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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338127/phonon-bottleneck-and-long-lived-excited-states-in-%C3%AF-conjugated-pyrene-hoop
#1
Ricardo Franklin-Mergarejo, Tammie Nelson, Sergei Tretiak, Sebastian Fernandez-Alberti
In the last decade, recent synthetic advances have launched carbon-based π-conjugated hoops to the forefront of theoretical and experimental investigation not only for their potential use as bottom-up templates for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth, but also for the interesting excitonic effects arising from the cyclic geometry, unique π-system orientation, and unusual electronic interactions and couplings. In particular, cyclic materials based on pyrene, a common component in organic electronics, are popular candidates for the future design of π-conjugated nanorings for optoelectronic applications...
March 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336768/care-of-girls-and-women-with-turner-syndrome-beyond-growth-and-hormones
#2
Caroline Culen, Diana-Allexandra Ertl, Katharina Schubert, Lisa Bartha-Doering, Gabriele Haeusler
Turner syndrome (TS), although considered a rare disease, is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in women, with an incident of 1 in 2,500 female births. TS is characterized by distinctive physical features such as short stature, ovarian dysgenesis, an increased risk for heart and renal defects as well as a specific cognitive and psychosocial phenotype. Given the complexity of the condition, patients face manifold difficulties which increase over the lifespan. Furthermore, failures during the transitional phase to adult care result in moderate health outcomes and decreased quality of life...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335356/refinement-of-magnetite-nanoparticles-by-coating-with-organic-stabilizers
#3
Monica Cîrcu, Alexandrina Nan, Gheorghe Borodi, Jürgen Liebscher, Rodica Turcu
Magnetite nanoparticles are of great importance in nanotechnology and nanomedicine and have found manifold applications. Here, the effect of coating of magnetite nanoparticles with organic stabilizers, such as O-phosphoryl ethanolamine, glycerol phosphate, phospho-l-ascorbic acid, phospho-d,l-serine, glycolic acid, lactic acid, d,l-malic acid, and d,l-mandelic acid was studied. Remarkably, this procedure led to an improvement of saturation magnetization in three cases rather than to an unfavorable decrease as usually observed...
November 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334257/fast-clash-free-rna-conformational-morphing-using-molecular-junctions
#4
Amélie Héliou, Dominik Budday, Rasmus Fonseca, Henry van den Bedem
Motivation: Non-coding ribonucleic acids (ncRNA) are functional RNA molecules that are not translated into protein. They are extremely dynamic, adopting diverse conformational substates, which enables them to modulate their interaction with a large number of other molecules. The flexibility of ncRNA provides a challenge for probing their complex 3D conformational landscape, both experimentally and computationally. Despite their conformational diversity, ncRNAs mostly preserve their secondary structure throughout the dynamic ensemble...
March 13, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333643/logistic-localized-modeling-of-the-sample-space-for-feature-selection-and-classification
#5
Narges Armanfard, James P Reilly, Majid Komeili
Conventional feature selection algorithms assign a single common feature set to all regions of the sample space. In contrast, this paper proposes a novel algorithm for localized feature selection for which each region of the sample space is characterized by its individual distinct feature subset that may vary in size and membership. This approach can therefore select an optimal feature subset that adapts to local variations of the sample space, and hence offer the potential for improved performance. Feature subsets are computed by choosing an optimal coordinate space so that, within a localized region, within-class distances and between-class distances are, respectively, minimized and maximized...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333637/multi-scale-multi-feature-context-modeling-for-scene-recognition-in-the-semantic-manifold
#6
Xinhang Song, Shuqiang Jiang, Luis Herranz
Before the big data era, scene recognition was often approached with two-step inference using localized intermediate representations (objects, topics, etc). One of such approaches is the semantic manifold (SM), in which patches and images are modeled as points in a semantic probability simplex. Patch models are learned resorting to weak supervision via image labels, which leads to the problem of scene categories co-occurring in this semantic space. Fortunately, each category has its own cooccurrence patterns that are consistent across the images in that category...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333630/multilinear-spatial-discriminant-analysis-for-dimensionality-reduction
#7
Sen Yuan, Xia Mao, Lijiang Chen
In the last few years, great efforts have been made to extend linear projection technique (LPT) for multidimensional data (i.e. tensor), generally referred to as multilinear projection technique (MPT). The vectorized nature of LPT requires high dimensional data to be converted to vector, hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. MPT well addresses this problem by encoding multidimensional data as general tensors of second or even higher order. In this paper, we propose a novel multilinear projection technique, called multilinear spatial discriminant analysis (MSDA), to identify the underlying manifold of high-order tensor data...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333119/wideband-spectrum-sensing-based-on-riemannian-distance-for-cognitive-radio-networks
#8
Qiuyuan Lu, Shengzhi Yang, Fan Liu
Detecting the signals of the primary users in the wideband spectrum is a key issue for cognitive radio networks. In this paper, we consider the multi-antenna based signal detection in a wideband spectrum scenario where the noise statistical characteristics are assumed to be unknown. We reason that the covariance matrices of the spectrum subbands have structural constraints and that they describe a manifold in the signal space. Thus, we propose a novel signal detection algorithm based on Riemannian distance and Riemannian mean which is different from the traditional eigenvalue-based detector (EBD) derived with the generalized likelihood ratio criterion...
