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Cigarette AND morbidity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#1
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212863/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-benefits-of-increasing-the-uk-tobacco-duty-escalator-to-public-health-and-economic-outcomes
#2
Andre Knuchel-Takano, Daniel Hunt, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Martin Brown, Lise Retat, Katrina Brown, Sebastian Hinde, Chit Selvarajah, Linda Bauld, Laura Webber
INTRODUCTION: Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. METHODS: A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035...
December 6, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191193/adequacy-of-control-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-ambulatory-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-attending-diabetes-out-patients-clinic-at-a-county-hospital-kenya
#3
Mercy W Kimando, Frederick C F Otieno, Elijah N Ogola, Kenn Mutai
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality arising from the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Adequacy of control of these risk factors determines the frequency and outcome of cardiovascular events in the patients. Current clinical practice guidelines emphasize primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. There is scarce data from the developing countries, Kenya included, on clinical care of patients with type 2 diabetes in the regions that are far away from tertiary health facilities...
December 1, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180151/comparison-of-pharmacy-students-knowledge-and-self-efficacy-to-provide-cessation-counseling-for-hookah-and-cigarette-use
#4
Sabina O Nduaguba, Kentya H Ford, Benita Bamgbade, Ogechi Iwuorie
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess pharmacy students' self-efficacy to provide cessation counseling for commercial cigarette and hookah tobacco use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including PharmD students at a College of Pharmacy was conducted in Spring 2014. Confidence in counseling and perception of knowledge were self-rated and based on the Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange follow-up (5A's) model and general tobacco cessation counseling skills. Comparisons were made between cigarettes and hookahs and by program level using t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, analyses of variance, and Tukey-Kramer tests...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160902/proportion-and-number-of-cancer-cases-and-deaths-attributable-to-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#5
Farhad Islami, Ann Goding Sauer, Kimberly D Miller, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Marjorie L McCullough, Alpa V Patel, Jiemin Ma, Isabelle Soerjomataram, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Susan M Gapstur, Ahmedin Jemal
Contemporary information on the fraction of cancers that potentially could be prevented is useful for priority setting in cancer prevention and control. Herein, the authors estimate the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths, overall (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) and for 26 cancer types, in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014, that were attributable to major, potentially modifiable exposures (cigarette smoking; secondhand smoke; excess body weight; alcohol intake; consumption of red and processed meat; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, dietary fiber, and dietary calcium; physical inactivity; ultraviolet radiation; and 6 cancer-associated infections)...
November 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156550/can-youthful-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-wharton-s-jelly-bring-a-breath-of-fresh-air-for-copd
#6
REVIEW
Andrzej M Janczewski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Ewa Malinowska, Anna Doboszyńska
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, projected to become the 3rd cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. COPD is characterized by persistent and not fully reversible airflow limitation that is usually progressive and is associated with an abnormal chronic inflammatory response of the lung to noxious agents including cigarette smoke. Currently available therapeutic strategies aim to ease COPD symptoms but cannot prevent its progress or regenerate physiological lung structure or function...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144995/content-analysis-of-homeless-smokers-perspectives-on-established-and-alternative-smoking-interventions
#7
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143991/genetic-and-non-genetic-risk-factors-for-pre-eclampsia-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#8
REVIEW
Konstantinos Giannakou, Evangelos Evangelou, Stefania I Papatheodorou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence from the literature on the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, assess the presence of statistical biases and identify associations with robust evidence. METHODS: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to October, 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval...
November 16, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138548/e-cigarettes-in-patients-with-copd-current-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
J B Morjaria, E Mondati, R Polosa
Conventional cigarette smoking is known to result in significant COPD morbidity and mortality. Strategies to reduce and/or stop smoking in this highly vulnerable patient group are key public health priorities to reduce COPD morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, smoking cessation efforts in patients with COPD are poor and there is a compelling need for more efficient approaches to cessation for patients with COPD. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devices that use batteries to vaporize nicotine. They may facilitate quit attempts and cessation in many smokers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126842/autoimmunity-and-copd-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Gaetano Caramori, Paolo Ruggeri, Antonino Di Stefano, Sharon Mumby, Giuseppe Girbino, Ian M Adcock, Paul Kirkham
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long term cigarette smoking is the cause of more than 90% of COPD in Westernized countries. However, only a fraction of chronic heavy smokers develop symptomatic COPD by the age of 80 years. COPD is characterized by an abnormal immune response in the lower airways and its progression is associated with infiltration of the lung by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles. There is growing evidence that both cellular- and antibody-mediated autoimmunity has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of stable COPD...
November 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096015/the-impact-of-smoking-on-expected-lifetime-with-and-without-chronic-disease-among-palestinian-men-in-the-west-bank
#11
Henrik Brønnum-Hansen, Marie Jonassen, Amira Shaheen, Mohammed Duraidi, Khaled Qalalwa, Bernard Jeune
Background: The purpose of the study was to estimate life expectancy and the average lifetime with and without chronic disease among male never smokers, ex-smokers and smokers living in the West Bank of the occupied Palestinian territory. Methods: The study used a life table for the West Bank male population and Danish relative risk estimates for death for smokers and ex-smokers vs. never smokers and utilized data from the Palestinian Family Survey 2010. Expected lifetime with and without chronic disease was estimated and the contributions from the mortality and the morbidity effect to smoking related difference in average lifetime with and without chronic disease were assessed by decomposition...
