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B reg

R Kleinloog, J J M Zwanenburg, B Schermers, E Krikken, Y M Ruigrok, P R Luijten, F Visser, L Regli, G J E Rinkel, B H Verweij
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aneurysm volume pulsation is a potential predictor of intracranial aneurysm rupture. We evaluated whether 7T MR imaging can quantify aneurysm volume pulsation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Stage I of the study, 10 unruptured aneurysms in 9 patients were studied using a high-resolution (0.6-mm, isotropic) 3D gradient-echo sequence with cardiac gating. Semiautomatic segmentation was used to measure aneurysm volume (in cubic millimeters) per cardiac phase...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jianyong Wu, Jill R Stewart, Mark D Sobsey, Chris Cormency, Michael B Fisher, Jamie K Bartram
Methods for rapid detection of fecal indicator bacteria in water are important to ensure that water is safe for drinking, bathing, recreation, fishing and shellfish harvesting. In this study, we tested experimental conditions for bacterial hydrolysis of two promising enzymatic substrates, 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) and Resorufin β-D-glucuronide (REG), and optimized parameters such as temperature and pH to determine conditions for rapid reactions. We then innovated a membrane filter-based approach to facilitate more rapid enzyme-based detection of Escherichia coli in water based on the combination of an initial concentration step and optimized test conditions...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Marco Piccirelli, Oliver Bozinov, Nicolai Maldaner, Catherine Strittmatter, Athina Pangalu, Antonios Valavanis, Luca Regli, Jorn Fierstra
Neurovascular coupling describes the cascade between neuronal activity and subsequent Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal increase. Based on this premise, the correlation of this BOLD signal increase with a particular task, such as finger-tapping, is used to map neuronal activation. This signal increase may be dampened in brain areas exhibiting impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), leading to false negative activation. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) has also been used to optimize task evoked BOLD signal changes...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
S K Totsch, R Y Meir, T L Quinn, S A Lopez, B A Gower, R E Sorge
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. The current study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e., prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e., following an injury). BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Lindsay B Baker, Corey T Ungaro, Bridget C Sopeña, Ryan P Nuccio, Adam J Reimel, James M Carter, John R Stofan, Kelly A Barnes
This study determined the relations between regional (REG) and whole body (WB) sweating rate (RSR and WBSR, respectively) and REG and WB sweat [Na+] during exercise. Twenty-six recreational athletes (17 men, 9 women) cycled for 90 min while WB sweat [Na+] was measured using the washdown technique. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] were measured from 9 regions using absorbent patches. RSR and REG sweat [Na+] from all regions were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with WBSR (r=0.58-0.83) and WB sweat [Na+] [r=0.74-0...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
R Hofmann-Lehmann, E Gönczi, B Riond, M Meli, B Willi, J Howard, D Schaarschmidt-Kiener, W Regli, U Gilli, F Boretti
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) leads to fatal disease in cats with progressive infection. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of FeLV infection in Switzerland and make a comparison with previous studies. Of 881 blood samples taken from cats living in Switzerland (minimum of 20 samples per Canton), 47 samples were provirus-positive (5.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9-7.0%) and 18 samples were antigen-positive (2%; 95% CI 1.2-3.2%). Together with data previously collected in similar studies, these findings demonstrated a decrease in prevalence between 1997 and 2003 followed by a relative constant low prevalence thereafter...
February 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Manish Bodas, Steven Mazur, Taehong Min, Neeraj Vij
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease resulting from dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and NFκB-mediated neutrophilic-inflammation forms the basis of CF-related mortality. Here we aimed to evaluate if HDAC inhibition controls Pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lipopolysaccharide (Pa-LPS) induced airway inflammation and CF-lung disease. METHODS: For in vitro experiments, HEK293-cells were transfected with IL-8 or NFκB-firefly luciferase, and SV40-renilla- luciferase reporter constructs or ΔF508-CFTR-pCEP, followed by treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), Trichostatin-A (TSA) and/or TNFα...