March 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332460/framing-the-tax-and-health-nexus-a-neglected-aspect-of-public-health-concern
#9
David Mccoy, Simukai Chigudu, Taavi Tillmann
Previous studies have described various associations between tax policy and health. Here we propose a unifying conceptual framework of 'Five R's' to stimulate awareness about the importance of tax to health improvement. First, tax can improve representation and democratic accountability, and help make governments more responsive to the needs of its citizens. Second, tax can create a revenue stream for a universal pool of public finance for health care and other public services. Third, progressive taxation when combined with appropriate public spending can help redistribute wealth and income and mitigate social and health inequalities...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331527/determinants-to-antiretroviral-treatment-non-adherence-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-in-northern-ethiopia
#10
Berhe Beyene Gebrezgabher, Yigzaw Kebede, Melaku Kindie, Desalegn Tetemke, Mebrahtu Abay, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw
BACKGROUND: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting. METHODS: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Individuals who had a 6-month follow-up with complete individual information were included in the study...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329766/complex-pectin-metabolism-by-gut-bacteria-reveals-novel-catalytic-functions
#11
Didier Ndeh, Artur Rogowski, Alan Cartmell, Ana S Luis, Arnaud Baslé, Joseph Gray, Immacolata Venditto, Jonathon Briggs, Xiaoyang Zhang, Aurore Labourel, Nicolas Terrapon, Fanny Buffetto, Sergey Nepogodiev, Yao Xiao, Robert A Field, Yanping Zhu, Malcolm A O'Neill, Breeanna R Urbanowicz, William S York, Gideon J Davies, D Wade Abbott, Marie-Christine Ralet, Eric C Martens, Bernard Henrissat, Harry J Gilbert
The metabolism of carbohydrate polymers drives microbial diversity in the human gut microbiota. It is unclear, however, whether bacterial consortia or single organisms are required to depolymerize highly complex glycans. Here we show that the gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron uses the most structurally complex glycan known: the plant pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II, cleaving all but 1 of its 21 distinct glycosidic linkages. The deconstruction of rhamnogalacturonan-II side chains and backbone are coordinated to overcome steric constraints, and the degradation involves previously undiscovered enzyme families and catalytic activities...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328513/a-confident-information-first-principle-for-parameter-reduction-and-model-selection-of-boltzmann-machines
#12
Xiaozhao Zhao, Yuexian Hou, Dawei Song, Wenjie Li
Typical dimensionality reduction (DR) methods are data-oriented, focusing on directly reducing the number of random variables (or features) while retaining the maximal variations in the high-dimensional data. Targeting unsupervised situations, this paper aims to address the problem from a novel perspective and considers model-oriented DR in parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. Specifically, we propose a general parameter reduction criterion, called confident-information-first (CIF) principle, to maximally preserve confident parameters and rule out less confident ones...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326549/the-three-finger-toxin-fold-a-multifunctional-structural-scaffold-able-to-modulate-cholinergic-functions
#13
REVIEW
Pascal Kessler, Pascale Marchot, Marcela Silva, Denis Servent
Three-finger fold toxins are miniproteins frequently found in Elapidae snake venoms. This fold is characterized by three distinct loops rich in β-strands and emerging from a dense, globular core reticulated by four highly conserved disulfide bridges. The number and diversity of receptors, channels, and enzymes identified as targets of three-finger fold toxins is increasing continuously. Such manifold diversity highlights the specific adaptability of this fold for generating pleiotropic functions. Although this toxin superfamily disturbs many biological functions by interacting with a large diversity of molecular targets, the most significant target is the cholinergic system...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323066/development-of-an-economical-autonomous-phstat-system-for-culturing-phytoplankton-under-steady-state-or-dynamic-conditions
#14
Rachel L Golda, Mark D Golda, Jacqueline A Hayes, Tawnya D Peterson, Joseph A Needoba
Laboratory investigations of physiological processes in phytoplankton require precise control of experimental conditions. Chemostats customized to control and maintain stable pH levels (pHstats) are ideally suited for investigations of the effects of pH on phytoplankton physiology, for example in context of ocean acidification. Here we designed and constructed a simple, flexible pHstat system and demonstrated its operational capabilities under laboratory culture conditions. In particular, the system is useful for simulating natural cyclic pH variability within aquatic ecosystems, such as diel fluctuations that result from metabolic activity or tidal mixing in estuaries...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320905/insights-into-the-deactivation-of-5-bromouracil-after-ultraviolet-excitation
