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Cigarette AND morbidity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#1
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890515/patterns-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-among-u-s-young-adults-2013-2014
#2
Ramzi G Salloum, James F Thrasher, Kayla R Getz, Tracey E Barnett, Taghrid Asfar, Wasim Maziak
INTRODUCTION: Patterns of waterpipe smoking and associated other tobacco use were assessed among U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years). METHODS: A descriptive analysis of baseline data (2013-2014) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study was conducted in 2016. RESULTS: The study included 9,119 young adults-44% ever and 11% past-30 day waterpipe smokers (12% of men and 9% of women were past-30 day smokers). Among past-30 day smokers, waterpipe smoking frequency was distributed as follows: 4% daily, 23% weekly, 36% monthly, and 37% less than monthly...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889593/prevalence-and-patterns-of-cigarette-smoking-among-patients-co-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-in-tanzania
#3
Ramadhani Stephano Mwiru, Tumaini Joseph Nagu, Pamela Kaduri, Ferdinand Mugusi, Wafaie Fawzi
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for non-AIDS related morbidities and is highly prevalent among HIV infected people. However, no reports exist from Tanzania, one of the countries highly affected by the HIV pandemic and one of Africa's biggest tobacco producer. METHODS: We examined the patterns and prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV and TB co-infected adult patients in Dar es Salaam using a cross sectional study design. Proportions were used to describe the pattern of cigarette smoking...
November 12, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888969/smoking-behaviors-and-medical-co-morbidities-in-patients-with-mental-illnesses
#4
Peggy El-Mallakh, Danielle McPeak, Milan Khara, Chizimuzo T Okoli
Correlations among smoking behaviors and co-morbid medical illnesses were examined among 982 smokers with mental illnesses enrolled in a smoking cessation program within Mental Health and Addictions Services in Vancouver, Canada. Significant correlates among individuals with psychotic disorders included associations between a history of emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease and cigarettes smoked per day (r's=.35, p≤.01), Confidence in quitting (r's=-.33, p≤.01), and nicotine dependence (r's=...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#5
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885307/epidemiology-of-testicular-cancer-in-oklahoma-and-the-united-states
#6
Shannon Smith, Amanda Janitz, Janis Campbell
Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
July 2016: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881962/cigarette-smoking-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-vascular-inflammation-and-injury-are-attenuated-by-antioxidant-supplementation-in-an-animal-model
#7
Moustafa Al Hariri, Kazem Zibara, Wissam Farhat, Yasmine Hashem, Nadia Soudani, Farah Al Ibrahim, Eva Hamade, Asad Zeidan, Ahmad Husari, Firas Kobeissy
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoking remains a global health epidemic with associated detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. In this work, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on cardiovascular system in an animal model. The study then evaluated the effects of antioxidants (AO), represented by pomegranate juice, on cigarette smoke induced cardiovascular injury. This study aims at evaluating the effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on the cardiovascular system of an experimental rat model of smoke exposure...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867578/relationships-between-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-lung-cancer-biological-insights
#8
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Víctor Bustamante, Víctor Curull, Joaquim Gea, José Luis López-Campos, Xavier Muñoz
Lung cancer (LC) has become one of the leading causes of preventable death in the last few decades. Cigarette smoking (CS) stays as the main etiologic factor of LC despite that many other causes such as occupational exposures, air pollution, asbestos, or radiation have also been implicated. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, exhibit a significantly greater risk of LC. The study of the underlying biological mechanisms that may predispose patients with chronic respiratory diseases to a higher incidence of LC has also gained much attention in the last few years...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860281/counting-up-the-risks-how-common-are-risk-factors-for-morbidity-and-mortality-in-young-people-with-psychosis
#9
Lisa Anne Hahn, Andrew Mackinnon, Debra L Foley, Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Gerald F Watts, David J Castle, Dennis Liu, Cherrie A Galletly
BACKGROUND: This study examined the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular (CV)-related morbidity and mortality in young people with psychosis aged 18 to 24 years. METHODS: The study included 132 people aged 18 to 24 years who participated in the 2010 second Australian national survey of people living with psychosis. The 2009 World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Health Risks report was used as a framework to determine which specific risk factors were present in each in these young people...
November 17, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807299/public-health-benefits-from-pictorial-health-warnings-on-us-cigarette-packs-a-simsmoke-simulation
#10
David T Levy, Darren Mays, Zhe Yuan, David Hammond, James F Thrasher
INTRODUCTION: While many countries have adopted prominent pictorial warning labels (PWLs) for cigarette packs, the USA still requires only small, text-only labels located on one side of the cigarette pack that have little effect on smoking-related outcomes. Tobacco industry litigation blocked implementation of a 2011 Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) rule requiring large PWLs. To inform FDA action on PWLs, this study provides research-based estimates of their public health impacts...
