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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040945/quercetin-protects-mouse-liver-against-triptolide-induced-hepatic-injury-by-restoring-th17-treg-balance-through-tim-3-and-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
Cai-Bing Wei, Kun Tao, Rong Jiang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang, Chun-Su Yuan
Triptolide (TP) is a diterpene triepoxide with various biological activities, but its clinical applications have been limited by potential hepatotoxicity, which can be attributed to T helper 17 (Th17)/T regulatory (Treg) cell imbalance. Quercetin (QE), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties, including hepatoprotective activity against TP-induced liver injury. However, the hepatoprotection mechanisms have not been clarified. The present study was designed to explore the protective effect and the mechanism of QE against TP-induced liver injury...
October 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035111/identification-of-atopic-dermatitis-phenotypes-with-good-responses-to-probiotics-lactobacillus-plantarum-cjlp133-in-children
#2
J Kim, B S Lee, B Kim, I Na, J Lee, J Y Lee, M R Park, H Kim, I Sohn, K Ahn
The therapeutic effect of probiotics in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial and varies according to the individual patient. We aimed to identify a population of AD patients with a good clinical response to probiotic treatment. We recruited 76 children with a median age of 7.1 years who suffered from moderate to severe AD. After a 2-week washout period, all patients were given Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 at a dosage of 1×10(10) colony-forming units once a day for 12 weeks. We measured eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood, the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in CD4(+) T cells, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and specific IgE against common allergens before the start of the treatment (T1) and at discontinuation (T2)...
October 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034471/lipid-signaling-affects-primary-fibroblast-collective-migration-and-anchorage-in-response-to-stiffness-and-microtopography
#3
Michael A Mkrtschjan, Snehal B Gaikwad, Kevin J Kappenman, Christopher Solís, Sagar Dommaraju, Long Le, Tejal A Desai, Brenda Russell
Cell migration is regulated by several mechanotransduction pathways, which consist of sensing and converting mechanical microenvironmental cues to internal biochemical cellular signals, such as protein phosphorylation and lipid signaling. While there has been significant progress in understanding protein changes in the context of mechanotransduction, lipid signaling is more difficult to investigate. In this study, physical cues of stiffness (10 kPa, 100 kPa, 400 kPa, and glass), and microrod or micropost topography were manipulated in order to reprogram primary fibroblasts and assess the effects of lipid signaling on the actin cytoskeleton...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033900/weak-organic-acids-decrease-borrelia-burgdorferi-cytoplasmic-ph-eliciting-an-acid-stress-response-and-impacting-rpon-and-rpos-dependent-gene-expression
#4
Daniel P Dulebohn, Crystal L Richards, Hua Su, Kevin A Lawrence, Frank C Gherardini
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032538/trace-element-analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-sector-field-mass-spectrometry
#5
Xin Li, Peng Wang, Anthony Lutton, John Olesik
Transition metal ions play important structural, regulatory, and catalytic roles in all biological systems by serving as cofactors for proteins. Due to their relatively low levels in the cell compared to abundant metal ions such as potassium and magnesium, transition metals are often considered micronutrients and referred to as trace elements. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are the most prevalent transition metals in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, we describe a method for the accurate measurement of these trace elements in B...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032405/agaricus-blazei-murill-polysaccharides-protect-against-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-damage-in-chicken-spleens
#6
Wanqiu Xie, Ai Lv, Ruyue Li, Zequn Tang, Dexing Ma, Xiaodan Huang, Ruili Zhang, Ming Ge
Agaricus blazei Murill polysaccharide (ABP) has exhibited antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ABP on cadmium (Cd)-induced antioxidant functions and inflammatory damage in chicken spleens. In this study, groups of 7-day-old chickens were fed with normal saline (0.2 mL single/day), CdCl2 (140 mg/kg/day), ABP (30 mg/mL, 0.2 mL single/day), and Cd + ABP (140 mg/kg/day + 0.2 mL ABP). Spleens were separated on the 20th, 40th, and 60th day for each group...
