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Eric C Andrade, José A Hoyos, Stephan Rachel, Matthias Vojta
We study the impact of quenched disorder (random exchange couplings or site dilution) on easy-plane pyrochlore antiferromagnets. In the clean system, order by disorder selects a magnetically ordered state from a classically degenerate manifold. In the presence of randomness, however, different orders can be chosen locally depending on details of the disorder configuration. Using a combination of analytical considerations and classical Monte Carlo simulations, we argue that any long-range-ordered magnetic state is destroyed beyond a critical level of randomness where the system breaks into magnetic domains due to random exchange anisotropies, becoming, therefore, a glass of spin clusters, in accordance with the available experimental data...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Peter Steffen, Hannes Hofbauer, Michael Noll-Hussong
Chronic pain is a major problem of public health, and patients seek manifold forms of help to find relief. Here we present and discuss the case of a middle-aged woman suffering from mental disorders who treated her headache with the self-application of bee stings on her back.
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Cary Presser, Ashot Nazarian, Amit Millo
Thermochemical characteristics were determined for several National Institute of Standards and Technology standard-reference-material petroleum and biodiesel fuels, using a novel laser-heating calorimetry technique. Measurements focused on the sample thermal behavior, specific heat release rate, and total specific heat release. The experimental apparatus consists of a copper sphere-shaped reactor mounted within a chamber, along with laser-beam-steering optical components, gas-supply manifold, and a computer-controlled data-acquisition system...
February 2018: Fuel
M Waseem Akram, Muhammad Fakhar-E-Alam, M Atif, Alvina Rafique Butt, Ali Asghar, Yasir Jamil, K S Alimgeer, Zhiming M Wang
MgO is an attractive choice for carcinogenic cell destruction in photodynamic therapy, as confirmed by manifold analysis. The prime focus of the presented research is to investigate the toxicity caused by morphologically different MgO nanostructures obtained by annealing at various annealing temperatures. Smart (stimuli-responsive) MgO nanomaterials are a very promising class of nanomaterials, and their properties can be controlled by altering their size, morphology, or other relevant characteristics. The samples investigated here were grown by the co-precipitation technique...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Werner Koch, David J Tannor
Stokes phenomenon refers to the fact that an asymptotic expansion of complex functions can differ in different regions of the complex plane, and that beyond the so-called Stokes lines the expansion has an unphysical divergence. An important special case is when the Stokes lines emanate from phase space caustics of a complex trajectory manifold. In this case, symmetry determines that to second order there is a double coverage of the space, one portion of which is unphysical. Building on the seminal but laconic findings of Adachi, we show that the deviation from second order can be used to rigorously determine the Stokes lines and therefore the region of the space that should be removed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Florent Starecki, Nora Abdellaoui, Alain Braud, Jean-Louis Doualan, Catherine Boussard-Plédel, Bruno Bureau, Patrice Camy, Virginie Nazabal
In this Letter, we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on an emission at 8 μm from Tb3+ -doped Ga5 Ge20 Sb10 Se65 chalcogenide fibers with doping levels at 1000 ppm and 500 ppm. These fibers were drawn following conventional melt-quenching methods and pumped at 2.05 μm using a Tm3+ : YAG laser. The spectroscopic properties of the emitting F4 7 manifold are investigated to rule out any parasitic signal mimicking the real Tb3+ 8 μm emission. Time-resolved spectroscopic experiments are presented to build a comprehensive study of this 8 μm fluorescence recorded with a clear signal-to-noise ratio...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Wei Wang, Yan Yan, Feiping Nie, Shuicheng Yan, Nicu Sebe
Graph-based dimensionality reduction techniques have been widely and successfully applied to clustering and classification tasks. The basis of these algorithms is the constructed graph which dictates their performance. In general, the graph is defined by the input affinity matrix. However, the affinity matrix derived from the data is sometimes suboptimal for dimension reduction as the data used are very noisy. To address this issue, we propose the projective unsupervised flexible embedding models with optimal graph (PUFE-OG)...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Nazim Boudjada, Gideon Wachtel, Arun Paramekanti