January 4, 2018: Respiratory Research
Jason P Lynch, Rhiannon B Werder, Zhixuan Loh, Md Al Amin Sikder, Bodie Curren, Vivian Zhang, Matthew J Rogers, Katie Lane, Jennifer Simpson, Stuart B Mazzone, Kirsten Spann, John Hayball, Kerrilyn Diener, Mark L Everard, Christopher C Blyth, Christian Forstner, Paul G Dennis, Nida Murtaza, Mark Morrison, Páraic Ó Cuív, Ping Zhang, Ashraful Haque, Geoffrey R Hill, Peter D Sly, John W Upham, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus-bronchiolitis is a major independent risk factor for subsequent asthma, but the causal mechanisms remain obscure. We identified that transient plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) depletion during primary Pneumovirus infection alone predisposed to severe bronchiolitis in early life and subsequent asthma in later life after reinfection. pDC depletion ablated interferon production and increased viral load; however, the heightened immunopathology and susceptibility to subsequent asthma stemmed from a failure to expand functional neuropilin-1+ regulatory T (T reg) cells in the absence of pDC-derived semaphorin 4a (Sema4a)...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Ivo B Regli, Katiuska Passelli, Benjamin P Hurrell, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood. Upon microbial infection, they are massively and rapidly recruited from the circulation to sites of infection where they efficiently kill pathogens. To this end, neutrophils possess a variety of weapons that can be mobilized and become effective within hours following infection. However, several microbes including some Leishmania spp. have evolved a variety of mechanisms to escape neutrophil killing using these cells as a basis to better invade the host...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Mariko Ishibashi, Hiromi Yamaguchi, Yukari Hirotani, Akihisa Sakurada, Toshihide Endo, Masahiko Sugitani, Tadatoshi Takayama, Makoto Makishima, Mariko Esumi
We found a HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gene, DQ alpha 1 chain (HLA-DQA1), that was expressed more than 9-fold higher in high-load hepatitis C virus (HCV) livers than low-load HCV livers using transcriptomics of chronic HCV-infected livers. To further investigate this finding, we examined which cells were positive for HLA-DQA1 and what liver immune responses were different between HCV-high and -low livers. HLA-DQA1-positive cells were significantly increased in the HCV-high group, and most positive cells were identified as non-parenchymal sinusoid cells and lymphocytic infiltrates in the portal area...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
Marek Sady, Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko, Jacek Domagała
BACKGROUND: When designing new probiotic products, one of the most important aspects is the selection of bacterial strains with high survival rates in the matrix of the product concerned. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential of selected strains of probiotic bacteria for the production of fruit-whey beverages. METHODS: Orange, apple and blackcurrant whey beverages were produced, and each was inoculated with one of the following probiotic strains: Bifidobacterium lactis HN019TM; Lactobacillus aci- dophilus NCFM&reg;; Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37TM; Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001TM...
October 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Melissa Kasheta, Corrie A Painter, Finola E Moore, Riadh Lobbardi, Alysia Bryll, Eli Freiman, David Stachura, Arlin B Rogers, Yariv Houvras, David M Langenau, Craig J Ceol
Regulatory T (T reg) cells are a specialized sublineage of T lymphocytes that suppress autoreactive T cells. Functional studies of T reg cells in vitro have defined multiple suppression mechanisms, and studies of T reg-deficient humans and mice have made clear the important role that these cells play in preventing autoimmunity. However, many questions remain about how T reg cells act in vivo. Specifically, it is not clear which suppression mechanisms are most important, where T reg cells act, and how they get there...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Auryan Szalat, Amichai Perlman, Mordechai Muszkat, Mogher Khamaisi, Zaid Abassi, Samuel N Heyman
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) provide outstanding long-term cardiovascular and renal protection in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, despite encouraging renal safety outcomes reported in the EMPA-REG study, scattered reports suggest that there might be a risk for acute kidney injury (AKI), which may occasionally be fatal or might require renal replacement therapy. Reduced trans-glomerular pressure with a modest decline in kidney function, an inherent characteristic of SGLT2i therapy, conceivably forms the basis for the long-term renal protection, resembling agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis...