October 14, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032243/dna-methylation-patterns-are-related-to-co-morbidity-status-and-circulating-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-the-nursing-home-elderly
#7
Chris P Verschoor, Lisa M McEwen, Michael S Kobor, Mark B Loeb, Dawn M E Bowdish
Elderly residents of long-term care commonly exhibit a number of age-related health deficits, including impaired physical and cognitive function, chronic illnesses, and chronic inflammation. Given our previous data relating the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive leukocytes from the nursing home elderly to chronic conditions and inflammatory biomarkers, we hypothesized that these factors would influence the regulatory programming of immune cells, thereby contributing to immune dysfunction. Since DNA methylation represents both an important regulatory mechanism of cells as well as a biomarker of health and disease, we sought to characterize the methylome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the nursing home elderly (n=23; 82-98years old, 70% female), and compare these patterns to pathological factors such as dementia, co-morbidity score and frailty, and immune-related factors such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine levels and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine responsiveness...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032059/is-the-adaptive-immune-response-in-murine-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-influenced-by-zinc-supplementation
#8
Cássia Mariana Bronzon da Costa, Marina Del Vecchio Filipin, Fabrícia Helena Santello, Luiz Miguel Pereira, Miriam Paula Alonso Toldo, José Clóvis do Prado Júnior, Ana Amélia Carraro Abrahão
Chagas disease afflicts 7 to 8 million people worldwide and congenital Chagas' disease usually leads to changes in the maternal environment, culminating in fetal adaptations. Several articles have described the importance of micronutrients on pregnancy, which is sensitive to infections. In Trypanosoma cruzi endemic regions, the Chagas disease is aggravated by the lack of micronutrients in an average diet, to which pregnant women are more susceptible. The aim of this study was to evaluate distinct T cells phenotypes and intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry in pregnant Wistar rats under zinc therapy during experimental Chagas' disease...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032004/tnfr2-a-novel-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Éva S Vanamee, Denise L Faustman
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy but exhibit variable efficacy and relapse and can induce autoimmunity. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a signaling molecule found on the surface of a subset of potent regulatory T cells (Tregs) that can activate the proliferation of these cells through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). TNFR2 is also abundantly expressed on the surface of many human tumors. We propose that blocking TNFR2 might target abundant TNFR2(+) tumor-infiltrating Tregs and directly kill TNFR2-expressing tumors...
October 11, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031499/micrornas-15a-and-16-1-activate-signaling-pathways-that-mediate-chemotaxis-of-immune-regulatory-b-cells-to-colorectal-tumors
#10
Ronghua Liu, Zhou Lu, Jie Gu, Jiajing Liu, Enyu Huang, Xiaoming Liu, Luman Wang, Jiao Yang, Yuting Deng, Jiawen Qian, Feifei Luo, Zhiming Wang, Hushan Zhang, Xuechao Jiang, Dan Zhang, Jing Qian, Guangwei Liu, Hongguang Zhu, Youcun Qian, Zhanju Liu, Yiwei Chu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: B cells infiltrate tumors but little is known about how they affect tumor growth and progression. microRNA15A (MIR15A or miRNA15A) and microRNA16-1 (MIR16-1 or miRNA16-1) regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and drug resistance. We investigated their involvement in B cell-mediated immune suppression by colorectal tumors. METHODS: Mice with disruptions of the gene cluster that encodes MIR15A and MIR16-1 (KO mice), and control (C57BL/B6) mice were given azoxymethane with dextran sodium sulfate (AD) to induce formation of colorectal tumors...
October 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030217/impact-of-peripheral-immune-status-on-central-molecular-responses-to-facial-nerve-axotomy
#11
D O Setter, E M Runge, N D Schartz, F M Kennedy, B L Brown, K P McMillan, W M Miller, K M Shah, M M Haulcomb, V M Sanders, K J Jones
When facial nerve axotomy (FNA) is performed on immunodeficient recombinase activating gene-2 knockout (RAG-2(-/-)) mice, there is greater facial motoneuron (FMN) death relative to wild type (WT) mice. Reconstituting RAG-2(-/-) mice with whole splenocytes rescues FMN survival after FNA, and CD4+ T cells specifically drive immune-mediated neuroprotection. Evidence suggests that immunodysregulation may contribute to motoneuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Immunoreconstitution of RAG-2(-/-) mice with lymphocytes from the mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) mouse model of ALS revealed that the mSOD1 whole splenocyte environment suppresses mSOD1 CD4+ T cell-mediated neuroprotection after FNA...
October 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029511/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-promote-b-cell-lymphoma-in-lacrimal-glands-by-inducing-immunosuppressive-microenvironment
#12
Min Joung Lee, Se Yeon Park, Jung Hwa Ko, Hyun Ju Lee, Jin Suk Ryu, Jong Woo Park, Sang In Khwarg, Sun-Ok Yoon, Joo Youn Oh
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have therapeutic potential for various diseases because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. However, the immunosuppressive microenvironment allows tumor cells to evade immune surveillance, whereas maintenance of inflammation is required for tumor development and progression. Hence, MSCs may promote or suppress tumors in a context-dependent manner. We here investigated the effects of bone marrow-derived MSCs in a murine model of lacrimal gland B-cell lymphoma...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027570/are-we-right-to-consider-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-be-a-new-perspective-for-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Krzysztof Orczyk, Elzbieta Smolewska
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common cause of chronic arthritis in childhood. Up to 50% of patients are resistant to standard therapy, which includes non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologic therapies. Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is proposed as a new approach to JIA treatment. MSCs can modulate inflammation via mechanisms of both adaptive and innate immune response. They are able to inhibit T and B cell proliferation, promote regulatory T cells, suppress the maturation of dendritic cells, stimulate macrophage differentiation into M2 phenotype and reduce effectiveness of natural killer cells...
