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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928982/heterogeneity-and-the-origins-of-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Scherzer, Mitchell H Grayson
OBJECTIVE: It is a well-known fact that there is significant heterogeneity in the origins of asthma in adults and children. This article examines the roots of asthma across the ages including atopy, the role of the microbiome and viral infections, along with comorbidities/confounders such as obesity, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), neutrophilic asthma, cigarette smoking and the possibility of an asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome. DATA SOURCES: Data was taken from various scientific search engines including PubMed and Science Direct databases...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928807/prevalence-and-determinants-of-smoking-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-a-rural-population-of-central-greece-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Chrysovalantis Stafylis, George Rachiotis, Antonis Katsioulis, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for heart and lung disease and is responsible for many forms of cancer. The resulting morbidity and mortality weigh heavily upon countries with high prevalence, such as Greece. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Greece, 38.2% of Greeks aged ≥15 years, namely 51.2% of men and 25.7% of women, are smokers. Smoking is also common among the young and people of high education. Despite laws prohibiting smoking at indoor places, exposure to environmental tobacco is very high both in private and public places...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927614/perceived-barriers-to-smoking-cessation-and-perceptions-of-electronic-cigarettes-among-persons-living-with-hiv
#3
Patricia A Cioe, Rebecca E F Gordon, Kate M Guthrie, Matthew S Freiberg, Christopher W Kahler
Smoking is more prevalent in persons living with HIV than the general population and is linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Some have suggested that based on current knowledge of harms and benefits, it may be feasible to advise smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to switch to electronic cigarettes (ECs) as a less harmful alternative. We conducted 25 qualitative interviews with HIV-positive current or former smokers to explore perceived barriers to smoking cessation and perceptions of ECs. A high level of nicotine dependence, smoking as a form of stress management, motivational factors (including lack of readiness, low self-efficacy, ambivalence toward quitting), and having a social network of smokers were identified as cessation barriers...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917124/socioeconomic-disparities-in-electronic-cigarette-use-and-transitions-from-smoking
#4
Abigail S Friedman, Samantha J L Horn
Introduction: Socioeconomic disparities have been established for conventional cigarette use, but not for electronic cigarettes. This study estimates socioeconomic gradients in exclusive use of conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and dual use (i.e., use of both products) among adults in the United States. Methods: Analyses consider nationally representative data on 25 to 54 year old respondents to the 2014-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (N=50,306)...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912335/cessation-of-cigarette-smoking-and-the-impact-on-cancer-incidence-in-hiv-positive-persons-the-d-a-d-study
#5
Leah Shepherd, Lene Ryom, Matthew Law, Kathy Petoumenos, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Caroline Sabin, Mark Bower, Fabrice Bonnet, Peter Reiss, Stephane de Wit, Christian Pradier, Rainer Weber, Wafaa El-Sadr, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Cancers are a major source of morbidity and mortality for HIV-positive persons on combination antiretroviral therapy, while the clinical benefits of smoking cessation are not well established. Methods: Participants were followed from 1 January 2004 until first cancer diagnosis, death, or 1 February 2016. Smoking status was defined as ex (<1,1-2,2-3,3-5,>5 years since stopping), current, and never smokers. Outcomes considered were any cancer, lung cancer, other smoking-related excluding lung and smoking-unrelated cancers...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902162/youth-risk-behavior-surveillance-united-states-2017
#6
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890087/cigarette-smoke-modifies-and-inactivates-splunc1-leading-to-airway-dehydration
#7
Patrick J Moore, Boris Reidel, Arunava Ghosh, Juliana Sesma, Mehmet Kesimer, Robert Tarran
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, a major cause of COPD, dysregulates airway epithelial ion transport and diminishes airway surface liquid (ASL) volume. Short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is secreted into the airway lumen where it maintains airway hydration via interactions with the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). Although ASL hydration is dysregulated in CS-exposed/COPD airways, effects of CS on SPLUNC1 have not been elucidated...
