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Cigarette AND morbidity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650248/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-china-the-china-pulmonary-health-cph-study-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#1
Chen Wang, Jianying Xu, Lan Yang, Yongjian Xu, Xiangyan Zhang, Chunxue Bai, Jian Kang, Pixin Ran, Huahao Shen, Fuqiang Wen, Kewu Huang, Wanzhen Yao, Tieying Sun, Guangliang Shan, Ting Yang, Yingxiang Lin, Sinan Wu, Jianguo Zhu, Ruiying Wang, Zhihong Shi, Jianping Zhao, Xianwei Ye, Yuanlin Song, Qiuyue Wang, Yumin Zhou, Liren Ding, Ting Yang, Yahong Chen, Yanfei Guo, Fei Xiao, Yong Lu, Xiaoxia Peng, Biao Zhang, Dan Xiao, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Zuomin Wang, Hong Zhang, Xiaoning Bu, Xiaolei Zhang, Li An, Shu Zhang, Zhixin Cao, Qingyuan Zhan, Yuanhua Yang, Bin Cao, Huaping Dai, Lirong Liang, Jiang He
BACKGROUND: Although exposure to cigarette smoking and air pollution is common, the current prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown in the Chinese adult population. We conducted the China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study to assess the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in China. METHODS: The CPH study is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older from ten provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China...
April 9, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604341/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-pediatric-cardiovascular-diseases-of-the-offspring-a-population-based-cohort-study-with-up-to-18-years-of-follow-up
#2
Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is a well-known reproductive toxicant. We aimed to study the long-term effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on the risk for childhood cardiovascular morbidity of the offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing total and subtypes of cardiovascular related pediatric hospitalizations among offspring of smoking mothers versus offspring of non-smoking mothers. The analysis included all singletons born between the years 1999-2014...
March 28, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573440/do-electronic-cigarettes-have-a-role-in-tobacco-cessation
#3
Andrea S Franks, Karen Sando, Sarah McBane
Tobacco use continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Even with behavioral and pharmacologic treatment, long-term tobacco cessation rates are low. Electronic nicotine delivery systems, commonly referred to as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, are increasingly used for tobacco cessation. Because e-cigarettes are widely used in this setting, health care professionals need to know if they are safe and effective. The purpose of this article is to review literature regarding use of e-cigarettes as a tool for tobacco cessation in patients who are ready to quit, as well as those who are not ready to quit, along with some selected patient populations...
March 24, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550303/trends-in-cigarette-smoking-among-adults-with-hiv-compared-with-the-general-adult-population-united-states-2009-2014
#4
Emma L Frazier, Madeline Y Sutton, John T Brooks, R Luke Shouse, John Weiser
Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16...
March 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546291/pathways-linking-childhood-ses-and-adult-health-behaviors-and-psychological-resources-in-black-and-white-men
#5
Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Jenny M Cundiff, Karen P Jakubowski, Dustin A Pardini, Karen A Matthews
Background: Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. Purpose: In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Methods: Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538537/factors-associated-with-asthma-expression-in-adolescents
#6
Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes, Dirceu Solé, Paulo Camargos, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526275/smoking-cessation-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Caroline Franck, Kristian B Filion, Mark J Eisenberg
Over 30% of the nearly 1 million North Americans hospitalized annually with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are smokers. Despite a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality, 2/3 of patients who quit smoking after ACS return to smoking within 1 year. To summarize the evidence of smoking cessation in patients hospitalized after ACS, we systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation therapies in patients with ACS. In addition, we reviewed the clinical considerations surrounding the use of smoking cessation therapies, including their broad mechanisms of action and possible alternative treatments, including cardiac rehabilitation programs and electronic cigarettes...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510706/disparities-in-tobacco-use-by-adolescents-in-southeast-nigeria-using-global-youth-tobacco-survey-gyts-approach
#8
Ijeoma U Itanyi, Chika N Onwasigwe, Scott McIntosh, Tamara Bruno, Deborah Ossip, Emmanuel A Nwobi, Chima A Onoka, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use during adolescence is a substantial problem and adolescents are at higher risk of addiction and prolonged use. To reduce the burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, monitoring of adolescent tobacco use is imperative. We aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in urban and rural secondary schools in Enugu State, southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 4332 adolescents in 8th to 10th grades in 25 urban and 24 rural secondary schools in Enugu, Nigeria was done using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502563/active-smoking-and-hematocrit-and-fasting-circulating-erythropoietin-concentrations-in-the-general-population
#9
Michele F Eisenga, Lyanne M Kieneker, Daan J Touw, Ilja M Nolte, Peter van der Meer, Gerwin Huls, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Stephan J L Bakker
Cigarette smoking continues to be one of the major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among many adverse health effects, smoking can induce erythrocytosis, which is commonly believed to result from elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Currently, however, this notion is only alleged, without data available to substantiate it. Hence, we analyzed data from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Smoking behavior was quantified as number of cigarettes smoked per day and as 24-hour urinary cotinine excretion levels, an objective and quantitative measure of nicotine exposure...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480848/exenatide-once-weekly-for-smoking-cessation-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Luba Yammine, Thomas R Kosten, Paul M Cinciripini, Charles E Green, Janet C Meininger, Jennifer A Minnix, Thomas F Newton