October 13, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023267/enhanced-th17-responses-in-patients-with-il10-receptor-deficiency-and-infantile-onset-ibd
#14
Dror S Shouval, Liza Konnikova, Alexandra E Griffith, Sarah M Wall, Amlan Biswas, Lael Werner, Moran Nunberg, Jochen Kammermeier, Jeremy A Goettel, Rajsavi Anand, Hannah Chen, Batia Weiss, Jian Li, Anthony Loizides, Baruch Yerushalmi, Tadahiro Yanagi, Rita Beier, Laurie S Conklin, Christen L Ebens, Fernanda G M S Santos, Mary Sherlock, Jeffery D Goldsmith, Daniel Kotlarz, Sarah C Glover, Neil Shah, Athos Bousvaros, Holm H Uhlig, Aleixo M Muise, Christoph Klein, Scott B Snapper
BACKGROUND: IL10 receptor (IL10R) deficiency causes severe infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease. Intact IL10R-dependent signals have been shown to be important for innate and adaptive immune cell functions in mice. We have previously reported a key role of IL10 in the generation and function of human anti-inflammatory macrophages. Independent of innate immune cell defects, the aim of the current study was to determine the role of IL10R signaling in regulating human CD4 T-cell function...
November 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021318/salinity-induced-phenotypic-plasticity-in-threespine-stickleback-sperm-activation
#15
Annette Taugbøl, Anna B Mazzarella, Emily R A Cramer, Terje Laskemoen
Phenotypic expression may be and often is influenced by an organism's developmental environment, referred to as phenotypic plasticity. The sperm cells of teleosts have been found to be inactive in the seminal plasma and are activated by osmotic shock for most fish species, through release in either hypertonic (for marine fish) or hypotonic (for freshwater fish) water. If this is the case, the regulatory system of sperm mobility should be reversed in salt- and freshwater fish. We tested this hypothesis by first activating sperm of salt- and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback in salt- and freshwater...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020881/knockdown-of-reg%C3%AE-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-and-promotes-the-apoptosis-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-by-downregulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-pathway
#16
Shuang Liu, Li-Ling Zheng, Yang-Min Zhu, Hui-Juan Shen, Qi Zhong, Jing Huang, Cheng Li, Zhi Liu, Meng-Dong Yao, Rui-Ming Ou, Qing Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of REGγ knockdown on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, and reveal the potential regulatory mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of REGγ on myeloma cells of 28 MM patients was detected by Western blot. shRNA-REGγ-1 and shRNA-REGγ-2 were constructed to downregulate REGγ in RPMI-8226 cells. The proliferation, apoptosis and migration of transfected cells were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8), flow cytometry and transwell chamber, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018870/correction-to-expanding-diversity-and-common-goal-of-regulatory-t-and-b-cells-i-origin-phenotype-mechanisms
#17
Katarzyna Bocian, Ewelina Kiernozek, Joanna Domagała-Kulawik, Grażyna Korczak-Kowalska, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Nadzieja Drela
The original article has been published without acknowledgment section. The acknowledgement section is given below for your reading.
October 10, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018452/kv1-3-channel-blockade-modulates-the-effector-function-of-b-cells-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#18
Judith Land, Lucas L Lintermans, Coen A Stegeman, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Eric J Tarcha, Shawn P Iadonato, Peter Heeringa, Abraham Rutgers, Wayel H Abdulahad
B cells are central to the pathogenesis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), exhibiting both (auto)antibody-dependent and -independent properties. Class-switched memory B cells in particular are a major source of pathogenic autoantibodies. These cells are characterized by high expression levels of Kv1.3 potassium channels, which may offer therapeutic potential for Kv1.3 blockade. In this study, we investigated the effect of the highly potent Kv1.3 blocker ShK-186 on B cell properties in GPA in vitro. Circulating B cell subsets were determined from 33 GPA patients and 17 healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#19
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018225/s1p1-deletion-differentially-affects-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells
#20
Ahmet Eken, Rebekka Duhen, Akhilesh K Singh, Mallory Fry, Jane H Buckner, Mariko Kita, Estelle Bettelli, Mohamed Oukka
Sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is critical for the egress of T and B cells out of lymphoid organs. Although S1P1 agonist fingolimod is currently used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) little is known how S1P1 signaling regulates Th17 and Treg cell homeostasis. To study the impact of S1P1 signaling on Th17 and Treg cell biology, we specifically deleted S1P1 in Th17 and Treg cells using IL-17A (Cre) and Foxp3 (Cre) mice, respectively. Deletion of S1P1 in Th17 cells conferred resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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