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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637181/crosstalk-between-histone-modifications-indicates-that-inhibition-of-arginine-methyltransferase-carm1-activity-reverses-hiv-latency
#1
Zheng Zhang, Bryan C Nikolai, Leah A Gates, Sung Yun Jung, Edward B Siwak, Bin He, Andrew P Rice, Bert W O'Malley, Qin Feng
In eukaryotic cells, the gene expression status is strictly controlled by epigenetic modifications on chromatin. The repressive status of chromatin largely contributes to HIV latency. Studies have shown that modification of histone H3K27 acts as a key molecular switch for activation or suppression of many cellular genes. In this study, we found that K27-acetylated histone H3 specifically recruited Super Elongation Complex (SEC), the transcriptional elongation complex essential for HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated and general cellular transcription...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#2
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634857/computational-modelling-of-cancer-development-and-growth-modelling-at-multiple-scales-and-multiscale-modelling
#3
Zuzanna Szymańska, Maciej Cytowski, Elaine Mitchell, Cicely K Macnamara, Mark A J Chaplain
In this paper, we present two mathematical models related to different aspects and scales of cancer growth. The first model is a stochastic spatiotemporal model of both a synthetic gene regulatory network (the example of a three-gene repressilator is given) and an actual gene regulatory network, the NF-[Formula: see text]B pathway. The second model is a force-based individual-based model of the development of a solid avascular tumour with specific application to tumour cords, i.e. a mass of cancer cells growing around a central blood vessel...
June 20, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631561/proinflammatory-follicular-helper-t-cells-promote-immunoglobulin-g-secretion-suppress-regulatory-b-cell-development-and-correlate-with-worse-clinical-outcomes-in-gastric-cancer
#4
Hong Zhang, Rongxi Yue, Pengfei Zhao, Xuetao Yu, Junguo Li, Guoqing Ma, Jiahong Tang, Lixin Zhang, Liying Feng, Lidong Sun, Zongchang Song, Chunliang Guo, Ning Wang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common and aggressive malignancies. Both bacterial virulence factors and host chronic inflammation are thought to promote gastric cancer development. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of follicular helper T cells in gastric cancer. Functions of follicular helper T subsets were examined in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer patients and H. pylori-infected but asymptomatic individuals. We found that the follicular helper T cells in gastric cancer individuals were skewed toward the Th1 and Th17 subsets compared to those in H...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631500/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation-are-promoted-by-protein-kinase-g-type-i%C3%AE-and-downstream-regulation-of-akt-foxo1
#5
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631093/myelin-regulatory-factor-drives-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Greg J Duncan, Jason R Plemel, Peggy Assinck, Sohrab B Manesh, Fraser G W Muir, Ryan Hirata, Matan Berson, Jie Liu, Michael Wegner, Ben Emery, G R Wayne Moore, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Remyelination is limited in the majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in most lesions. This observation has led to the view that a failure of OPCs to fully differentiate underlies remyelination failure. OPC differentiation requires intricate transcriptional regulation, which may be disrupted in chronic MS lesions. The expression of few transcription factors has been differentially compared between remyelinating lesions and lesions refractory to remyelination...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631092/rituximab-treatment-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-effect-on-circulating-tregs
#7
Bakr El-Zawahry, Dalia Bassiouny, Rehab Hegazy, Heba Gawdat, Suzan Shalaby, Mervat Khorshied, Marwah Adly Saleh
Rituximab (RTX) has been used successfully to treat refractory pemphigus. We aimed to assess the response of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) cases to RTX therapy and its effect on CD4(+)CD25(+) (T regulatory) cells level. Sixteen PV patients were included in this study, each received one cycle of two RTX infusions (1000 mg on days 1 and 15). Five PV patients served as controls. All cases were on prednisolone ± adjuvant therapy. Pemphigus disease area index (PDAI), autoimmune bullous skin intensity score (ABSIS), anti-desmoglein antibodies, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD4(+)CD25(+) levels were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after therapy...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629373/blimp-1-impairs-t-cell-function-via-upregulation-of-tigit-and-pd-1-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
