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Cigarette AND mortality

Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary state-specific estimates of mortality caused by cigarette smoking are important for tobacco control advocacy and healthcare planning in the U.S., but are currently lacking. METHODS: The population-attributable fraction (i.e., proportion of deaths in the population caused by smoking), number of deaths, and number of years of potential life lost because of active cigarette smoking were estimated for each state based on state-specific smoking prevalence data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, recently updated relative risks of smoking, and numbers of deaths from smoking-attributable diseases...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Emma L Frazier, Madeline Y Sutton, John T Brooks, R Luke Shouse, John Weiser
Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16...
March 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Jenny M Cundiff, Karen P Jakubowski, Dustin A Pardini, Karen A Matthews
Background: Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. Purpose: In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Methods: Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Caroline Franck, Kristian B Filion, Mark J Eisenberg
Over 30% of the nearly 1 million North Americans hospitalized annually with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are smokers. Despite a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality, 2/3 of patients who quit smoking after ACS return to smoking within 1 year. To summarize the evidence of smoking cessation in patients hospitalized after ACS, we systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation therapies in patients with ACS. In addition, we reviewed the clinical considerations surrounding the use of smoking cessation therapies, including their broad mechanisms of action and possible alternative treatments, including cardiac rehabilitation programs and electronic cigarettes...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ijeoma U Itanyi, Chika N Onwasigwe, Scott McIntosh, Tamara Bruno, Deborah Ossip, Emmanuel A Nwobi, Chima A Onoka, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use during adolescence is a substantial problem and adolescents are at higher risk of addiction and prolonged use. To reduce the burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, monitoring of adolescent tobacco use is imperative. We aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in urban and rural secondary schools in Enugu State, southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 4332 adolescents in 8th to 10th grades in 25 urban and 24 rural secondary schools in Enugu, Nigeria was done using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Michele F Eisenga, Lyanne M Kieneker, Daan J Touw, Ilja M Nolte, Peter van der Meer, Gerwin Huls, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Stephan J L Bakker
Cigarette smoking continues to be one of the major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among many adverse health effects, smoking can induce erythrocytosis, which is commonly believed to result from elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Currently, however, this notion is only alleged, without data available to substantiate it. Hence, we analyzed data from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Smoking behavior was quantified as number of cigarettes smoked per day and as 24-hour urinary cotinine excretion levels, an objective and quantitative measure of nicotine exposure...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Patricia C Galipeau, Kenji M Oman, Thomas G Paulson, Carissa A Sanchez, Qing Zhang, Jerry A Marty, Jeffrey J Delrow, Mary K Kuhner, Thomas L Vaughan, Brian J Reid, Xiaohong Li
BACKGROUND: Use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been shown to protect against tetraploidy, aneuploidy, and chromosomal alterations in the metaplastic condition Barrett's esophagus (BE) and to lower the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). The esophagus is exposed to both intrinsic and extrinsic mutagens resulting from gastric reflux, chronic inflammation, and exposure to environmental carcinogens such as those found in cigarettes...
February 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
Luba Yammine, Thomas R Kosten, Paul M Cinciripini, Charles E Green, Janet C Meininger, Jennifer A Minnix, Thomas F Newton
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the greatest preventable cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. Approved pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation are marginally effective, underscoring the need for improved pharmacotherapies. A novel approach might use glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, which reduce alcohol and drug use in preclinical studies. GLP-1 is produced in the intestinal L-cells and in the hindbrain. The peptide maintains glucose homeostasis and reduces food intake...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Miguel J Divo, Bartolome R Celli, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Juan Pablo de-Torres, Luis A Gimeno-Feliu, Juan Bertó, Javier J Zulueta, Ciro Casanova, Victor M Pinto-Plata, Carlos Cabrera-Lopez, Francesca Polverino, Jonás Carmona Píréz, Alexandra Prados-Torres, Jose M Marin
BACKGROUND: Aging is an important risk factor for most chronic diseases. Patients with COPD develop more comorbidities than non-COPD subjects. We hypothesized that the development of comorbidities characteristically affecting the elderly occur at an earlier age in subjects with the diagnosis of COPD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included all subjects carrying the diagnosis of COPD (n = 27,617), and a similar number of age and sex matched individuals without the diagnosis, extracted from the 727,241 records of individuals 40 years and older included in the EpiChron Cohort (Aragon, Spain)...
