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Regulatory B cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241030/expression-profiles-of-genes-involved-in-tlrs-and-nlrs-signaling-pathways-of-water-buffaloes-infected-with-fasciola-gigantica
#1
Fu-Kai Zhang, Jun-Ling Hou, Ai-Jiang Guo, Ai-Ling Tian, Zhao-An Sheng, Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei-Yi Huang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Infection of ruminants and humans with Fasciola gigantica is attracting increasing attention due to its economic impact and public health significance. However, little is known of innate immune responses during F. gigantica infection. Here, we investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) signaling pathways in buffaloes infected with 500F. gigantica metacercariae. Serum, liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected from infected and control buffaloes at 3, 10, 28, and 70days post infection (dpi)...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239829/marked-elevation-of-circulating-cd19-cd38hicd24hi-transitional-b-cells-give-protection-against-neonatal-sepsis
#2
Sitao Li, Fei Ma, Hu Hao, Desheng Wang, Yu Gao, Jialiang Zhou, Fei Li, Hung-Chih Lin, Xin Xiao, Qiyi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Adequate functions of immunoregulation, mediated by regulatory cells such as IL-10 producing CD19+CD38hiCD24hi transitional B cells (Trans), play an important role in control of excessive inflammatory response. Yet, the role of Trans in neonatal sepsis is incompletely understood. We investigated the role of Trans in late-onset sepsis (LOS). METHODS: We used multicolor flow cytometry to analyse the phenotypes of B cells drawn from a cohort of 16 neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) (12 survivors and 4 non-survivors) and 20 healthy neonates over time...
October 19, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239234/adoption-of-in-vitro-systems-and-zebrafish-embryos-as-alternative-models-for-reducing-rodent-use-in-assessments-of-immunological-and-oxidative-stress-responses-to-nanomaterials
#3
Helinor J Johnston, Rachel Verdon, Suzanne Gillies, David M Brown, Teresa F Fernandes, Theodore B Henry, Adriano G Rossi, Lang Tran, Carl Tucker, Charles R Tyler, Vicki Stone
Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is paramount to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnology, which provides huge societal benefits. Currently, there is no evidence that engineered NMs cause detrimental health effects in humans. However, investigation of NM toxicity using in vivo, in vitro, in chemico, and in silico models has demonstrated that some NMs stimulate oxidative stress and inflammation, which may lead to adverse health effects. Accordingly, investigation of these responses currently dominates NM safety assessments...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239139/btg2-is-a-tumor-suppressor-gene-upregulated-by-p53-and-pten-in-human-bladder-carcinoma-cells
#4
Ke-Hung Tsui, Kun-Chun Chiang, Yu-Hsiang Lin, Kang-Shuo Chang, Tsui-Hsia Feng, Horng-Heng Juang
Although widely deemed as a tumor suppressor gene, the role of B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) in bladder cancer is still inconclusive. We investigated the role and regulatory mechanism of BTG2 in bladder cancer. BTG2 expression in human bladder tissues was determined by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting assays. Expressions of BTG2 and PTEN in bladder carcinoma cells were determined by immunoblotting, RT-qPCR, or reporter assays. The 3 H-thymidine incorporation assay, flow cytometry, and the xenograft animal model were used to determine the cell growth...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238546/receptor-uptake-arrays-for-vitamin-b12-siderophores-and-glycans-shape-bacterial-communities
#5
REVIEW
Steven A Frank
Molecular variants of vitamin B12, siderophores, and glycans occur. To take up variant forms, bacteria may express an array of receptors. The gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron has three different receptors to take up variants of vitamin B12 and 88 receptors to take up various glycans. The design of receptor arrays reflects key processes that shape cellular evolution. Competition may focus each species on a subset of the available nutrient diversity. Some gut bacteria can take up only a narrow range of carbohydrates, whereas species such as B...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237825/mitochondrial-ca2-transport-in-the-endothelium-regulation-by-ions-redox-signalling-and-mechanical-forces
#6
REVIEW
B Rita Alevriadou, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Akshar Patel, Peter B Stathopulos, Muniswamy Madesh
Calcium (Ca2+) transport by mitochondria is an important component of the cell Ca2+ homeostasis machinery in metazoans. Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria is a major determinant of bioenergetics and cell fate. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake occurs via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein assembly consisting of the MCU Ca2+ channel, as its core component, and the MCU complex regulatory/auxiliary proteins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular nature of the MCU complex and its regulation by intra- and extramitochondrial levels of divalent ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237775/induction-of-immunosuppressive-cd8-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-by-suboptimal-stimulation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-c1
#7
Juyeun Lee, Nogi Park, Joo Youn Park, Barbara L F Kaplan, Stephen B Pruett, Juw Won Park, Yong Ho Park, Keun Seok Seo