Liuluan Zhu, Yaxian Kong, Jianhong Zhang, David F Claxton, W Christopher Ehmann, Witold B Rybka, Neil D Palmisiano, Ming Wang, Bei Jia, Michael Bayerl, Todd D Schell, Raymond J Hohl, Hui Zeng, Hong Zheng
BACKGROUND: T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are important inhibitory receptors that associate with T cell exhaustion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying transcriptional mechanisms regulating these inhibitory pathways. Specifically, we investigated the role of transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) in T cell response and transcriptional regulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in AML...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629118/long-term-dexamethasone-exposure-down-regulates-hepatic-tfr1-and-reduces-liver-iron-concentration-in-rats
#9
Huifang Li, Shuxia Jiang, Chun Yang, Shu Yang, Bin He, Wenqiang Ma, Ruqian Zhao
Exposure to stress is known to cause hepatic iron dysregulation, but the relationship between prolonged stress and liver iron metabolism is not yet fully understood. Thirty 13-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, as follows: the control group (saline-injection) and the dexamethasone group (Dexamethasone (Dex)-injection 0.1 mg/kg/day). After the 21-day stress trial, the results showed that chronic Dex administration not only impaired serum corticosterone (p = 0.00) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p = 0...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628025/-phenotype-facilities-of-lymphocytes-in-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#10
M Ivanov, I Balmasova, Z Vasnyova
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a feral herd disease caused by hantaviruses. HERS may be severe and its manifestations include acute renal failure, intoxication, hemorrhages and pain syndrome. Hantaviruses as pathogen of HFRS wield considerable influence on the character of the immune response, in particular, is capable of lymphocytic cytolysis suppressing. It was found that cytotoxic T lymphocytes along with NKT and CD8 + regulatory T cells play the key role in the immune mechanisms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627683/regulatory-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-in-breast-cancer-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-b-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#11
Hongyu Shen, Liangpeng Li, Sujin Yang, Dandan Wang, Siying Zhou, Xiu Chen, Jinhai Tang
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an endogenous adaptor of innate and adaptive immune responses, and serves a crucial role in tumor necrosis factor receptor and toll‑like/interleukin‑1 receptor signaling. Although studies have demonstrated that TRAF6 has oncogenic activity, its potential contributions to breast cancer in human remains largely uninvestigated. The present study examined the expression levels and function of TRAF6 in breast carcinoma (n=32) and adjacent healthy (n=25) tissue samples...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626781/both-cladribine-and-alemtuzumab-may-effect-ms-via-b-cell-depletion
#12
David Baker, Samuel S Herrod, Cesar Alvarez-Gonzalez, Lukasz Zalewski, Christo Albor, Klaus Schmierer
OBJECTIVE: To understand the efficacy of cladribine (CLAD) treatment in MS through analysis of lymphocyte subsets collected, but not reported, in the pivotal phase III trials of cladribine and alemtuzumab induction therapies. METHODS: The regulatory submissions of the CLAD Tablets Treating Multiple Sclerosis Orally (CLARITY) (NCT00213135) cladribine and Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis, study one (CARE-MS I) (NCT00530348) alemtuzumab trials were obtained from the European Medicine Agency through Freedom of Information requests...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#13
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626234/b-cell-regulation-in-cancer-and-anti-tumor-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Anushruti Sarvaria, J Alejandro Madrigal, Aurore Saudemont
The balance between immune effector cells and immunosuppressive cells and how this regulates the tumor microenvironment has been well described. A significant contribution of immune regulatory cells, including regulatory T cells, to tumor progression has been widely reported. An emerging body of evidence has recently recognized a role for B cells in modulating the immune response to tumors and lymphoid malignancies. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a newly designated subset of B cells that have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses involved in inflammation, autoimmunity and, more recently, cancer...
