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Cigarette AND mortality

S Chinnapaiyan, R Dutta, J Bala, T Parira, M Agudelo, M Nair, H J Unwalla
Recurrent lung infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV and this is exacerbated in smokers even when administered combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The incidence of pneumonia is increased with smoking and treatment interruption and is directly dependent on viral load in patients when adjusted for CD4 counts. CFTR dysfunction plays an important role in aberrant airway innate immunity as it is pivotal in regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC) rates and other antibacterial mechanisms of the airway...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna V Chetaikina, Helen Ye Sklyarova, Iryna V Shalko, Roman Ya Dutka
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a one of the main reasons of disability and mortality in the world. The essential attention is dedicated to the combination of COPD and erosive/ulcer defects with the haemorrhage risk factor. The aim was to compare gastric acidity and mucoid secretion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of gastropathy development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 94 patients with gastroduodenal erosive and ulcerous defects combined with COPD were examined...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hui Mei Cheng, Wen Chun Liu, Germaine Chua, Choon Fong Liew, Winnie Li, Winnie Choo, Hazel H Oon
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and has a deleterious effect on dermatological conditions, such as skin cancers, hidradenitis suppurativa and psoriasis. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacist-led smoking cessation clinic in reducing cigarette smoking at a tertiary referral dermatology centre. We describe the impact of this clinic to provide guidance on how such a model could be further improved and implemented more widely...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Neel Shimpi, Monica Jethwani, Aditi Bharatkumar, Po-Huang Chyou, Ingrid Glurich, Amit Acharya
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer (OC) is associated with multiple risk factors and high mortality rates and substantially contributes to the global cancer burden despite being highly preventable. This cross-sectional study sought to assess current knowledge, awareness, and behaviors of patients in rural communities surrounding OC risk. METHODS: An anonymous 21-question survey was distributed to patients in waiting rooms of a large integrated medical-dental health system serving north-central Wisconsin...
May 15, 2018: BMC Oral Health
David A Lynch, Camille M Moore, Carla Wilson, Dipti Nevrekar, Theodore Jennermann, Stephen M Humphries, John H M Austin, Philippe A Grenier, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, MeiLan K Han, Elizabeth A Regan, Barry J Make, Russell P Bowler, Terri H Beaty, Douglas Curran-Everett, John E Hokanson, Jeffrey L Curtis, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo
Purpose To determine whether visually assessed patterns of emphysema at CT might provide a simple assessment of mortality risk among cigarette smokers. Materials and Methods Of the first 4000 cigarette smokers consecutively enrolled between 2007 and 2011 in this COPDGene study, 3171 had data available for both visual emphysema CT scores and survival. Each CT scan was retrospectively visually scored by two analysts using the Fleischner Society classification system. Severity of emphysema was also evaluated quantitatively by using percentage lung volume occupied by low-attenuation areas (voxels with attenuation of -950 HU or less) (LAA-950)...
May 15, 2018: Radiology
Elena Fernandez Fernandez, Chiara de Santi, Virginia De Rose, Catherine M Greene
Obstructive lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are causes of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. CF is a multiorgan genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and is characterized by progressive chronic obstructive lung disease. Most cases of COPD are a result of noxious particles, mainly cigarette smoke but also other environmental pollutants. Areas covered: Although the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CF and COPD differ, they do share key phenotypic features and because of these similarities there is great interest in exploring common mechanisms and/or factors affected by CFTR mutations and environmental insults involved in COPD...
May 11, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Stefanie Krick, Alexander Grabner, Nathalie Baumlin, Christopher Yanucil, Scott Helton, Astrid Grosche, Juliette Sailland, Patrick Geraghty, Liliana Viera, Derek W Russell, J Michael Wells, Xin Xu, Amit Gaggar, Jarrod Barnes, Gwendalyn D King, Michael Campos, Christian Faul, Matthias Salathe
Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 are associated with systemic inflammation and increased mortality in chronic kidney disease. α-klotho, a co-receptor for FGF23, is downregulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether FGF23 and klotho-mediated FGFR activation delineates a pathophysiologic mechanism in COPD remains unclear. We hypothesized that FGF23 can potentiate airway inflammation via klotho independent FGFR4 activation. FGF23 and its effect were studied using plasma and transbronchial biopsies from COPD and control patients and primary human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from COPD patients as well as a murine COPD model...
May 10, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Lydia Kaduka, Anne Korir, Chrispine Owuor Oduor, Judith Kwasa, Jane Mbui, Sylvanos Wabwire, Robai Gakunga, Nathan Okerosi, Yvonne Opanga, Isaac Kisiang'ani, Mercy Rotich Chepkurui, Erastus Muniu, Scot C Remick
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. However, there is limited clinic-epidemiological data on stroke to inform decision making. This study sought to establish stroke distribution patterns and characteristics in patients seeking care at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), with the ultimate aim of establishing the first national stroke registry in Kenya. METHODS: This was a prospective multicentre cohort study among stroke patients...