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the greatest preventable cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. Approved pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation are marginally effective, underscoring the need for improved pharmacotherapies. A novel approach might use glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, which reduce alcohol and drug use in preclinical studies. GLP-1 is produced in the intestinal L-cells and in the hindbrain. The peptide maintains glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468936/copd-as-an-endothelial-disorder-endothelial-injury-linking-lesions-in-the-lungs-and-other-organs-2017-grover-conference-series
#11
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459327/changes-in-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-versus-non-psychiatric-controls-during-28-days-of-cannabis-abstinence
#12
Rachel A Rabin, Sarah S Dermody, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and cannabis are highly co-morbid in the general population and in patients with schizophrenia. Given the putative causal mechanisms facilitating co-use, it is important to determine how cannabis cessation may influence concurrent tobacco use. Using a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm, we prospectively examined changes in tobacco consumption in patients with schizophrenia and controls with cannabis dependence and daily cigarette use. METHODS: Cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and controls (n = 20) completed the study with abstinence rates of 42% and 55%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458383/cumulative-exposure-to-environmental-pollutants-during-early-pregnancy-and-reduced-fetal-growth-the-project-viva-cohort
#13
Lisa B Rokoff, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Brent A Coull, Andres Cardenas, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Alexandros Gryparis, Joel Schwartz, Sharon K Sagiv, Diane R Gold, Emily Oken, Abby F Fleisch
BACKGROUND: Reduced fetal growth is associated with perinatal and later morbidity. Prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants is linked to reduced fetal growth at birth, but the impact of concomitant exposure to multiple pollutants is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine interactions between early pregnancy exposure to cigarette smoke, traffic pollution, and select perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on birth weight-for-gestational age (BW/GA). METHODS: Among 1597 Project Viva mother-infant pairs, we assessed maternal cigarette smoking by questionnaire, traffic pollution at residential address by black carbon land use regression model, and plasma concentration of select PFASs in early pregnancy...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443539/intermittent-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-increases-lung-tumors-and-the-severity-of-emphysema-more-than-continuous-exposure
#14
Naofumi Kameyama, Shotaro Chubachi, Ahmed E Hegab, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Shizuko Kagawa, Akihiro Tsutsumi, Koichi Fukunaga, Masayuki Shimoda, Yae Kanai, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for both. The presence of emphysema, an irreversible lung disease, further raises the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. The mechanisms involved in smoke-induced tumorigenesis and emphysema are not fully understood, attributable to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we optimized a model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung cancer and emphysema in A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent carcinogen...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428733/mice-overexpressing-latent-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-develop-lung-emphysema-after-short-term-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-extract
#15
Masahiro Onishi, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Hajime Fujimoto, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop. The need of a new model is compelling. In the present study we focus on the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypothesized that lung overexpression of latent matrix metalloproteinases-2 would allow the development of emphysema after short-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract inhalation...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407794/a-critical-review-of-assays-for-hazardous-components-of-air-pollution
#16
REVIEW
Henry Jay Forman, Caleb Ellicott Finch
Increased mortality and diverse morbidities are globally associated with exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP), cigarette smoke (CS), and household air pollution (HAP). The AAP-CS-HAP aerosols present heterogeneous particulate matter (PM) of diverse chemical and physical characteristics. Some epidemiological models have assumed the same health hazards by PM weight for AAP, CS, and HAP regardless of the composition. While others have recognized that biological activities and toxicity will vary with components, we focus particularly on oxidation because of its major role in assay outcomes...
January 30, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#17
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#18
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338578/cannabis-use-is-associated-with-lower-odds-of-prescription-opioid-analgesic-use-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-chronic-pain
#19
Nancy L Sohler, Joanna L Starrels, Laila Khalid, Marcus A Bachhuber, Julia H Arnsten, Shadi Nahvi, John Jost, Chinazo O Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is common in the United States and prescribed opioid analgesics use for noncancer pain has increased dramatically in the past two decades, possibly accounting for the current opioid addiction epidemic. Co-morbid drug use in those prescribed opioid analgesics is common, but there are few data on polysubstance use patterns. OBJECTIVE: We explored patterns of use of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drugs in HIV-infected people with chronic pain who were prescribed opioid analgesics...
January 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326298/smoking-duration-alone-provides-stronger-risk-estimates-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-than-pack-years
#20
Surya P Bhatt, Young-Il Kim, Kathy F Harrington, John E Hokanson, Sharon M Lutz, Michael H Cho, Dawn L DeMeo, James M Wells, Barry J Make, Stephen I Rennard, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Donald P Tashkin, Robert A Wise, Mark T Dransfield, William C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1 /FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1 , CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ)...
January 11, 2018: Thorax
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