Recent experiments have explored two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide (111) surfaces and interfaces, finding evidence for hexagonal symmetry breaking in SrTiO_{3} at low temperature. We discuss many-body instabilities of such (111) 2DEGs, incorporating multiorbital interactions in the t_{2g} manifold which can induce diverse magnetic and orbital orders. Such broken symmetries may partly account for the observed nematicity, cooperating or competing with phonon mechanisms. We present an effective field theory for the interplay of magnetism and nematic charge order, and discuss implications of the nematicity for transport and superconductivity in (111) 2DEGs...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Paulomi M Sudhir
Cognitive behaviour therapy is a structured, time limited, psychological intervention that has is empirically supported across a wide variety of psychological disorders. CBT for addictive behaviours can be traced back to the application of learning theories in understanding addiction and subsequently to social cognitive theories. The focus of CBT is manifold and the focus is on targeting maintaining factors of addictive behaviours and preventing relapse. Relapse prevention programmes are based on social cognitive and cognitive behavioural principles...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ravi Kumar Venkatraman, Surajit Kayal, Arvind Barak, Andrew J Orr-Ewing, Siva Umapathy
Solvation plays a critical role in various physicochemical and biological processes. Here, the rate of intersystem crossing (ISC) of benzophenone from its S1(nπ*) state to its triplet manifold of states is shown to be modified by hydrogen-bonding interactions with protic solvent molecules. We selectively photo-excite benzophenone with its carbonyl group either solvent coordinated or uncoordinated by tuning the excitation wavelength to the band center (λ = 340 nm) or the long-wavelength edge (λ = 380 nm) of its π*←n absorption band...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Cristian Cuadra, Angelo Bartsch, Paula Tiemann, Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We explored whether the synergic control of the hand during multi-finger force production tasks depends on the hand muscles involved. Healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks and targeted force pulses while pressing against loops positioned at the level of fingertips, middle phalanges, and proximal phalanges. This varied the involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic finger flexors. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to analyze the structure of inter-trial variance, motor equivalence, and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the force pulse in the spaces of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical finger-specific control signals)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Haizhou Huang, Jianhong Huang, Huagang Liu, Jinhui Li, Zixiong Lin, Yan Ge, Shutao Dai, Jing Deng, Wenxiong Lin
We demonstrate an enhancement mechanism and thermal model for intra-cavity pumped lasers, where resonance enhancement in intra-cavity pumped Ho laser was achieved by manipulating the wavelength-drift nature of the Tm laser for the first time. Optical conversion efficiency of 37.5% from an absorbed 785 nm diode laser to a Ho laser was obtained with a maximum output power of 7.51 W at 2122 nm, which is comparable to the conversion efficiency in 1.9 μm LD pumped Ho lasers. Meanwhile, more severe thermal effects in the Ho-doped gain medium than the Tm-doped one at high power operation were verified based on the built thermal model...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Iker Riaño, Uxue Uria, Efraim Reyes, Luisa Carrillo, Jose L Vicario
A diastereodivergent approach to highly substituted bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes has been developed through a transannular alkylation reaction that builds up the bicyclic core employing asymmetric organocatalysis as the tool for the installation of all stereocenters. On one hand, a Michael/Michael cascade process between enals and 4-alkenyl sulfamidate imines under the iminium/enamine activation manifold provides a oxathiazole-2,2-dioxide-fused cyclohexane adduct that, after isolation, is subsequently engaged in a transannular alkylation/hydrolysis through enamine activation by the use of a primary amine...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Paulus S Rommer, Uwe K Zettl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease with an unpredictable outcome. Immune-modulatory treatment aims at decreasing long-term disability. With the increasing number of treatment options, it is essential to fully digest the possible side effects of the available therapeutics and to monitor patients is essential. Areas covered: All approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) for MS are discussed in this review. Mode of action, adverse effects, reported risks for infections and malignancies, and pregnancy related issues are discussed in the review...
