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Cigarette AND mortality

Jiahong Wang, Lan Zhao, Jiarui Wei, Shaoheng Zhang, Nannan Chen, Dongxing Ding, Qunlin Gong, Feng Su, Jian Yan, Pengxiang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Various therapies have been used to improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, comparative studies showing more suitable choices for patients with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) and who smoke cigarettes are lacking. METHODS: A total of 338 patients were divided into four groups according to whether they received complete revascularisation (CR), and/or underwent smoking cessation (SC). They were followed prospectively for 12 months...
September 26, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
George O Agogo, Hilko van der Voet, Pieter van 't Veer, Pietro Ferrari, David C Muller, Emilio Sánchez-Cantalejo, Christina Bamia, Tonje Braaten, Sven Knüppel, Ingegerd Johansson, Fred A van Eeuwijk, Hendriek C Boshuizen
BACKGROUND: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. METHODS: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data...
October 13, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Angela Zacharasiewicz
Maternal smoking in pregnancy (MSP) is a large modifiable risk factor for pregnancy related mortality and morbidity and also the most important known modifiable risk factor for asthma. This review summarises the effects of MSP throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence with regards to asthma (development and severity). Firstly, the direct damage caused by nicotine on fetal lung development, fetal growth and neuronal differentiation is discussed, as well as the indirect effects of nicotine on placental functioning...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Swapnalee Sarmah, Pooja Muralidharan, James A Marrs
Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially...
October 7, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Laquanda Knowlin, Lindsay Stanford, Bruce Cairns, Anthony Charles
INTRODUCTION: Three factors that effect burn mortality are age, total body surface of burn (TBSA), and inhalation injury. Of the three, inhalation injury is the strongest predictor of mortality thus its inclusion in the revised Baux score (age+TBSA+17* (inhalation injury, 1=yes, 0=no)). However, the weighted contribution of specific comorbidities such as smoker status on mortality has traditionally not been accounted for nor studied in this subset of burn patients. We therefore sought to examine the impact of current tobacco and/or marijuana smoking in patients with inhalation injury...
October 1, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Ratika Sharma, Coral E Gartner, Wayne D Hall
The high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness contributes substantially to the disproportionately high morbidity and premature mortality in this population. There is an urgent need to help people with serious mental illness to quit smoking. We discuss competing explanations for the high prevalence of smoking in people with serious mental illness and the effectiveness of available smoking cessation interventions. We propose trials of harm reduction options, such as nicotine replacement therapy and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as long-term substitutes for cigarettes in smokers with serious mental illness who are unable to quit smoking...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Brunilda Casetta, Alejandro J Videla, Ariel Bardach, Paola Morello, Natalie Soto, Kelly Lee, Paul Anthony Camacho, Rocío Victoria Hermoza Moquillaza, Agustín Ciapponi
INTRODUCTION: Previous evidence linked low socioeconomic status with higher smoking prevalence. Our objective was to assess the strength of this association in the world population, updating a previous work. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Subgroup analyses included continents, WHO regions, country mortality levels, gender, age, risk of bias and study publication date. Independent reviewers selected studies, assessed potential bias and extracted data...
September 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Shuangshuang Li, Linghui Meng, Arnaud Chiolero, Chuanwei Ma, Bo Xi
OBJECTIVE: China is the largest producer of tobacco worldwide. We assessed secular trends in prevalence of smoking, average cigarettes per day, mean age of initiation, and mortality attributable to smoking among the Chinese population between 1991 and 2011. DESIGN: Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted eight times between 1991 and 2011. A total of 83,447 participants aged 15years or older were included in this study. Trends in smoking were stratified by sex, age, and region (urban vs...
September 24, 2016: Preventive Medicine
David J T Campbell, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Chad Mitchell, Ross Tsuyuki, Noah Ivers, Tavis Campbell, Raj Pannu, Eric Verkerke, Scott Klarenbach, Kathryn King-Shier, Peter Faris, Derek Exner, Vikas Chaubey, Braden Manns
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases result in significant morbidity and costs. Although medications and lifestyle changes are effective for improving outcomes in chronic diseases, many patients do not receive these treatments, in part because of financial barriers, patient and provider-level knowledge gaps, and low patient motivation. The Assessing outcomes of enhanced chronic disease care through patient education and a value-based formulary study (ACCESS) will determine the impact of two interventions: (1) a value-based formulary which eliminates copayment for high-value preventive medications; and (2) a comprehensive self-management support program aimed at promoting health behavior change and medication adherence, combined with relay of information on medication use to healthcare providers, on cardiovascular events and/or mortality in low-income seniors with elevated cardiovascular risk...