June 19, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625142/proteotoxic-stress-desensitizes-tgf-beta-signaling-through-receptor-downregulation-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#15
X Tan, C Chen, Y Zhu, J Deng, X Qiu, S Huang, F Shang, B Cheng, Y Liu
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor (TGFβ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proteotoxic stress are two main contributors of intraocular fibrotic disorders, including proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, how these two factors communicate with each other is not well-characterized. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the regulatory role of proteotoxic stress on TGFβ signaling in retinal pigment epithelium...
June 19, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624275/nuclear-receptor-subfamily-1-group-h-member-2-lxrb-is-the-predominant-liver-x-receptor-subtype-regulating-transcription-of-2-major-lipogenic-genes-in-goat-primary-mammary-epithelial-cells
#16
H B Shi, C H Zhang, Z A Xu, X F Xu, Z B Lv, J Luo, J J Loor
In ruminants, recent research has identified a crucial role for liver X receptors (LXR) in regulating lipid metabolism in mammary cells. However, the differences between LXR subtypes in regulating ruminant lipid metabolism are unknown. We used overexpression and knockdown of LXRA and LXRB in goat primary mammary epithelial cells to distinguish subtype-specific regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA expression and their promoter activity. Incubation with siRNA targeting LXR decreased expression of LXRA and LXRB...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623166/casein-kinase-ii-ck2-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-and-ikaros-mediated-regulation-of-leukemia
#17
REVIEW
Chandrika Gowda, Mario Soliman, Malika Kapadia, Yali Ding, Kimberly Payne, Sinisa Dovat
Signaling networks that regulate cellular proliferation often involve complex interactions between several signaling pathways. In this manuscript we review the crosstalk between the Casein Kinase II (CK2) and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) pathways that plays a critical role in the regulation of cellular proliferation in leukemia. Both CK2 and GSK-3 are potential targets for anti-leukemia treatment. Previously published data suggest that CK2 and GSK-3 act synergistically to promote the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway via phosphorylation of PTEN...
June 13, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622574/analysis-of-adipose-tissue-immune-gene-expression-after-vaccination-of-rainbow-trout-with-adjuvanted-bacterins-reveals-an-association-with-side-effects
#18
Kimberly A Veenstra, Tiehui Wang, Ayham Alnabulsi, Alex Douglas, K Spencer Russell, Lincoln Tubbs, Juliette Ben Arous, Christopher J Secombes
Most existing fish vaccines are presented in the form of oil-based emulsions delivered by intraperitoneal injection. Whilst very effective they are frequently associated with inflammatory responses that can result in clinically significant side-effects often involving the adipose tissue that is in direct contact with the vaccine. To explore the potential of immune gene expression changes in the adipose tissue of fish to be markers of vaccination efficacy or development of side-effects we have studied the response to a bacterial (Aeromonas salmonicida) vaccine administered with two different adjuvants...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622290/structural-basis-for-the-regulatory-interactions-of-proapoptotic-par-4
#19
Udaya K Tiruttani Subhramanyam, Jan Kubicek, Ulf B Eidhoff, Joerg Labahn
Par-4 is a unique proapoptotic protein with the ability to induce apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. The X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Par-4 (Par-4CC), which regulates its apoptotic function, was obtained by MAD phasing. Par-4 homodimerizes by forming a parallel coiled-coil structure. The N-terminal half of Par-4CC contains the homodimerization subdomain. This structure includes a nuclear export signal (Par-4NES) sequence, which is masked upon dimerization indicating a potential mechanism for nuclear localization...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621418/single-cell-analysis-of-the-inner-ear-sensory-organs
#20
Ofer Yizhar-Barnea, Karen B Avraham
The inner ear is composed of a complex mixture of cells, which together allow organisms to hear and maintain balance. The cells in the inner ear, which undergo an extraordinary process of development, have only recently begun to be studied on an individual level. As it has recently become clear that individual cells, previously considered to be of uniform character, may differ dramatically from each other, the need to study cell-to-cell variation, along with distinct transcriptional and regulatory signatures, has taken hold in the scientific community...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
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