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Myopia control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351777/are-minor-alleles-more-likely-to-be-risk-alleles
#1
Takashi Kido, Weronika Sikora-Wohlfeld, Minae Kawashima, Shinichi Kikuchi, Naoyuki Kamatani, Anil Patwardhan, Richard Chen, Marina Sirota, Keiichi Kodama, Dexter Hadley, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed relationships between over 57,000 genetic variants and diseases. However, unlike Mendelian diseases, complex diseases arise from the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Natural selection has led to a high tendency of risk alleles to be enriched in minor alleles in Mendelian diseases. Therefore, an allele that was previously advantageous or neutral may later become harmful, making it a risk allele. METHODS: Using data in the NHGRI-EBI Catalog and the VARIMED database, we investigated whether (1) GWASs more easily detect risk alleles and (2) facilitate evolutionary insights by comparing risk allele frequencies of different diseases...
January 19, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341978/assessment-of-clinical-trials-for-devices-intended-to-control-myopia-progression-in-children
#2
Marc W Robboy, Gene Hilmantel, Michelle E Tarver, Malvina B Eydelman
The increased prevalence of myopia in the United States and other regions of the world, and the sight-threatening problems associated with higher levels of myopia have led to great interest in research designed to reduce these rates. As most of the progression of myopia occurs in childhood, these investigations have been directed toward slowing the progression of myopia in children. Treatments described to potentially slow the progression of myopia have included pharmacological interventions, multifocal spectacles, and multifocal correction created by contact lenses...
January 15, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321650/rna-seq-analysis-and-comparison-of-corneal-epithelium-in-keratoconus-and-myopia-patients
#3
Jingjing You, Susan M Corley, Li Wen, Chris Hodge, Roland Höllhumer, Michele C Madigan, Marc R Wilkins, Gerard Sutton
Keratoconus is a common degenerative corneal disease that can lead to significant visual morbidity, and both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. We compared the transcriptome of keratoconus and control epithelium using RNA-Seq. Epithelial tissues were obtained prior to surgery from keratoconus and myopia control patients, undergoing collagen cross-linking and photorefractive keratectomy, respectively. We identified major differences in keratoconus linked to cell-cell communication, cell signalling and cellular metabolism...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315718/experimental-investigation-of-accommodation-in-eyes-fit-with-multifocal-contact-lenses-using-a-clinical-auto-refractor
#4
Basal H Altoaimi, Pete Kollbaum, Dawn Meyer, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: Multifocal or multi-zone contact lenses are increasingly being fit to young eyes in an attempt to control myopia progression. However, success in achieving this aim may depend on how much the eye accommodates. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the ability of an open-field clinical autorefractor to measure on-axis refractive state and accommodation in eyes fit with multifocal contact lenses (CLs). METHODS: Refractive state was measured with a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor (www...
January 8, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259905/negative-effects-of-transthyretin-in-high-myopic-vitreous-on-diabetic-retinopathy
#5
Jun Shao, Yong Yao
AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR) levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF), Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259393/the-retina-rpe-proteome-in-chick-myopia-and-hyperopia-models-commonalities-with-inherited-and-age-related-ocular-pathologies
#6
Nina Riddell, Pierre Faou, Melanie Murphy, Loretta Giummarra, Rachael A Downs, Harinda Rajapaksha, Sheila G Crewther
Purpose: Microarray and RNA sequencing studies in the chick model of early optically induced refractive error have implicated thousands of genes, many of which have also been linked to ocular pathologies in humans, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization, glaucoma, and cataract. These findings highlight the potential relevance of the chick model to understanding both refractive error development and the progression to secondary pathological complications...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233084/a-model-for-meta-analysis-of-correlated-binary-outcomes-the-case-of-split-body-interventions
#7
Orestis Efthimiou, Dimitris Mavridis, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Gerta Rücker, Sven Trelle, Matthias Egger, Georgia Salanti
In several areas of clinical research, it is common for trials to assign different sites of the participants' bodies to different interventions. For example, a randomized controlled trial comparing surgical techniques for correcting myopia may randomize each eye of a participant to a different operation. Under such bilateral ('split-body') interventions, the observations from each participant are correlated. It is challenging to account for these correlations at the meta-analysis level, especially when the outcome is rare...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216865/effect-of-orthokeratology-on-myopia-progression-twelve-year-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Yueh-Chang Lee, Jen-Hung Wang, Cheng-Jen Chiu
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported the efficacy of orthokeratology for myopia control. Somehow, there is limited publication with follow-up longer than 3 years. This study aims to research whether overnight orthokeratology influences the progression rate of the manifest refractive error of myopic children in a longer follow-up period (up to 12 years). And if changes in progression rate are found, to investigate the relationship between refractive changes and different baseline factors, including refraction error, wearing age and lens replacement frequency...