October 31, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083287/the-impact-of-e-cigarettes-on-smoking-and-related-outcomes-in-veteran-smokers-with-psychiatric-comorbidity
#12
Gerald W Valentine, Kathryn Hefner, Peter I Jatlow, Robert A Rosenheck, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVE: Compared to the general U.S. population, smokers with comorbid psychiatric and/or substance use disorders (SUD) have lower quit rates after evidence-based treatments, and disproportionately high smoking-related deaths. Improved modalities for reducing tobacco-related harm in this subpopulation are needed. Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can now deliver physiologically relevant levels of nicotine to consumers, they represent an additional nicotine delivery system that could be used in cessation interventions...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081655/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-copd-from-bench-to-bedside
#13
REVIEW
Mariana A Antunes, José Roberto Lapa E Silva, Patricia Rm Rocco
COPD is the most frequent chronic respiratory disease and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The major risk factor for COPD development is cigarette smoke, and the most efficient treatment for COPD is smoking cessation. However, even after smoking cessation, inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress may persist and continue contributing to disease progression. Although current therapies for COPD (primarily based on anti-inflammatory agents) contribute to the reduction of airway obstruction and minimize COPD exacerbations, none can avoid disease progression or reduce mortality...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070563/low-serum-%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-other-metabolites-are-associated-with-poor-linear-growth-in-young-children-from-rural-malawi
#14
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Norman Salem, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Mark J Manary
Background: Stunting affects ∼25% of children <5 y of age and is associated with impaired cognitive and motor development and increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify altered metabolic pathways associated with child stunting.Design: We measured 677 serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study of 400 Malawian children aged 12-59 mo, of whom 62% were stunted...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059423/u-s-adult-cigar-smoking-patterns-purchasing-behaviors-and-reasons-for-use-according-to-cigar-type-findings-from-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study-2013-14
#15
Catherine G Corey, Enver Holder-Hayes, Anh B Nguyen, Cristine D Delnevo, Brian L Rostron, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Heather L Kimmel, Amber Koblitz, Elizabeth Lambert, Jennifer L Pearson, Eva Sharma, Cindy Tworek, Andrew J Hyland, Kevin P Conway, Bridget K Ambrose, Nicolette Borek
Introduction: The U.S. cigar market is diverse, yet until recently most research studies and tobacco surveillance systems have not reported behavioral and related outcomes by cigar type. Methods: The 2013-14 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study collected data separately for filtered cigars (FCs), cigarillos and traditional cigars, which were further distinguished as premium or non-premium. Descriptive statistics for adult established current smokers of each cigar type and cigarettes were calculated for demographic characteristics, tobacco use patterns, purchasing behaviors and reasons for use...
September 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059417/brief-web-based-interventions-for-young-adult-smokers-with-severe-mental-illnesses-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#16
Mary F Brunette, Joelle C Ferron, Delbert Robinson, Daniel Coletti, Pamela Geiger, Timothy Devitt, Vanessa Klodnick, Jennifer Gottlieb, Haiyi Xie, Mary Ann Greene, Douglas Ziedonis, Robert E Drake, Gregory J McHugo
Significance: About 50% of young adults with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other severe mental illnesses smoke tobacco, but few studies have evaluated interventions for this group. Methods: We conducted a randomized pilot study among 58 young adult smokers with severe mental illnesses comparing a brief interactive web-based motivational tool, Let's Talk About Smoking, to computerized standard education from the National Cancer Institute. An additional 23 subjects received minimal tobacco assessment at baseline and no intervention, providing a comparison condition for naturalistic cessation behavior...
October 14, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059340/trajectories-of-responses-to-pictorial-cigarette-pack-warnings
#17
Humberto Parada, Marissa G Hall, Marcella H Boynton, Noel T Brewer
Background: Pictorial warnings on cigarette packs are a cost-effective policy-level intervention for smoking cessation; however, little research has examined changes in the impact of warnings over time, especially shortly following the first exposure to pictorial warnings. We sought to characterize the trajectories of responses to pictorial cigarette pack warnings soon after first exposure. Methods: Participants were 2,149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California, United States...
August 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037522/rheumatoid-arthritis-and-risk-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-asthma-among-women-a-marginal-structural-model-analysis-in-the-nurses-health-study
#18
Jeffrey A Sparks, Tzu-Chieh Lin, Carlos A Camargo, Medha Barbhaiya, Sara K Tedeschi, Karen H Costenbader, Benjamin A Raby, Hyon K Choi, Elizabeth W Karlson
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether RA increases risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma independent of factors occurring before RA onset or mediating these respiratory morbidities after diagnosis, such as cigarette smoking. METHODS: Within the prospective Nurses' Health Study (n = 121,701 women; 1976-2014), we identified an incident RA cohort and matched each woman with RA to 10 comparators without RA by age and year at index date of RA diagnosis, excluding women with COPD or asthma at baseline...
September 18, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025711/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-have-opposing-roles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Tatt Jhong Haw, Malcolm R Starkey, Stelios Pavlidis, Michael Fricker, Anya L Arthurs, Prema Mono Nair, Gang Liu, Irwan Hanish, Richard Y Kim, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Ian M Adcock, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are implicated in chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992538/health-lifestyles-across-the-transition-to-adulthood-implications-for-health
#20
Elizabeth M Lawrence, Stefanie Mollborn, Robert A Hummer
Research has long established the importance of individual health behaviors such as cigarette smoking for adult morbidity and mortality. However, we know little about how health behaviors cluster into health lifestyles among adolescents and young adults in the United States, or in turn, how such health lifestyles are associated with young adult health outcomes. This study establishes health lifestyles as distinct group phenomena at three developmental time points in a single cohort: late adolescence (ages 15-17), early adulthood (ages 20-24), and young adulthood (ages 26-31)...
November 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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