November 2, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798089/large-cigars-smoking-topography-and-toxicant-exposure
#11
Zachary R Rosenberry, Wallace B Pickworth, Bartosz Koszowski
BACKGROUND: Cigar smoking in the U.S. continues despite decreases in cigarette smoking and increased tobacco control efforts. We compared large cigar and cigarette smoking for use patterns, smoking topography, and toxicant exposure. METHODS: Dual users (n=17, 94% men, 77% African American) smoked ad libitum either their usual cigarette brand or a study large cigar (Phillies Blunt) in two laboratory sessions. Plasma nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) were collected before and after smoking...
October 25, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797255/effects-of-smoking-on-cost-of-hospitalization-and-length-of-stay-among-patients-with-lung-cancer-in-iran-a-hospital-based-study
#12
Ali Akbari Sari, Satar Rezaei, Mohammad Arab, Reza Majdzadeh, Behzad Karami Matin, Hamed Zandian
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as a main leading preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is responsible for a considerable nancial burden both on the health system and in society. This study aimed to examine the effect of smoking on cost of hospitalization and length of stay (LoS) among patients with lung cancer in Iran in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 415 patients were included in the study. Data on age, sex, insurance status, type of hospitals, type of insurance, geographic local, length of stay and cost of hospitalization was extracted by medical records and smoking status was obtained from a telephone survey...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792909/knowledge-about-nicotine-among-hiv-positive-smokers-implications-for-tobacco-regulatory-science-policy
#13
Lauren R Pacek, Olga Rass, Matthew W Johnson
The present paper describes the general knowledge of smoking and nicotine among a sample of current smokers living with HIV (n=271) who were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Descriptive statistics were used to report sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, as well as knowledge about smoking and nicotine. The sample was comprised of relatively light smokers, both in terms of cigarettes per day (M=8.1, SD=9.7) and dependence (67.5% had low dependence according to the Heaviness of Smoking Index). The majority of participants correctly identified smoking as being a potential cause of various smoking-related conditions and correctly identified constituents in cigarette smoke...
October 21, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775761/state-level-cancer-mortality-attributable-to-cigarette-smoking-in-the-united-states
#14
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Ann Goding Sauer, Rebecca L Siegel, Kimberly D Miller, Farhad Islami, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
Importance: State-specific information about the health burden of smoking is valuable because state-level initiatives are at the forefront of tobacco control. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality estimates are currently available nationally and by cancer, but not by state. Objective: To calculate the proportion of cancer deaths among adults 35 years and older that were attributable to cigarette smoking in 2014 in each state and the District of Columbia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer deaths due to cigarette smoking was computed using relative risks for 12 smoking-related cancers (acute myeloid leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx; esophagus; stomach; colorectum; liver; pancreas; larynx; trachea, lung, and bronchus; cervix uteri; kidney and renal pelvis; and urinary bladder) from large US prospective studies and state-specific smoking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748200/statins-may-prevent-atherosclerotic-disease-in-osa-patients-without-co-morbidities
#15
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740856/alcohol-and-nicotine-interactions-pre-clinical-models-of-dependence
#16
Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730206/maternal-smoking-in-pregnancy-and-its-influence-on-childhood-asthma
#17
Angela Zacharasiewicz
Maternal smoking in pregnancy (MSP) is a large modifiable risk factor for pregnancy related mortality and morbidity and also the most important known modifiable risk factor for asthma. This review summarises the effects of MSP throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence with regards to asthma (development and severity). Firstly, the direct damage caused by nicotine on fetal lung development, fetal growth and neuronal differentiation is discussed, as well as the indirect effects of nicotine on placental functioning...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718306/common-congenital-anomalies-environmental-causes-and-prevention-with-folic-acid-containing-multivitamins
#18
REVIEW
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707462/the-challenge-of-reducing-smoking-in-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#19
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall
The high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness contributes substantially to the disproportionately high morbidity and premature mortality in this population. There is an urgent need to help people with serious mental illness to quit smoking. We discuss competing explanations for the high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness and the effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions. We propose trials of harm reduction options, such as nicotine replacement therapy and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as long-term substitutes for cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness who are unable to quit smoking...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694220/exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-abrogates-the-beneficial-effect-of-ischemic-postconditioning
#20
Sofia-Iris Bibli, I Andreadou, Constantinos Glynos, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Spyros G Zakynthinos, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Cigarette smoking is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Although conditioning decreases infarct size in hearts from healthy animals, co-morbidities may render it ineffective. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on intracellular myocardial signaling, infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion and the potential interference with ischemic conditioning. Exposure of mice to CS increased blood pressure, caused cardiac hypertrophy and up regulated the NOS/sGC/cGMP pathway. To test the effect of CS exposure on the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms, mice were subjected to regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion with no further intervention or application of preconditioning (PreC) or postconditioning (PostC)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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