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Cigarette AND mortality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346340/disparities-in-preconception-health-indicators-%C3%A2-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2013-2015-and-pregnancy-risk-assessment-monitoring-system-2013-2014
#1
Cheryl Robbins, Sheree L Boulet, Isabel Morgan, Denise V D'Angelo, Lauren B Zapata, Brian Morrow, Andrea Sharma, Charlan D Kroelinger
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Preconception health is a broad term that encompasses the overall health of nonpregnant women during their reproductive years (defined here as aged 18-44 years). Improvement of both birth outcomes and the woman's health occurs when preconception health is optimized. Improving preconception health before and between pregnancies is critical for reducing maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications. The National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative's Surveillance and Research work group suggests ten prioritized indicators that states can use to monitor programs or activities for improving the preconception health status of women of reproductive age...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in%C3%A2-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#2
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322408/protocols-to-evaluate-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation-and-pathology-in-mice
#3
Ross Vlahos, Steven Bozinovski
Cigarette smoking is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes inflammation of the airways, airway wall remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and progressive airflow limitation. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, in particular skeletal muscle wasting, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298367/e-cigarette-toxicity
#4
Gulay Tegin, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Simrat Kaur Sarai, Steven Lippmann
Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284990/the-impact-of-risk-factors-and-comorbidities-on-the-incidence-of-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Nabil Naser, Mirza Dilic, Azra Durak, Mehmed Kulic, Esad Pepic, Elnur Smajic, Zumreta Kusljugic
Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and its prevalence increases with age. Patients who develop AF also have cardiovascular risk factors, structural heart disease, and comorbidities, all of which can increase mortality. AF causes a significant economic burden with the increasing trend in AF prevalence and hospitalizations. Research Objectives: The objective of our study is to evaluate the impact of the most common known risk factors on the incidence of atrial fibrillation as an important precursor of cardiac and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality among our patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina during median follow up period (September 2006 - September 2016)...
December 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238186/severe-copd-cases-from-korea-poland-and-usa-have-substantial-differences-in-respiratory-symptoms-and-other-respiratory-illnesses
#6
Woo Jin Kim, Jae-Joon Yim, Deog Kyeom Kim, Myung Goo Lee, Anne L Fuhlbrigge, Pawel Sliwinski, Iwona Hawrylkiewicz, Emily S Wan, Michael H Cho, Edwin K Silverman
Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, geographic differences in the clinical characteristics of severe COPD patients have not been widely studied. Methods: We recruited a total of 828 severe COPD cases from three continents. Subjects in Poland were enrolled by the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw; subjects in Korea participated at several university hospitals in Korea; and subjects in USA were enrolled at two clinics affiliated with academic medical centers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237392/chronic-exposure-of-cigarette-smoke-and-chewing-tobacco-alters-expression-of-micrornas-in-esophageal-epithelial-cells
#7
Aafaque Ahmad Khan, Jayshree Advani, Krishna Patel, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Hitendra S Solanki, Premendu Prakash Mathur, Bipin Nair, T S Keshava Prasad, Aditi Chatterjee, Harsha Gowda
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers with high mortality rate. Cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco are well known risk factors associated with ESCC. However, molecular mechanisms associated with development of ESCC among smokers and chewers are poorly understood. MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating physiological and disease processes including esophageal cancer. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study, we developed an in vitro model by treating non-neoplastic Het-1A esophageal cell line with cigarette smoke and chewing tobacco...
December 13, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#8
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212863/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-benefits-of-increasing-the-uk-tobacco-duty-escalator-to-public-health-and-economic-outcomes
#9
Andre Knuchel-Takano, Daniel Hunt, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Martin Brown, Lise Retat, Katrina Brown, Sebastian Hinde, Chit Selvarajah, Linda Bauld, Laura Webber
INTRODUCTION: Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. METHODS: A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035...
December 6, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201593/a-policy-perspective-on-the-global-use-of-smokeless-tobacco
#10
REVIEW
Kamran Siddiqi, Aishwarya Lakshmi Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Ray Croucher
Background: Globally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes. Purpose of Review: To identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles. Recent Findings: The literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191193/adequacy-of-control-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-ambulatory-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-attending-diabetes-out-patients-clinic-at-a-county-hospital-kenya
#11
Mercy W Kimando, Frederick C F Otieno, Elijah N Ogola, Kenn Mutai
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality arising from the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Adequacy of control of these risk factors determines the frequency and outcome of cardiovascular events in the patients. Current clinical practice guidelines emphasize primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. There is scarce data from the developing countries, Kenya included, on clinical care of patients with type 2 diabetes in the regions that are far away from tertiary health facilities...