December 8, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213204/in-vitro-release-of-two-anti-muscarinic-drugs-from-soft-contact-lenses
#9
Alex Hui, Magdalena Bajgrowicz-Cieslak, Chau-Minh Phan, Lyndon Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of the anti-myopia drugs atropine sulfate and pirenzepine dihydrochloride from commercially available soft contact lenses. Standard ultraviolet (UV) absorbance-concentration curves were generated for atropine and pirenzepine. Ten commercially available contact lenses, including four multifocal lenses, were loaded by soaking in atropine or pirenzepine solutions at two different concentrations (10 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL). The release of the drugs into phosphate-buffered saline was determined over the course of 24 hours at 34°C using UV absorbance...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212820/vision-in-former-very-low-birthweight-young-adults-with-and-without-retinopathy-of-prematurity-compared-with-term-born-controls-the-nz-1986-vlbw-follow-up-study
#10
Brian A Darlow, Mark J Elder, Bridget Kimber, Julia Martin, L John Horwood
OBJECTIVE: There are few data on visual outcomes in adulthood of former very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) infants. We aimed to assess vision at 27-29 years in a national cohort of VLBW infants born in 1986 and assessed for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when no treatment was available, compared with term born controls. METHODS: The cohort and controls attended a 2-day assessment in Christchurch as part of a larger study. Visual assessment included glasses prescription measured by focimeter, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) distance visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, autorefraction, retinal photographs and a questionnaire on vision-related everyday activities...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210828/predicting-short-term-subjective-vision-performance-of-contact-lenses-used-in-myopia-control
#11
Jennie Diec, Daniel Tilia, Varghese Thomas, Ravi C Bakaraju
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether initial assessment of contact lenses prescribed for myopia control (MC) predicts short-term visual performance. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 43 participants in a double-masked, randomized, cross-over trial wearing at least one lens: single-vision (SV) lens (1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST) or MC lenses (MiSight or Proclear Multifocal-Distance +2.00D). Participants completed questionnaires at the fitting visit, a take-home questionnaire (THQ) 3 days after fitting and finally at the assessment visit (≥5 days after fitting)...
November 28, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204068/%C3%AE-adrenergic-agonist-brimonidine-control-of-experimentally-induced-myopia-in-guinea-pigs-a-pilot-study
#12
Yan Liu, Yuexin Wang, Huibin Lv, Xiaodan Jiang, Mingzhou Zhang, Xuemin Li
Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of α-adrenergic agonist brimonidine either alone or combined with pirenzepine for inhibiting progressing myopia in guinea pig lens-myopia-induced models. Methods: Thirty-six guinea pigs were randomly divided into six groups: Group A received 2% pirenzepine, Group B received 0.2% brimonidine, Group C received 0.1% brimonidine, Group D received 2% pirenzepine + 0.2% brimonidine, Group E received 2% pirenzepine + 0.1% brimonidine, and Group F received the medium...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192640/axial-length-corneal-radius-of-curvature-ratio-and-refractive-status-in-an-adult-nigerian-population
#13
S A Badmus, A I Ajaiyeoba, B O Adegbehingbe, O H Onakpoya, A O Adeoye
AIM/BACKGROUND: Associations between axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CR) ratio and refractive status in a healthy Nigerian adult population were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy students and members of staff of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria, free of obvious ocular diseases except possible refractive errors were recruited. Consecutive consenting volunteers were recruited by simple random sampling and a proportionate sample of each population based on its representative fraction in the hospital community was recruited...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183275/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-undercorrected-refractive-errors-among-people-with-diabetes-in-shanghai
#14
Mengjun Zhu, Xiaowei Tong, Rong Zhao, Xiangui He, Huijuan Zhao, Jianfeng Zhu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of undercorrected refractive error (URE) among people with diabetes in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, where data for undercorrected refractive error are limited. METHODS: The study was a population-based survey of 649 persons (aged 60 years or older) with diabetes in Baoshan, Shanghai in 2009. One copy of the questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography...
