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Cigarette AND morbidity

Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Angela Zacharasiewicz
Maternal smoking in pregnancy (MSP) is a large modifiable risk factor for pregnancy related mortality and morbidity and also the most important known modifiable risk factor for asthma. This review summarises the effects of MSP throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence with regards to asthma (development and severity). Firstly, the direct damage caused by nicotine on fetal lung development, fetal growth and neuronal differentiation is discussed, as well as the indirect effects of nicotine on placental functioning...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially...
October 7, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall
The high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness contributes substantially to the disproportionately high morbidity and premature mortality in this population. There is an urgent need to help people with serious mental illness to quit smoking. We discuss competing explanations for the high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness and the effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions. We propose trials of harm reduction options, such as nicotine replacement therapy and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as long-term substitutes for cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness who are unable to quit smoking...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Sofia-Iris Bibli, I Andreadou, Constantinos Glynos, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Spyros G Zakynthinos, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, Andreas Papapetropoulos
Cigarette smoking is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. Although conditioning decreases infarct size in hearts from healthy animals, co-morbidities may render it ineffective. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on intracellular myocardial signaling, infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion and the potential interference with ischemic conditioning. Exposure of mice to CS increased blood pressure, caused cardiac hypertrophy and up regulated the NOS/sGC/cGMP pathway. To test the effect of CS exposure on the endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms, mice were subjected to regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion with no further intervention or application of preconditioning (PreC) or postconditioning (PostC)...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shih-Wei Yang, Wei-Chieh Chao, Yun-Shien Lee, Liang-Che Chang, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tai-An Chen, Cheng-Ming Luo
The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcome and analyze the associated factors of postoperative recurrence in patients who received transoral laser microsurgery for vocal cord leukoplakia. The demographic, histopathological data were retrospectively reviewed and the factors associated with recurrence of vocal leukoplakia after surgery were analyzed statistically. A total of 44 patients, including 36 males and 8 females, with a mean age of 50.4 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled. All the patients received excision of the vocal leukoplakia by carbon dioxide laser (2-4 Watt, ultrapulse mode) under general anesthesia...
September 29, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
David J T Campbell, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Chad Mitchell, Ross Tsuyuki, Noah Ivers, Tavis Campbell, Raj Pannu, Eric Verkerke, Scott Klarenbach, Kathryn King-Shier, Peter Faris, Derek Exner, Vikas Chaubey, Braden Manns
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases result in significant morbidity and costs. Although medications and lifestyle changes are effective for improving outcomes in chronic diseases, many patients do not receive these treatments, in part because of financial barriers, patient and provider-level knowledge gaps, and low patient motivation. The Assessing outcomes of enhanced chronic disease care through patient education and a value-based formulary study (ACCESS) will determine the impact of two interventions: (1) a value-based formulary which eliminates copayment for high-value preventive medications; and (2) a comprehensive self-management support program aimed at promoting health behavior change and medication adherence, combined with relay of information on medication use to healthcare providers, on cardiovascular events and/or mortality in low-income seniors with elevated cardiovascular risk...
September 26, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Darrin V Bann, Daniel G Deschler, Neerav Goyal
The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments...
