-ctk-01512-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Rodrigo B M Silva, Samuel Greggio, Gianina T Venturin, Jaderson C da Costa, Marcus V Gomez, Maria M Campos
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play a critical role in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). CTK 01512-2 is a recombinant version of the peptide Phα1β derived from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, which inhibits N-type VGCC/TRPA1-mediated calcium influx. We investigated the effects of this molecule in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effects of CTK 01512-2 were compared to those displayed by ziconotide-a selective N-type VGCC blocker clinically used for chronic pain-and fingolimod-a drug employed for MS treatment...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667027/neonatal-overfeeding-impairs-differentiation-potential-of-mice-subcutaneous-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Isabelle Dias, Ísis Salviano, André Mencalha, Simone Nunes de Carvalho, Alessandra Alves Thole, Laís Carvalho, Erika Cortez, Ana Carolina Stumbo
Nutritional changes in the development (intrauterine life and postnatal period) may trigger long-term pathophysiological complications such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic programming leads to organs and tissues modifications, including adipose tissue, with increased lipogenesis, production of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased glucose uptake. However, stem cells participation in adipose tissue dysfunctions triggered by overfeeding during lactation has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was the first to evaluate the effect of metabolic programming on adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) from mice submitted to overfeeding during lactation, using the litter reduction model...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667012/bone-marrow-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-biology
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666732/renal-tubular-acidosis-an-adverse-effect-of-pd-1-inhibitor-immunotherapy
#7
Sandy El Bitar, Chanudi Weerasinghe, Elie El-Charabaty, Marcel Odaimi
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666405/mediators-of-the-effects-of-gender-on-uric-acid-nephrolithiasis-a-novel-application-of-structural-equation-modeling
#8
Hao-Wei Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Frances M Yang, Wen-Jeng Wu, Ching-Chia Li, Yong-Yuan Chang, Yii-Her Chou
Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that male patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis outnumber female patients. To our knowledge, no research exists evaluating the reasons gender affects the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis. We hereby used a novel application of structural equation modeling to analyze the mediators of the effects of gender on uric acid nephrolithiasis. In 1,098 patients with nephrolithiasis between 2012 and 2016, male gender was found to have a statistically significant positive indirect effect on the development of uric acid nephrolithiasis, which was mediated by lower urine pH (estimate: 0...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666214/metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Cara Tomas, Julia Newton
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666185/hepatocyte-nuclear-receptor-shp-suppresses-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
An Zou, Nancy Magee, Fengyan Deng, Sarah Lehn, Cuncong Zhong, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis without hepatocellular injury) to the more aggressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, steatosis with ballooning, inflammation, or fibrosis). Although many studies have greatly contributed to the elucidation of NAFLD pathogenesis, the disease progression from NAFL to NASH still remains incompletely understood. Nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (Nr0b2, SHP) is a transcriptional regulator critical for the regulation of bile acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666172/genetic-editing-of-colonic-organoids-provides-a-molecularly-distinct-and-orthotopic-preclinical-model-of-serrated-carcinogenesis
#11
Tamsin R M Lannagan, Young K Lee, Tongtong Wang, Jatin Roper, Mark L Bettington, Lochlan Fennell, Laura Vrbanac, Lisa Jonavicius, Roshini Somashekar, Krystyna Gieniec, Miao Yang, Jia Q Ng, Nobumi Suzuki, Mari Ichinose, Josephine A Wright, Hiroki Kobayashi, Tracey L Putoczki, Yoku Hayakawa, Simon J Leedham, Helen E Abud, Ömer H Yilmaz, Julie Marker, Sonja Klebe, Pratyaksha Wirapati, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Sabine Tejpar, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall, Daniel L Worthley, Susan L Woods
OBJECTIVE: Serrated colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for approximately 25% of cases and includes tumours that are among the most treatment resistant and with worst outcomes. This CRC subtype is associated with activating mutations in the mitogen-activated kinase pathway gene, BRAF , and epigenetic modifications termed the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, leading to epigenetic silencing of key tumour suppressor genes. It is still not clear which (epi-)genetic changes are most important in neoplastic progression and we begin to address this knowledge gap herein...