Superantigens (SAgs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus at high concentrations induce proliferation of T cells bearing specific TCR Vβ sequences and massive cytokinemia that cause toxic shock syndrome. However, the biological relevance of SAgs produced at very low concentrations during asymptomatic colonization or chronic infections is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that suboptimal stimulation of human PBMCs with a low concentration (1 ng/ml) of staphylococcal enterotoxin C1, at which half-maximal T cell proliferation was observed, induced CD8+CD25+ T cells expressing markers related to regulatory T cells (Tregs), such as IFN-γ, IL-10, TGF-β, FOXP3, CD28, CTLA4, TNFR2, CD45RO, and HLA-DR...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237087/type-frequency-and-spatial-distribution-of-immune-cell-infiltrates-in-cns-germinomas-evidence-for-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-mechanisms
#8
Pia Zapka, Evelyn Dörner, Verena Dreschmann, Noriaki Sakamato, Glen Kristiansen, Gabriele Calaminus, Christian Vokuhl, Ivo Leuschner, Torsten Pietsch
Central nervous system germinomas are characterized by a massive immune cell infiltrate. We systematically characterized these immune cells in 28 germinomas by immunophenotyping and image analysis. mRNA expression was analyzed by Nanostring technology and in situ RNA hybridization. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were composed of 61.8% ± 3.1% (mean ± SE) CD3-positive T cells, including 45.2% ± 3.5% of CD4-positive T-helper cells, 23.4% ± 1.5% of CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, 5.5% ± 0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236055/hyaluronan-production-by-renomedullary-interstitial-cells-influence-of-endothelin-angiotensin-ii-and-vasopressin
#9
Sara Stridh, Fredrik Palm, Tomoko Takahashi, Mayumi Ikegami-Kawai, Malou Friederich-Persson, Peter Hansell
The content of hyaluronan (HA) in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affect HA production by renomedullary interstitial cells in culture (RMICs). Simultaneous treatment with vasopressin and angiotensin II (Ang II) reduced HA by 69%. No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) or hyaluronidases (Hyals), while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 expression reduced by 42%...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233832/exome-wide-association-study-identifies-four-novel-loci-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-han-chinese-population
#10
Leilei Wen, Caihong Zhu, Zhengwei Zhu, Chao Yang, Xiaodong Zheng, Lu Liu, Xianbo Zuo, Yujun Sheng, Huayang Tang, Bo Liang, Yi Zhou, Pan Li, Jun Zhu, Yantao Ding, Gang Chen, Jinping Gao, Lili Tang, Yuyan Cheng, Jingying Sun, Tamilselvi Elango, Anjana Kafle, Ruixing Yu, Ke Xue, Yaohua Zhang, Feng Li, Zhanguo Li, Jianping Guo, Xuan Zhang, Chen Zhou, Yuanjia Tang, Nan Shen, Meng Wang, Xueqing Yu, Shengxiu Liu, Xing Fan, Min Gao, Fengli Xiao, Peiguang Wang, Zaixing Wang, Anping Zhang, Fusheng Zhou, Liangdan Sun, Sen Yang, Jinhua Xu, Xianyong Yin, Yong Cui, Xuejun Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease of considerable genetic predisposition. Genome-wide association studies have identified tens of common variants for SLE. However, the majority of them reside in non-coding sequences. The contributions of coding variants have not yet been systematically evaluated. METHODS: We performed a large-scale exome-wide study in 5004 SLE cases and 8179 healthy controls in a Han Chinese population using a custom exome array, and then genotyped 32 variants with suggestive evidence in an independent cohort of 13 246 samples...
December 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230212/a-novel-function-for-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-aminopeptidase-n-inhibition-of-t-cell-effector-function-through-regulation-of-tcr-signaling
#11
Lance K Blevins, Derek Parsonage, Melissa B Oliver, Elizabeth Domzalski, W Edward Swords, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) causes a variety of disease states including fatal bacterial pneumonia. Our previous finding that introduction of Spn into an animal with ongoing influenza virus infection resulted in a CD8+ T cell population with reduced effector function gave rise to the possibility of direct regulation by pneumococcal components. Here, we show that treatment of effector T cells with lysate derived from Spn resulted in inhibition of IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor α production as well as of cytolytic granule release...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229929/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-binds-the-foxp3-promoter-and-modulates-regulatory-t-cell-function-in-human-cervical-cancer
#12
Sreenivas Adurthi, Mahesh M Kumar, H S Vinodkumar, Geetashree Mukherjee, H Krishnamurthy, K Kshitish Acharya, U D Bafna, Devi K Uma, B Abhishekh, Sudhir Krishna, A Parchure, Murali Alka, R S Jayshree
Oestrogen controls Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) via a mechanism thought to involve oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα), but the molecular basis and functional impact of ERα signalling in Treg cells remain unclear. We report that ERα ligand oestradiol (E2) is significantly increased in human cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues and tumour-infiltrating Treg cells (CD4+CD25hiCD127low), whereas blocking ERα with the antagonist ICI 182,780 abolishes FOXP3 expression and impairs the function of CxCa infiltrating Treg cells...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229671/h3s10ph-broadly-marks-early-replicating-domains-in-interphase-escs-and-shows-reciprocal-antagonism-with-h3k9me2
#13
Carol C L Chen, Preeti Goyal, Mohammad M Karimi, Marie H Abildgaard, Hiroshi Kimura, Matthew C Lorincz
Phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10ph) by Aurora kinases plays an important role in mitosis; however, H3S10ph also marks regulatory regions of inducible genes in interphase mammalian cells, implicating mitosis-independent functions. Using the fluorescent ubiquitin-mediated cell cycle indicator (FUCCI), we found that 30% of the genome in interphase mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is marked with H3S10ph. H3S10ph broadly demarcates gene-rich regions in G1 and is positively correlated with domains of early DNA replication timing (RT) but negatively correlated with H3K9me2 and lamin-associated domains (LADs)...