2016: Cancers
Cindy T McEvoy, Eliot R Spindel
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the largest preventable cause of abnormal in-utero lung development. Despite well known risks, rates of smoking during pregnancy have only slightly decreased over the last ten years, with rates varying from 5-40% worldwide resulting in tens of millions of fetal exposures. Despite multiple approaches to smoking cessation about 50% of smokers will continue to smoke during pregnancy. Maternal genotype plays an important role in the likelihood of continued smoking during pregnancy and the degree to which maternal smoking will affect the fetus...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Ashwin Jacob Mathai, Jyoti Kanwar, Olaoluwa Okusaga, Dietmar Fuchs, Christopher A Lowry, Xiaoqing Peng, Ina Giegling, Annette M Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Marion Friedl, Claudia Gragnoli, Gloria M Reeves, Maureen W Groer, Richard N Rosenthal, Dan Rujescu, Teodor T Postolache
Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and exerts a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Smoking has complex interactions with monoamine metabolism through the ability of cigarette smoke to suppress Type 1 T helper cell (Th1) type immunity, the immunophenotype that is implicated in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) dysfunction and tryptophan (Trp) breakdown to kynurenine (Kyn) via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Nicotine also induces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression, leading to increased synthesis of catecholamines...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Ahmad Khosravi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Ali Akbar Pouyan, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. METHODS: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jonathan Shuter, Alain H Litwin, Mark S Sulkowski, Addi Feinstein, Avram Bursky-Tammam, Stephen Maslak, Andrea H Weinberger, Hannah Esan, Kate S Segal, Brianna Norton
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Tobacco use is common among persons living with hepatitis C (PLHC), yet little is known about their smoking behaviors and beliefs. Modern hepatitis C treatment offers a unique opportunity to intensively engage this population about other health risks, including smoking. MAIN RESULTS: 77 tobacco users (40 hepatitis C virus [HCV] seropositive and 37 HCV seronegative) enrolled in an interview study in a New York City clinic. The mean age was 51...
August 22, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Sara Roversi, Leonardo M Fabbri, Don D Sin, Nathaniel M Hawkins, Alvar Agusti
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with high social and economic costs. Concomitant chronic cardiac disorders are frequent in patients with COPD, likely due to shared risk factors (e.g. ageing, cigarette smoke, inactivity, persistent low-grade pulmonary and systemic inflammation) and add to the overall morbidity and mortality of COPD patients. The prevalence and incidence of cardiac comorbidities are higher in COPD patients than in matched control subjects, although estimates of prevalence vary widely...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Elizabeth J Santa Ana, Steven D LaRowe, Kent Armeson, Kayla E Lamb, Karen Hartwell
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI) for dually diagnosed patients holds promise for increasing treatment engagement. OBJECTIVES: The current study evaluated the impact of a novel GMI protocol that included tobacco-specific components (referred to as "Tobacco GMI or T-GMI") targeting enhanced engagement in smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Thirty-seven primary alcohol and nicotine-dependent cigarette smoking homeless Veterans with co-morbid psychiatric conditions were recruited to receive four GMI sessions over 4 consecutive days...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Denise D'Angelo, Indu B Ahluwalia, Eugene Pun, Shaoman Yin, Krishna Palipudi, Lazarous Mbulo
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mohit Kaushal, Parth S Shah, Arti D Shah, Stani A Francis, Nihar V Patel, Kavit K Kothari
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with cigarette smoking being an important risk factor. COPD affects pulmonary blood vessels, right ventricle, as well as left ventricle leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), cor-pulmonale (COR-P), right and left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate cardiac functions. Early diagnoses and intervention for cardiac comorbidities would reduce mortalities...
July 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Timothy E Wilens, Joseph Biederman, MaryKate Martelon, Courtney Zulauf, Jesse P Anderson, Nicholas W Carrellas, Amy Yule, Janet Wozniak, Ronna Fried, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a highly morbid disorder increasingly recognized in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the relative risk for substance use disorders (SUDs; alcohol or drug abuse or dependence) and cigarette smoking in adolescents with BPD. METHODS: We evaluated the relative risk for SUDs and cigarette smoking in a case-controlled, 5-year prospective follow-up of adolescents with (n = 105, mean ± SD baseline age = 13.6 ± 2.5 years) and without ("controls"; n = 98, baseline age = 13...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Paul Enright Md
Measurement of diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), also known as transfer factor, is the second most important pulmonary function test (PFT), after spirometry. Previously available only in hospital-based PFT labs, DLCO testing is now available at outpatient clinics using a portable device. Compared to spirometry tests, assessments with these devices require very little effort. The patient breathes quietly, inhales the test gas, holds the breath for ten seconds, and then exhales. In adult smokers with post-bronchodilator airway obstruction, a low DLCO greatly increases the probability of the emphysema phenotype of COPD due to cigarette smoking, while a normal DLCO makes chronic asthma more likely...
September 2016: Respiratory Investigation
Saeid Safiri, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Masud Yunesian, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Mansour Shamsipour, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Akbar Fotouhi
BACKGROUND: Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study's purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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