2018: PloS One
Genfa Wang, Nabijan Mohammadtursun, Jing Sun, Yubao Lv, Hualiang Jin, Jinpei Lin, Lingwen Kong, Zhengxiao Zhao, Hongying Zhang, Jingcheng Dong
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. The current lack of an animal model that can be established within a certain time frame and imitate the unique features of the disease is a major limiting factor in its study. The present study established and evaluated an animal model of COPD that represents the early and advanced stage features using short-, middle-, and long-term sidestream cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. One hundred and nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 10 groups for different periods of sidestream CS exposure or no exposure (i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
G David Batty, Keum Ji Jung, Yejin Mok, Sun Ju Lee, Joung Hwan Back, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Aims Systematic reviews report an association between poorer oral health and an increased risk of coronary heart disease. This contentious relationship may not be causal but existing studies have been insufficiently well powered comprehensively to examine the role of confounding, particularly by cigarette smoking. Accordingly, we sought to examine the role of smoking in generating the relationship between oral health and coronary heart disease in life-long non-smokers. Methods and results In the Korean Cancer Prevention Study, 975,685 individuals (349,579 women) aged 30-95 years had an oral examination when tooth loss, a widely used indicator of oral health, was ascertained...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Carol H Christensen, Brian Rostron, Candace Cosgrove, Sean F Altekruse, Anne M Hartman, James T Gibson, Benjamin Apelberg, Maki Inoue-Choi, Neal D Freedman
Importance: Tobacco products have changed in recent years. Contemporary mortality risk estimates of combustible tobacco product use are needed. Objective: To investigate the mortality risks associated with current and former use of cigars, pipes, and cigarettes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Longitudinal Mortality Study is a longitudinal population-based, nationally representative health survey with mortality follow-up that includes demographic and other information from the Current Population Survey, tobacco product use information from the Tobacco Use Supplement, and mortality data from the National Death Index...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Hussan Gill, Kyler Rogers, Bilal Rehman, John Moynihan, Elizabeth A Bergey
Cigarette butts are a common form of litter that is often deposited on soil, where toxins from butts may affect soil-dwelling organisms. We examined possible toxicity of cigarette butts to the woodland snail Anguispira alternata using a toxicity study with cigarette butt effluent and a lab-based habitat choice experiment in which snails could feed or rest on areas with different butt densities. No mortality occurred during the 32-day toxicity study, which used six effluent concentrations ranging from 0 to 4butts/l (0 to 0...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Victoria R Green, Marushka L Silveira, Heather L Kimmel, Kevin P Conway
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco and obesity are leading contributors to mortality in the United States. Due to emerging changes in youth tobacco use, further examination of co-occurrence of these issues is warranted. METHODS: This study examined associations between body mass index (BMI) and tobacco-product use and whether these varied by gender in a nationally representative sample of 12,416 Wave 1 (2013-2014) U.S. youth (12-17 years) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study...
February 5, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Victor Aboyans, Marie-Antoinette Sevestre, Ileana Désormais, Philippe Lacroix, Gerry Fowkes, Michael H Criqui
It is estimated that more than 200 million individuals are affected by lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) worldwide. This prevalence has increased between 2000 and 2010 by 25%, especially in low/middle income countries. In France, about one million people are affected by this condition. Almost two-thirds of patients with LEAD are asymptomatic. This explains the interest of the measurement of the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an objective and harmless diagnostic tool. An ABI≤0.90 is considered as diagnostic for LEAD...
February 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Naofumi Kameyama, Shotaro Chubachi, Ahmed E Hegab, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Shizuko Kagawa, Akihiro Tsutsumi, Koichi Fukunaga, Masayuki Shimoda, Yae Kanai, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for both. The presence of emphysema, an irreversible lung disease, further raises the risk of lung cancer in COPD patients. The mechanisms involved in smoke-induced tumorigenesis and emphysema are not fully understood, attributable to a lack of appropriate animal models. Here, we optimized a model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung cancer and emphysema in A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent carcinogen...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Saima Shakil Malik, Rakshanda Batool, Nosheen Masood, Azra Yasmin
Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Pakistani men. It is a multifactorial disease involving genetics together with environmental factors. Countries where men have greater dietary fat intake showed increased prostate cancer mortality rates. A population based case-control study was conducted to evaluate various prostate cancer risk factors. Study subjects were 896 prostate cancer cases (2010-2015) and 900 age matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate the association between different risk factors and prostate cancer...
February 9, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Masahiro Onishi, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Hajime Fujimoto, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop. The need of a new model is compelling. In the present study we focus on the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypothesized that lung overexpression of latent matrix metalloproteinases-2 would allow the development of emphysema after short-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract inhalation...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Clair Hartmann, Michael Gröger, Jan-Philipp Noirhomme, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Ulrich Wachter, Markus Huber-Lang, Benedikt Nussbaum, Birgit Jung, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock accounts for a large amount of trauma-related mortality. The severity of trauma can be further aggravated by an additional blunt chest trauma (TxT), which independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI). Besides, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure before TxT enhanced posttraumatic inflammation, thereby aggravating ALI. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of an acute and/or chronic lung injury on organ dysfunction in a murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS)...
February 8, 2018: Shock
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