June 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888148/prevalence-of-non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus-among-patients-with-cholelithiasis-a-single-centered-cross-sectional-study
#8
Sidra Ali, Shaik Tanveer Ahamad, Abdul Subhan Talpur, Shreeya Parajuli, Jawad Farooq
Introduction Gallstone disease (GD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the west and most of the countries worldwide. Cholelithiasis and diseases of the biliary tract are becoming more prevalent with the socioeconomic burden in developing countries like Pakistan. GD is a chronic, recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis of which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder...
April 7, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862962/state-prevalence-and-ranks-of-adolescent-substance-use-implications-for-cancer-prevention
#9
Jennifer L Moss, Benmei Liu, Li Zhu
INTRODUCTION: This study statistically ranked states' performance on adolescent substance use related to cancer risk (past-month cigarette smoking, binge alcohol drinking, and marijuana use). METHODS: Data came from 69,200 adolescent participants (50 states and the District of Columbia) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and 450,050 adolescent participants (47 states) in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). Adolescents were aged 14 to 17 years...
May 31, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789655/cigarette-smoke-promotes-hiv-infection-of-primary-bronchial-epithelium-and-additively-suppresses-cftr-function
#10
S Chinnapaiyan, R Dutta, J Bala, T Parira, M Agudelo, M Nair, H J Unwalla
Recurrent lung infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV and this is exacerbated in smokers even when administered combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The incidence of pneumonia is increased with smoking and treatment interruption and is directly dependent on viral load in patients when adjusted for CD4 counts. CFTR dysfunction plays an important role in aberrant airway innate immunity as it is pivotal in regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC) rates and other antibacterial mechanisms of the airway...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774362/impact-of-a-pharmacy-led-smoking-cessation-clinic-in-a-dermatology-centre
#11
Hui Mei Cheng, Wen Chun Liu, Germaine Chua, Choon Fong Liew, Winnie Li, Winnie Choo, Hazel H Oon
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and has a deleterious effect on dermatological conditions, such as skin cancers, hidradenitis suppurativa and psoriasis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacist-led smoking cessation clinic in reducing cigarette smoking at a tertiary referral dermatology centre. We describe the impact of this clinic to provide guidance on how such a model could be further improved and implemented more widely...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764477/meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-in-diabetic-patients-and-its-association-with-cigarette-smoking-in-african-and-asian-countries
#12
Fasil Wagnew, Setegn Eshetie, Animut Alebel, Getenet Dessie, Cheru Tesema, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetic patients and to determine the effect of cigarette smoking. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies was included in the meta-analysis. The pooled overall prevalence of tuberculosis in diabetes was 4.72% (95% CI 3.62-5.83%). In sub-group analyses, the prevalence was 5.13% (95% CI 4.34-5.92%) in Africa, followed by 4.16% (95% CI 2.9-5.4%) in Asia. The odd ratio of tuberculosis among diabetes patients was 7...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753799/predictors-of-erectile-function-normalization-in-men-with-erectile-dysfunction-treated-with-placebo
#13
John P Mulhall, Martin Carlsson, Vera Stecher, Li-Jung Tseng
BACKGROUND: Clinical study and practice data have shown sildenafil improves sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). However, some men treated with placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled sildenafil studies also report improved erectile function as measured by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Erectile Function Domain (EFD) scores. AIM: This analysis estimated the relationship between post-baseline IIEF-EFD scores and demographic variables, including co-morbidities, in men with ED receiving placebo in flexible-dose sildenafil studies...
June 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750581/cftr-dysfunction-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Elena Fernandez Fernandez, Chiara De Santi, Virginia De Rose, Catherine M Greene
Obstructive lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are causes of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. CF is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by progressive chronic obstructive lung disease. Most cases of COPD are a result of noxious particles, mainly cigarette smoke but also other environmental pollutants. Areas covered: Although the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CF and COPD differ, they do share key phenotypic features and because of these similarities there is great interest in exploring common mechanisms and/or factors affected by CFTR mutations and environmental insults involved in COPD...