November 28, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167808/small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-in-the-correction-of-myopic-astigmatism-outcomes-and-limitations-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Jorge L Alió Del Barrio, Verónica Vargas, Olena Al-Shymali, Jorge L Alió
Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) is a flap-free intrastromal technique for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. To date, this technique lacks automated centration and cyclotorsion control, so several concerns have been raised regarding its capability to correct moderate or high levels of astigmatism. The objective of this paper is to review the reported SMILE outcomes for the correction of myopic astigmatism associated with a cylinder over 0.75 D, and its comparison with the outcomes reported with the excimer laser-based corneal refractive surgery techniques...
2017: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165412/-stabilizing-effectiveness-of-orthokeratology-and-long-term-minute-concentration-atropine-therapy-in-myopia-draft-report
#16
T Yu Verzhanskaya, E P Tarutta
The rational for the study was the high prevalence of myopia in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), myopia is one of the five leading causes of blindness and low vision. Of recent reports on conservative measures for the stabilization of myopia, two areas of investigation deserve attention: methods of optical correction that affect peripheral refraction, orthokeratology lenses (OKL) in particular, and pharmacotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of myopia control in pediatric patients by combining two methods - OKL wearing and instillation of extra low doses of atropine (0...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146755/ocular-findings-in-loeys-dietz-syndrome
#17
Catharina Busch, Robert Voitl, Barbara Goergen, Tomasz Zemojtel, Petra Gehle, Daniel J Salchow
BACKGROUND: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder, is characterised by systemic manifestations including arterial aneurysm and craniofacial dysmorphologies. Although ocular involvement in LDS has been reported, detailed information on those manifestations is lacking. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with diagnosed LDS and comparison with age-matched control patients. RESULTS: Mean age was 37...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137074/refractive-state-and-optical-compositions-of-preterm-children-with-and-without-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-the-first-6-years-of-life
#18
Xiaohui Zhu, Rulian Zhao, Yang Wang, Lijuan Ouyang, Jing Yang, Yong Li, Lianhong Pi
This study aimed to investigate the refractive state and optical compositions of preterm children with and without mild retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and explore the influence of prematurity and mild ROP on the development of refractive state and optical compositions.Preterm children who received fundus screening were recruited, and divided into ROP group and non-ROP group. Term children matched in age were also recruited as controls. Several correspondence indicators were measured before and after ciliary muscle paralysis with 1% cyclopentanone...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135319/crosslinking-enzyme-lysyl-oxidase-modulates-scleral-remodeling-in-form-deprivation-myopia
#19
Ying Yuan, Min Li, Qingzhong Chen, Rao Me, Yunjie Yu, Qing Gu, Guangsen Shi, Bilian Ke
PURPOSE: Scleral remodeling causes the excessive ocular elongation that underlies myopia. Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-containing amine oxidase, can catalyze collagen and elastin crosslinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of LOX in scleral remodeling in form-deprivation myopia (FDM). METHODS: Seventy-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups as follows: a normal control group, an FDM group, an FDM plus β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) group, an FDM plus TGF-β1 (TGF-β1) group, and an FDM plus vehicle group...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117415/risk-factors-for-opaque-bubble-layer-in-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile
#20
Liuyang Li, Julie M Schallhorn, Jiaonan Ma, Lin Zhang, Rui Dou, Yan Wang
PURPOSE: To assess the independent effect of myopia and astigmatism on the risk of the occurrence of opaque bubble layer (OBL) in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and further investigate the relationship between scanning depth and OBL. METHODS: Twenty-two cases and 317 controls were included in a case-control study from the database of Tianjin Eye Hospital from April 2015 to July 2016. Baseline characteristics were recorded and all of the eyes were manually reviewed by two different observers masked to preoperative refractive status...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
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