April 17, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666156/circulating-bacterial-fragments-as-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-ckd
#12
Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Christopher William McIntyre, Philip Kam-Tao Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with CKD. In the past decade, intestinal dysbiosis and altered gut epithelial barrier function are increasingly recognized in CKD. Uremic patients have slow intestinal transit time, impaired protein assimilation, and decreased consumption of dietary fiber. The use of multiple medications also may contribute to the proliferation of dysbiotic bacteria, which affect the barrier function of intestinal epithelium. In addition, fluid overload and uremic toxins per se directly reduce the gut barrier function...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666152/phenylmethimazole-abrogates-diet-induced-inflammation-glucose-intolerance-and-nafld
#13
Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank L Schwartz, Kelly D McCall
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases and has become the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. High fat (HF) diets promote an increased uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes, which initiates steatosis and induces lipotoxicity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Activation and signaling of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by FFAs induces inflammation evident in NAFLD and insulin resistance...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666038/correlation-of-serum-ccl3-mip-1%C3%AE-levels-with-disease-severity-in-postmenopausal-osteoporotic-females
#14
Hui Wan, Tie-Yong Qian, Xiao-Jing Hu, Ci-You Huang, Wei-Feng Yao
BACKGROUND: The pro-inflammatory protein chemokine cytokine ligand 3 is well-established as a vital regulator of bone resorption and osteoclasts stimulation. AIMS: We sought to investigate if serum chemokine cytokine ligand 3 levels correlated with disease severity in postmenopausal osteoporosis females. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional Study. METHODS: 82 postmenopausal osteoporotic females, 76 postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women and 80 healthy female at childbearing age were recruited...
April 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665987/beyond-ldl-what-role-for-pcsk9-in-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Wieneke Dijk, Cédric Le May, Bertrand Cariou
Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin 9 (PCSK9) - a protein therapeutically targeted to lower plasma cholesterol levels - might regulate plasma TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) levels. We provide a timely and critical review of the current evidence for a role of PCSK9 in TRL metabolism by assessing the impact of PCSK9 gene variants, by reviewing recent clinical data with PCSK9 inhibitors, and by describing the potential mechanisms by which PCSK9 might regulate TRL metabolism...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665950/conducting-efficacy-trials-in-children-with-mdr-tb-what-is-the-rationale-and-how-should-they-be-done
#16
J A Seddon, E D Weld, H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, S Kim, A C Hesseling
Paediatric anti-tuberculosis treatment trials have traditionally been limited to Phase I/II studies evaluating the drug pharmacokinetics and safety in children, with assumptions about efficacy made by extrapolating data from adults. However, it is increasingly being recognised that, in some circumstances, efficacy trials are required in children. The current treatment for children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is long and toxic; shorter, safer regimens, using novel agents, require urgent evaluation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665813/neck-circumference-as-an-independent-indicator-of-visceral-obesity-in-a-chinese-population
#17
Li Zhao, Guolan Huang, Fangzhen Xia, Qin Li, Bing Han, Yi Chen, Chi Chen, Dongping Lin, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. METHODS: Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665549/combination-of-cyp2c19-genotype-with-non-genetic-factors-evoking-phenoconversion-improves-phenotype-prediction
#18
Ádám Ferenc Kiss, Dorottya Vaskó, Máté Tamás Déri, Katalin Tóth, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, responsible for metabolism of approximately 10% of the drugs on the market. Large inter-individual differences exist in metabolic activities, which are primarily attributed to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene. Conflicting results have been published about the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and clinical outcomes; thus, we aimed to investigate CYP2C19 genotype-phenotype associations, and we sought to elicit potential causes of discrepancies in the genotype-based prediction by incorporating the liver donors' demographic data, drug administration events and pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665359/lipidomic-insight-into-cardiovascular-diseases
#19
Shohei Kohno, Audrey L Keenan, James M Ntambi, Makoto Miyazaki
Cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is of major interest to identify sensitive molecular markers that predict cardiovascular events and point to therapeutic strategies that will increase lifespans. Dysregulated lipid metabolism is recognized as an established risk factor in cardiovascular diseases. However, it is still largely unknown which specific lipid molecular species reflect cardiovascular risk. In addition, understanding the whole lipidome signature in vascular pathophysiology is challenging...
April 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665066/serotonin-beta-amyloid-and-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Vikas Kotagal, Cathie Spino, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Robert A Koeppe, Roger L Albin
OBJECTIVE: Serotoninergic neurotransmission may modulate beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) metabolism through up-regulation of alpha-secretase. Early Parkinson disease (PD) shows variable serotoninergic denervation, which may impact Aβ deposition. METHODS: We conducted three analyses to explore associations between serotoninergic neurotransmission and cerebral Aβ burden in PD. The first was a cross-sectional imaging study of PD subjects (n=23) using the serotoninergic transporter positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [11 C]DASB and amyloid PET Pittsburgh compound B ([11 C]PiB)...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
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