September 26, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Darrin V Bann, Daniel G Deschler, Neerav Goyal
The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments...
2016: Cancers
Dariusz Kałka, Zygmunt Domagała, Lesław Rusiecki, Bohdan Gworys, Piotr Kolęda, Paweł Dąbrowski, Teresa Szawrowicz-Pełka, Anna Biełous, Małgorzata Micał-Strąk, Witold Pilecki
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Further reduction of cardiovascular mortality will require multidirectional prevention. Popularizing prevention measures requires the involvement of qualified and well-educated personnel. Before any modifications of educational programs it is necessary to assess the level of knowledge of future physicians. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate medical students' knowledge of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Ashwin Jacob Mathai, Jyoti Kanwar, Olaoluwa Okusaga, Dietmar Fuchs, Christopher A Lowry, Xiaoqing Peng, Ina Giegling, Annette M Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Marion Friedl, Claudia Gragnoli, Gloria M Reeves, Maureen W Groer, Richard N Rosenthal, Dan Rujescu, Teodor T Postolache
Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and exerts a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Smoking has complex interactions with monoamine metabolism through the ability of cigarette smoke to suppress Type 1 T helper cell (Th1) type immunity, the immunophenotype that is implicated in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) dysfunction and tryptophan (Trp) breakdown to kynurenine (Kyn) via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Nicotine also induces tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression, leading to increased synthesis of catecholamines...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Ahmad Khosravi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Ali Akbar Pouyan, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. METHODS: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Joshua O Akinyemi, Sunday A Adedini, Stephen O Wandera, Clifford O Odimegwu
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Pooled weighted data on 143,602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality...
September 12, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Yani Wang, Fei Qi, Xiaorong Jia, Peng Lin, Hui Liu, Meiyun Geng, Yunning Liu, Shanpeng Li, Jibin Tan
In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR)...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Haomiao Jia, Erica I Lubetkin
BACKGROUND: To estimate the impact of smoking on quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for US adults aged 65 years and older. METHODS: Using the 2003-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File, we estimated the mean QALY throughout the remaining lifetime by participants' smoking status as well as smoking intensity and time since cessation. RESULTS: Never, former and current smokers had a mean QALY of 16.1, 12.7 and 7...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Natalie Parletta, Yousef Aljeesh, Bernhard T Baune
BACKGROUND: People with chronic mental illness have poorer physical health and higher mortality than the general population. We investigated lifestyle factors in people with mental illness across four countries and compared with a normative sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were collected from N = 672 people (Germany, n = 375; Palestine, n = 192; London, n = 63; Australia, n = 42) with substance abuse disorder (n = 224), schizophrenia (n = 158), mood disorders (n = 227), and somatoform disorders (n = 63)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sara Roversi, Leonardo M Fabbri, Don D Sin, Nathaniel M Hawkins, Alvar Agusti
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with high social and economic costs. Concomitant chronic cardiac disorders are frequent in patients with COPD, likely due to shared risk factors (e.g. ageing, cigarette smoke, inactivity, persistent low-grade pulmonary and systemic inflammation) and add to the overall morbidity and mortality of COPD patients. The prevalence and incidence of cardiac comorbidities are higher in COPD patients than in matched control subjects, although estimates of prevalence vary widely...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Denise D'Angelo, Indu B Ahluwalia, Eugene Pun, Shaoman Yin, Krishna Palipudi, Lazarous Mbulo
Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kathryn M Wilson, Sarah C Markt, Fang Fang, Caroline Nordenvall, Jennifer R Rider, Weimin Ye, Hans-Olov Adami, Pär Stattin, Olof Nyrén, Lorelei A Mucci
Smoking is associated with prostate cancer mortality. The Scandinavian smokeless tobacco product snus is a source of nicotine but not the combustion products of smoke and has not been studied with respect to prostate cancer survival. The study is nested among 9,582 men with incident prostate cancer within a prospective cohort of 336,381 Swedish construction workers. Information on tobacco use was collected at study entry between 1971 and 1992, and categorized into (i) never users of any tobacco, (ii) exclusive snus: ever users of snus only, (iii) exclusive smokers: ever smokers (cigarette, cigar and/or pipe) only and (iv) ever users of both snus and smoking...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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