December 11, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#14
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228898/the-asymmetric-cell-division-machinery-in-the-spiral-cleaving-egg-and-embryo-of-the-marine-annelid-platynereis-dumerilii
#15
Aron B Nakama, Hsien-Chao Chou, Stephan Q Schneider
BACKGROUND: Over one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called 'spiral cleavage' to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. Astonishingly, very little is known about the underlying molecular machinery to orchestrate these ACDs in spiral-cleaving embryos...
December 11, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228683/lenalidomide-overcomes-the-immunosuppression-of-regulatory-cd8-cd28-t-cells
#16
Brigitte Neuber, Jingying Dai, Wjahat A Waraich, Mohamed H S Awwad, Melanie Engelhardt, Michael Schmitt, Sergej Medenhoff, Mathias Witzens-Harig, Anthony D Ho, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Michael Hundemer
Although lenalidomide and pomalidomide are well-established treatment options in patients with multiple myeloma, their immune-modulating effects are not fully understood. While CD8+CD28- regulatory T-cells in patients with hematologic disorders display a known immune-escape mechanism, we show that lenalidomide can overcome the immunosuppressive impact of CD8+CD28- T-cells. We analyzed in vitro the antigen-specific T-cell responses of healthy donors and patients with multiple myeloma with or without the addition of autologous CD8+CD28- T-cells in the absence and presence of lenalidomide...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227619/small-molecule-chelators-reveal-that-iron-starvation-inhibits-late-stages-of-bacterial-cytokinesis
#17
Thiago M A Santos, Matthew G Lammers, Maoquan Zhou, Ian L Sparks, Madhusudan Rajendran, Dong Fang, Crystal L Y De Jesus, Gabriel F R Carneiro, Qiang Cui, Douglas B Weibel
Bacterial cell division requires identification of the division site, assembly of the division machinery, and constriction of the cell envelope. These processes are regulated in response to several cellular and environmental signals. Here, we use small molecule iron chelators to characterize the surprising connections between bacterial iron homeostasis and cell division. We demonstrate that iron starvation downregulates the transcription of genes encoding proteins involved in cell division, reduces protein biosynthesis, and prevents correct positioning of the division machinery at the division site...
December 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227469/integrative-single-cell-analysis-of-transcriptional-and-epigenetic-states-in-the-human-adult-brain
#18
Blue B Lake, Song Chen, Brandon C Sos, Jean Fan, Gwendolyn E Kaeser, Yun C Yung, Thu E Duong, Derek Gao, Jerold Chun, Peter V Kharchenko, Kun Zhang
Detailed characterization of the cell types in the human brain requires scalable experimental approaches to examine multiple aspects of the molecular state of individual cells, as well as computational integration of the data to produce unified cell-state annotations. Here we report improved high-throughput methods for single-nucleus droplet-based sequencing (snDrop-seq) and single-cell transposome hypersensitive site sequencing (scTHS-seq). We used each method to acquire nuclear transcriptomic and DNA accessibility maps for >60,000 single cells from human adult visual cortex, frontal cortex, and cerebellum...
December 11, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227354/current-views-on-the-pathogenesis-of-sjgren-s-syndrome
#19
Elena Pontarini, Davide Lucchesi, Michele Bombardieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjgren's Syndrome (pSS), highlighting recent findings with potential therapeutic repercussions. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 2 years, epigenetic analyses provided new insights into pSS pathogenesis. Characterization of DNA methylation patterns, chromatin structures and microRNA confirmed the importance of aberrant interferon and B-cell responses in the development of the disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226722/the-use-of-databases-data-mining-and-immunoinformatics-in-vaccinology-where-are-we
#20
Nagendra R Hegde, S Gauthami, H M Sampath Kumar, Jagadeesh Bayry
Vaccinology has evolved from a sub-discipline focussed on simplistic vaccine development based on antibody-mediated protection to a separate discipline involving epidemiology, host and pathogen biology, immunology, genomics, proteomics, structure biology, protein engineering, chemical biology, and delivery systems. Data mining in combination with bioinformatics has provided a scaffold linking all these disciplines to the design of vaccines and vaccine adjuvants. Areas covered: This review provides background knowledge on immunological aspects which have been exploited with informatics for the in silico analysis of immune responses and the design of vaccine antigens...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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