March 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Chien-Hsiang Weng, Chia-Ping Tien, Chia-Ing Li, Abby L'Heureux, Chiu-Shong Liu, Chih-Hsueh Lin, Cheng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Wei Lai, Ming-May Lai, Wen-Yuan Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), calf circumference (CC) and all-cause mortality in a Chinese population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Eight long-term care facilities in central Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 329 residents age 60 years and older (median 79.0 years, range 60-101; 139 men, 190 women) were enrolled. METHODS: Anthropometrics and metabolic parameters were measured at the time of enrolment to the study...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Hanpeng Lai, Yuewei Liu, Min Zhou, Tingming Shi, Yun Zhou, Shaofan Weng, Weihong Chen
BACKGROUND: Both cigarette smoking and long-term exposure to crystalline silica dust were reported to be associated with increased mortality. However, the combined effect of both factors has not been well evaluated. METHODS: We investigated a retro-prospective cohort of 7,665 workers from one Chinese iron mine with a median follow-up of 42.8 years. Cumulative silica exposure was estimated for each worker by linking work histories with a job-exposure matrix. Cigarette smoking information was collected through face-to-face questionnaires...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Robert Philibert, Meesha Dogan, Amanda Noel, Shelly Miller, Brianna Krukow, Emma Papworth, Joseph Cowley, Jeffrey D Long, Steven R H Beach, Donald W Black
The tobacco use disorders are the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. A substantial barrier to the development of better intervention and screening measures is the lack of clinically employable biomarkers to detect the existence and extent of tobacco consumption. In prior work, we and others have shown that array based assessment of DNA methylation status at cg05575921 is a sensitive and quantitative method for assessing cigarette consumption. Unfortunately, in general, arrays are not practical clinical tools...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kamran Yusuf, Belal Alshaikh, Orlando da Silva, Abhay K Lodha, Robert D Wilson, Ruben E Alvaro, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
OBJECTIVE: To study the outcomes of extremely preterm infants of hypertensive mothers who smoke. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included infants born between 2003 and 2012 at <29 weeks' gestation and admitted to neonatal intensive care units participating in the Canadian Neonatal Network. Infants were divided into four mutually exclusive groups. Infants of hypertensive mothers who smoked; infants of hypertensive, non-smoking mothers; infants of normotensive mothers who smoked; and infants of normotensive, non-smoking mothers...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Xiuyun Min, Zhenhua Zhang
Although aerosol black carbon (BC) exerts strong influences on human health, research on potential health risks of aerosol BC around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is very limited. This is the very first study to investigate the distribution of aerosol BC in a typical city of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the resulting health risks. The results showed that the maximal real-time (5-min monitoring interval) concentration of aerosol BC was 22.34 μg/m3 , much higher than day- and week-averaged concentrations which were in the range of 1...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rascha von Martial, Jan Gralla, Pasquale Mordasini, Marwan El Koussy, Sebastian Bellwald, Bastian Volbers, Rebekka Kurmann, Simon Jung, Urs Fischer, Marcel Arnold, Hakan Sarikaya
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest a paradoxical association between smoking status and clinical outcome after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Little is known about relationship between smoking and stroke outcome after endovascular treatment (EVT). METHODS: We analyzed data of all stroke patients treated with EVT at the tertiary stroke centre of Berne between January 2005 and December 2015. Using uni- and multivariate modeling, we assessed whether smoking was independently associated with excellent clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-1) and mortality at 3 months...
2018: PloS One
Ted Gansler, Roma A Shah, Ying Wang, Victoria L Stevens, Baiyu Yang, Christina C Newton, Susan M Gapstur, Eric J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Prior studies of prostate cancer survivors suggest that smoking might be associated with higher prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after diagnosis with prostate cancer. However, most of these studies were small and questions remain regarding this association's strength and whether it persists after adjustment for stage and Gleason score. METHODS: This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992-1993 and June 2013...
April 26, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Naofumi Yamamoto, Hideo Miyazaki, Mieko Shimada, Naoki Nakagawa, Susumu S Sawada, Mamoru Nishimuta, Yasuo Kimura, Ryoko Kawakami, Hiroshi Nagayama, Hidenori Asai, I-Min Lee, Steven N Blair, Yutaka Yoshitake
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the relationship between pedometer-assessed daily step count and all-cause mortality in a sample of elderly Japanese people. METHODS: Participants included 419 (228 males and 191 females) physically independent, community-dwelling 71-year-old Japanese people. The number of steps per day was measured by a waist-mounted pedometer for seven consecutive days at baseline. Participants were divided into quartiles based on their average number of steps/day (first quartile, < 4503 steps/day; second quartile, 4503-6110 steps/day; third quartile, 6111-7971 steps/day; fourth quartile, > 7972 steps/day) and were followed up over a mean period of 9...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ladislav Csémy, Hana Sovinová, Zuzana Dvořáková
OBJECTIVE: Smoking significantly affects morbidity and mortality of the population. The incidence of smoking is determined by gender and socioeconomic status (SES) of an individual. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between gender and SES indicators and smoking. METHODS: The analysis is based on data from the Czech National Tobacco Surveys from 2012 to 2015 (N∼1,800 per year). The prevalence of smoking, average daily consumption of cigarettes, initiation ratio and quit ratio were monitored...
March 2018: Central European Journal of Public Health
Feng Tang, Chunhua Ling, Jinming Liu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease, which is associated with significant mortality and costs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of cigarette smoke (an accepted risk factor for COPD) and growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), which is reduced in patients with COPD, in the occurrence of COPD are unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the function of GDF11 in the progression of COPD. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the expression levels of GDF11 in serum and primary lung mesenchymal cells from patients with COPD and the healthy people, and the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the expression of AKT, p-AKT (Ser473), p-AKT (Thr308) and GDF11 was examined...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Julia K Boehm, Ying Chen, Hayami Koga, Maya B Mathur, Loryana L Vie, Laura D Kubzansky
Optimistic people have reduced risk for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular-related mortality compared with their less optimistic peers. One explanation for this is that optimistic people may be more likely to engage in healthy behavior like exercising frequently, eating fruits and vegetables, and avoiding cigarette smoking. However, researchers have not formally determined the extent or direction of optimism's association with health behaviors. Moreover, it is unclear whether optimism temporally precedes health behaviors or whether the relationship is because of shared common causes...
April 13, 2018: Circulation Research
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