March 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Michael B Soyka, Carlo Serra, Luca Regli, Eva Meier, David Holzmann
BACKGROUND: The nasoseptal flap (NSF) is a universally used surgical technique to cover defects of the skull base after extended sinonasal surgery. Long-term follow-up of complications, sequelae, and smell function is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate monorhinal olfaction after transsphenoidal skull base surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent skull base surgery for midline lesions (craniopharyngioma and pituitary tumors) by using a NSF, also referred to as the Haddad flap, were assessed for their long-term outcome...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Javed Butler, Carine E Hamo, Gerasimos Filippatos, Stuart J Pocock, Richard A Bernstein, Martina Brueckmann, Alfred K Cheung, Jyothis T George, Jennifer B Green, James L Januzzi, Sanjay Kaul, Carolyn S P Lam, Gregory Y H Lip, Nikolaus Marx, Peter A McCullough, Cyrus R Mehta, Piotr Ponikowski, Julio Rosenstock, Naveed Sattar, Afshin Salsali, Benjamin M Scirica, Sanjiv J Shah, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Subodh Verma, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Juergan Woerle, Faiez Zannad, Stefan D Anker
Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are both growing public health concerns contributing to major medical and economic burdens to society. T2DM increases the risk of HF, frequently occurs concomitantly with HF, and worsens the prognosis of HF. Several anti-hyperglycaemic medications have been associated with a concern for worse HF outcomes. More recently, the results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial showed that the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin was associated with a pronounced and precocious 38% reduction in cardiovascular mortality in subjects with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease [Correction added on 8 September 2017, after first online publication: "32%" in the previous sentence was corrected to "38%"]...
November 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
Benjamin P Hurrell, Manon Beaumann, Sandrina Heyde, Ivo B Regli, Andreas J Müller, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, causing a spectrum of clinical manifestations varying from self-healing to unhealing lesions that may be very difficult to treat. Emerging evidence points to a detrimental role for neutrophils during the first hours following infection with many distinct Leishmania species (spp.) at a time when the parasite is in its nonreplicative promastigote form. Neutrophils have also been detected at later stages of infection in unhealing chronic cutaneous lesions...
November 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Brenda B Jurado-Manzano, Daniel Zavala-Reyes, Edgar A Turrubiartes-Martínez, Diana P Portales-Pérez, Roberto González-Amaro, Esther Layseca-Espinosa
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis, their participation as professional antigen presenting cells is essential to the initiation of the adaptive immune response as well as to the induction of tolerance. The recently described role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immune system, particularly in the modulation of the adaptive immune response has attracted the attention as a potential player in the induction of immune tolerance. However, the effects of AhR activation through endogenous ligands on human DCs have been poorly evaluated...
July 29, 2017: Immunology Letters
K B Wilson, M F Overholt, C M Shull, C Schwab, A C Dilger, D D Boler
Boneless loins ( = 286) were selected from a population of pigs of a common genetic line and management strategy to be used in an experiment to determine the effects of instrumental color and extractable lipid content on sensory traits of boneless pork chops cooked to an end point internal temperature of 63°C. Loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick chops and aged until 14 d postmortem. Chop L* values ranged from 57.60 (light) to 43.11 (dark) and extractable lipid ranged from 0.80 to 5.52%. Using these values, chops were assigned to 5 color and 6 marbling categories using National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) standards, resulting in a 5 × 6 factorial arrangement of treatments...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Heena Sachdeva, Sukhbir Kaur
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is the most alarming and devastating amongst the various forms of leishmaniases. It is caused by Leishmania donovani, an obligate intracellular parasite of macrophages that survives through immunosuppression. Absence of T regulatory cells provides complete clearance of the parasite. A few immunoprophylactics have been sought to battle instinctive leishmaniasis, with fluctuating achievement. Our previous studies have shown that treatment of L. donovani infected mice with cisplatin along with herbal drugs resulted in decreased parasite load with heightened delayed type hypersensitivity responses (DTH), increased levels of IgG2a, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+ cells, NK 1...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Emanuela Basilici Zannetti, Fabio D'Agostino, Noemi Cittadini, Maurizio Feola, Annalisa Pennini, Cecilia Rao, Ercole Vellone, Umberto Tarantino, Rosaria Alvaro
Osteoporosis has a significant impact on affected patients. Healthcare providers should encourage postmenopausal women to improve self-care maintenance behaviors and quality of life following a fragility fracture. The aims of this study were to a) develop two new instruments for measuring, respectively, self-care maintenance and quality of life, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis; b) evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life after a fragility fracture in postmenopausal women...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
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