#15
Francesca Peccati, Sebastian Mai, Leticia González
5-Bromouracil is a nucleobase analogue that can replace thymine in DNA strands and acts as a strong radiosensitizer, with potential applications in molecular biology and cancer therapy. Here, the deactivation of 5-bromouracil after ultraviolet irradiation is investigated in the singlet and triplet manifold by accurate quantum chemistry calculations and non-adiabatic dynamics simulations. It is found that, after irradiation to the bright ππ* state, three main relaxation pathways are, in principle, possible: relaxation back to the ground state, intersystem crossing (ISC) and C-Br photodissociation...
April 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320829/tissue-engineering-functional-gastrointestinal-regions-the-importance-of-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#16
Andrew Trecartin, Tracy Grikscheit
The intestine shows extraordinary regenerative potential that might be harnessed to alleviate numerous morbid and lethal human diseases. The intestinal stem cells regenerate the epithelium every 5 days throughout an individual's lifetime. Understanding stem-cell signaling affords power to influence the niche environment for growing intestine. The manifold approaches to tissue engineering may be organized by variations of three basic components required for the transplantation and growth of stem/progenitor cells: (1) cell delivery materials or scaffolds; (2) donor cells including adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and in vitro expansion of isolated or cocultured epithelial, smooth muscle, myofibroblasts, or nerve cells; and (3) environmental modulators or biopharmaceuticals...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320426/determinants-to-antiretroviral-treatment-non-adherence-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-in-northern-ethiopia
#17
Berhe Beyene Gebrezgabher, Yigzaw Kebede, Melaku Kindie, Desalegn Tetemke, Mebrahtu Abay, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw
BACKGROUND: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting. METHODS: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Individuals who had a 6-month follow-up with complete individual information were included in the study...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315239/-14-c-acetyl-coenzyme-a-based-in-vitro-n-terminal-acetylation-assay
#18
Adrian Drazic, Thomas Arnesen
N-terminal acetylation is one of the most abundant co- and posttranslational protein modifications, conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The functional consequences of this modification are manifold, ranging from protein folding, stability, and interaction to subcellular localization. We describe here an isotope-labeled [(14)C]-acetyl-Coenzyme A-based acetylation assay, allowing the determination of weak catalytic activities of NATs in vitro. It allows the use of purified recombinant enzymes from Escherichia coli, or co-immunoprecipitated enzymes from various organisms, as well as the determination of the in vitro activity of various cell lysates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303793/prediction-of-the-containment-of-hiv-infection-by-antiretroviral-therapy-a-variable-structure-control-approach
#19
Anet J N Anelone, Sarah K Spurgeon
It is demonstrated that the reachability paradigm from variable structure control theory is a suitable framework to monitor and predict the progression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A manifold is selected which characterises the infection-free steady-state. A model of HIV infection together with an associated reachability analysis is used to formulate a dynamical condition for the containment of HIV infection on the manifold. This condition is tested using data from two different HIV clinical trials which contain measurements of the CD4+ T cell count and HIV load in the peripheral blood collected from HIV infected individuals for the six month period following initiation of ART...
February 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295575/definition-and-assessment-of-disability-in-mental-disorders-under-the-perspective-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#20
Michael Linden
This article provides an overview of definitions and assessment instruments of disability, an important topic in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic illnesses, and in expert appraisals in social and forensic medicine. Health problems are manifested not only in symptoms, but also regularly in impairment or disability in everyday life, which is especially true for mental disorders. According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization, disability can be understood as chronic suffering from symptoms of illness, or limitations of executing capacities, or inability to participate in selected areas of life...
March 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
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