March 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Jan Müßener, Ludwig A Th Greif, Stefan Kalinowski, Gordon Callsen, Pascal Hille, Jörg Schörmann, Markus R Wagner, Andrei Schliwa, Sara Martí-Sánchez, Jordi Arbiol, Axel Hoffmann, Martin Eickhoff
We show that one-dimensional (1d) GaN quantum-wires (QWRs) exhibit intense and spectrally sharp emission lines. These QWRs are realized in an entirely self-assembled growth process by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on the side facets of GaN/AlN nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) data in combination with numerical calculations allow the identification and assignment of the manifold emission features to three different spatial recombination centers within the NWs...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Andreas Bittracher, Péter Koltai, Stefan Klus, Ralf Banisch, Michael Dellnitz, Christof Schütte
We consider complex dynamical systems showing metastable behavior, but no local separation of fast and slow time scales. The article raises the question of whether such systems exhibit a low-dimensional manifold supporting its effective dynamics. For answering this question, we aim at finding nonlinear coordinates, called reaction coordinates, such that the projection of the dynamics onto these coordinates preserves the dominant time scales of the dynamics. We show that, based on a specific reducibility property, the existence of good low-dimensional reaction coordinates preserving the dominant time scales is guaranteed...
2018: Journal of Nonlinear Science
Sudip Kundu, Hatun Karakas, Hermann Hertel, Peter Hillemanns, Ismini Staboulidou, Cordula Schippert, Philipp Soergel
INTRODUCTION: For the last two decades, obesity rates have been increasing in both developed and developing countries, with the number of obese women roughly doubling during this period (Stevens et al. in Popul Health Metr 10(1):33, 2012). Obesity represents one of the biggest epidemics of the 21st century. The aim of this retrospective study is to characterise the outcomes of gynaecologic surgeries in cases of extremely obese women with a body mass index (BMI) over 40 kg/m2 . METHODS: This study is a retrospective case control study in a single-centre setting...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Hector J Rivera-Jacquez, Artëm E Masunov
Development of two-photon fluorescent probes can aid in visualizing the cellular environment. Multi-chromophore systems display complex manifolds of electronic transitions, enabling their use for optical sensing applications. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) methods allow for accurate predictions of the optical properties. These properties are related to the electronic transitions in the molecules, which include two-photon absorption cross-sections. Here we use TDDFT to understand the mechanism of aza-crown based fluorescent probes for metals sensing applications...
February 21, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mark D Bartholomä
While radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for the treatment of hematological malignancies such as indolent B-cell lymphoma has proven quite successful, clinical results of RIT in solid tumors have only been moderate in the past. The reasons were manifold and can be mostly attributed to the different biological properties of solid tumors vs. hematological cancers. Furthermore, the slow clearance of the radiolabelled antibody prevents the use of radiation doses necessary to achieve clinical responses. The long biological half-life of radioimmunoconjugates results in high background levels and is the main reason for radiation related toxicities...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ismail Hamdi, Guy Buntinx, Olivier Poizat, Aurelie Perrier, Laura Le Bras, Stephanie Delbaere, Sophie Barrau, Maroua Louati, Michinori Takeshita, Keita Tokushige, Marumi Takao, Stéphane Aloïse
The photoswitching and competitive processes of two photochromic dithienylethenes (DTEs) functionalized at both sides with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidone (UPy) quadruple hydrogen-bonding recognition patterns have been investigated with NMR experiment, ultrafast spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The originilaty of such molecules is their ability to form large supramolecular assemblies induced by light that occurs for the close form (CF) species; the open form (OF) species exist as small oligomers. Photochromic parameters have been determined and photochemical pathways have been rationalized with clear distinction between the antiparallel and parallel species...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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