December 1, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180862/smoking-cessation-affects-the-natural-history-of-copd
#12
Jiu-Wu Bai, Xiao-Xin Chen, Shengsheng Liu, Li Yu, Jin-Fu Xu
Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients. Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into "death" or "survival" groups based on follow-up results and "quitting-smoking" or "continuing-smoking" groups based on whether they gave up smoking...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180151/comparison-of-pharmacy-students-knowledge-and-self-efficacy-to-provide-cessation-counseling-for-hookah-and-cigarette-use
#13
Sabina O Nduaguba, Kentya H Ford, Benita Bamgbade, Ogechi Iwuorie
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess pharmacy students' self-efficacy to provide cessation counseling for commercial cigarette and hookah tobacco use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including PharmD students at a College of Pharmacy was conducted in Spring 2014. Confidence in counseling and perception of knowledge were self-rated and based on the Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange follow-up (5A's) model and general tobacco cessation counseling skills. Comparisons were made between cigarettes and hookahs and by program level using t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, analyses of variance, and Tukey-Kramer tests...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160902/proportion-and-number-of-cancer-cases-and-deaths-attributable-to-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#14
Farhad Islami, Ann Goding Sauer, Kimberly D Miller, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Marjorie L McCullough, Alpa V Patel, Jiemin Ma, Isabelle Soerjomataram, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Susan M Gapstur, Ahmedin Jemal
Contemporary information on the fraction of cancers that potentially could be prevented is useful for priority setting in cancer prevention and control. Herein, the authors estimate the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths, overall (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) and for 26 cancer types, in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014, that were attributable to major, potentially modifiable exposures (cigarette smoking; secondhand smoke; excess body weight; alcohol intake; consumption of red and processed meat; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, dietary fiber, and dietary calcium; physical inactivity; ultraviolet radiation; and 6 cancer-associated infections)...
November 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156550/can-youthful-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-wharton-s-jelly-bring-a-breath-of-fresh-air-for-copd
#15
REVIEW
Andrzej M Janczewski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Ewa Malinowska, Anna Doboszyńska
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, projected to become the 3rd cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. COPD is characterized by persistent and not fully reversible airflow limitation that is usually progressive and is associated with an abnormal chronic inflammatory response of the lung to noxious agents including cigarette smoke. Currently available therapeutic strategies aim to ease COPD symptoms but cannot prevent its progress or regenerate physiological lung structure or function...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152601/a-novel-approach-to-analyzing-lung-cancer-mortality-disparities-using-the-exposome-and-a-graph-theoretical-toolchain
#16
Paul D Juarez, Darryl B Hood, Gary L Rogers, Suzanne H Baktash, Arnold M Saxton, Patricia Matthews-Juarez, Wansoo Im, Myriam Patricia Cifuentes, Charles A Phillips, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Michael A Langston
Objectives: The aim is to identify exposures associated with lung cancer mortality and mortality disparities by race and gender using an exposome database coupled to a graph theoretical toolchain. Methods: Graph theoretical algorithms were employed to extract paracliques from correlation graphs using associations between 2162 environmental exposures and lung cancer mortality rates in 2067 counties, with clique doubling applied to compute an absolute threshold of significance...
April 2017: Environmental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151827/tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-regulates-quadriceps-muscle-atrophy-and-fiber-type-alteration-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Jun-Juan Lu, Qing Wang, Li Hua Xie, Qiang Zhang, Sheng Hua Sun
Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), weakness and muscle mass loss of the quadriceps muscle has been demonstrated to predict survival and mortality rates of patients. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), as a member of the TNF superfamily, has recently been identified as a key regulator of skeletal muscle wasting and metabolic dysfunction. So our aim was to study the role of TWEAK during quadriceps muscle atrophy and fiber-type transformation in COPD model rats and its possible pathway...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144995/content-analysis-of-homeless-smokers-perspectives-on-established-and-alternative-smoking-interventions
#18
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138548/e-cigarettes-in-patients-with-copd-current-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
J B Morjaria, E Mondati, R Polosa
Conventional cigarette smoking is known to result in significant COPD morbidity and mortality. Strategies to reduce and/or stop smoking in this highly vulnerable patient group are key public health priorities to reduce COPD morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, smoking cessation efforts in patients with COPD are poor and there is a compelling need for more efficient approaches to cessation for patients with COPD. Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devices that use batteries to vaporize nicotine. They may facilitate quit attempts and cessation in many smokers...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126842/autoimmunity-and-copd-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Gaetano Caramori, Paolo Ruggeri, Antonino Di Stefano, Sharon Mumby, Giuseppe Girbino, Ian M Adcock, Paul Kirkham
COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Long-term cigarette smoking is the cause of > 90% of COPD cases in Westernized countries. However, only a fraction of chronic heavy smokers develop symptomatic COPD by age 80. COPD is characterized by an abnormal immune response in the lower airways, and its progression is associated with infiltration of the lung by innate and adaptive inflammatory immune cells that form lymphoid follicles. There is growing evidence that both cellular- and antibody-mediated autoimmunity has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of stable COPD...
November 8, 2017: Chest
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