June 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745965/stroke-distribution-patterns-and-characteristics-in-kenya-s-leading-public-health-tertiary-institutions-kenyatta-national-hospital-and-moi-teaching-and-referral-hospital
#15
Lydia Kaduka, Anne Korir, Chrispine Owuor Oduor, Judith Kwasa, Jane Mbui, Sylvanos Wabwire, Robai Gakunga, Nathan Okerosi, Yvonne Opanga, Isaac Kisiang'ani, Mercy Rotich Chepkurui, Erastus Muniu, Scot C Remick
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. However, there is limited clinic-epidemiological data on stroke to inform decision making. This study sought to establish stroke distribution patterns and characteristics in patients seeking care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), with the ultimate aim of establishing the first national stroke registry in Kenya. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre cohort study among stroke patients...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740475/dose-response-and-prediction-characteristics-of-a-methylation-sensitive-digital-pcr-assay-for-cigarette-consumption-in-adults
#16
Robert Philibert, Meesha Dogan, Amanda Noel, Shelly Miller, Brianna Krukow, Emma Papworth, Joseph Cowley, Jeffrey D Long, Steven R H Beach, Donald W Black
The tobacco use disorders are the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. A substantial barrier to the development of better intervention and screening measures is the lack of clinically employable biomarkers to detect the existence and extent of tobacco consumption. In prior work, we and others have shown that array based assessment of DNA methylation status at cg05575921 is a sensitive and quantitative method for assessing cigarette consumption. Unfortunately, in general, arrays are not practical clinical tools...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707563/copd-time-to-improve-its-taxonomy
#17
Bartolomé R Celli, Alvar Agustí
Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684294/socioeconomic-and-gender-inequalities-in-smoking-findings-from-the-czech-national-tobacco-surveys-2012-2015
#18
Ladislav Csémy, Hana Sovinová, Zuzana Dvořáková
OBJECTIVE: Smoking significantly affects morbidity and mortality of the population. The incidence of smoking is determined by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) of an individual. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between gender and SES indicators and smoking. METHODS: The analysis is based on data from the Czech National Tobacco Surveys from 2012 to 2015 (N∼1,800 per year). The prevalence of smoking, average daily consumption of cigarettes, initiation ratio and quit ratio were monitored...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650248/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-china-the-china-pulmonary-health-cph-study-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#19
Chen Wang, Jianying Xu, Lan Yang, Yongjian Xu, Xiangyan Zhang, Chunxue Bai, Jian Kang, Pixin Ran, Huahao Shen, Fuqiang Wen, Kewu Huang, Wanzhen Yao, Tieying Sun, Guangliang Shan, Ting Yang, Yingxiang Lin, Sinan Wu, Jianguo Zhu, Ruiying Wang, Zhihong Shi, Jianping Zhao, Xianwei Ye, Yuanlin Song, Qiuyue Wang, Yumin Zhou, Liren Ding, Ting Yang, Yahong Chen, Yanfei Guo, Fei Xiao, Yong Lu, Xiaoxia Peng, Biao Zhang, Dan Xiao, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Zuomin Wang, Hong Zhang, Xiaoning Bu, Xiaolei Zhang, Li An, Shu Zhang, Zhixin Cao, Qingyuan Zhan, Yuanhua Yang, Bin Cao, Huaping Dai, Lirong Liang, Jiang He
BACKGROUND: Although exposure to cigarette smoking and air pollution is common, the current prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown in the Chinese adult population. We conducted the China Pulmonary Health (CPH) study to assess the prevalence and risk factors of COPD in China. METHODS: The CPH study is a cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older from ten provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China...
April 28, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604341/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-the-risk-of-pediatric-cardiovascular-diseases-of-the-offspring-a-population-based-cohort-study-with-up-to-18-years-of-follow-up
#20
Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is a well-known reproductive toxicant. We aimed to study the long-term effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on the risk for childhood cardiovascular morbidity of the offspring. METHODS: A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing total and subtypes of cardiovascular related pediatric hospitalizations among offspring of smoking mothers versus offspring of non-smoking mothers. The analysis included all singletons born between the years 1999-2014...
June 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
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