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Emil Cornea, Hongtu Zhu, Peter Kim, Joseph G Ibrahim
The aim of this paper is to develop a general regression framework for the analysis of manifold-valued response in a Riemannian symmetric space (RSS) and its association with multiple covariates of interest, such as age or gender, in Euclidean space. Such RSS-valued data arises frequently in medical imaging, surface modeling, and computer vision, among many others. We develop an intrinsic regression model solely based on an intrinsic conditional moment assumption, avoiding specifying any parametric distribution in RSS...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Michael D Schuder, Fang Wang, Chih-Hsuan Chang, David J Nesbitt
The sub-Doppler CH-symmetric stretch (ν3) infrared absorption spectrum of a hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) radical is observed and analyzed with the radical formed in a slit-jet supersonic discharge expansion (Trot = 18 K) via Cl atom mediated H atom abstraction from methanol. The high sensitivity of the spectrometer and reduced spectral congestion associated with the cooled expansion enable first infrared spectroscopic observation of hydroxymethyl transitions from both ± symmetry tunneling states resulting from large amplitude COH torsional motion...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
O A Ramírez-Garza, J M Méndez-Alcaraz, P González-Mozuelos
Paramagnetic colloidal particles distributed along an ellipse are used as a model system to study the effects of curvature gradients on the structure and dynamics of colloids in curved manifolds. Unlike what happens for circular and spherical systems, in the present case, the equilibrium one-particle distribution function displays inhomogeneities due to the changing curvature along the ellipse. The ensuing effects on the two-body correlations are also analyzed, leading to the observation of anisotropic and long-ranged effects...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Peter Asenbaum, Chris Overstreet, Tim Kovachy, Daniel D Brown, Jason M Hogan, Mark A Kasevich
Spacetime curvature induces tidal forces on the wave function of a single quantum system. Using a dual light-pulse atom interferometer, we measure a phase shift associated with such tidal forces. The macroscopic spatial superposition state in each interferometer (extending over 16 cm) acts as a nonlocal probe of the spacetime manifold. Additionally, we utilize the dual atom interferometer as a gradiometer for precise gravitational measurements.
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katayoun Behnam Sani, Birgit Sawitzki
Ever since its first application in clinical medicine, scientists have urged to induce tolerance towards foreign allogeneic transplants and thus avoid rejection by the recipient's immune system. This would circumvent chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (IS) and thus avoid development of IS-induced side effects, which are contributing to the still unsatisfactory long-term graft and patient survival after solid organ transplantation. Although manifold strategies of tolerance induction have been described in preclinical models, only three therapeutic approaches have been successfully utilized in a still small number of patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Parthasarathy Gandeepan, Jiayu Mo, Lutz Ackermann
Inexpensive copper catalysts enabled direct C-H chalcogenations at ambient temperature by means of photo-induced catalysis. The expedient copper catalysis set the stage for C-S and C-Se bond formation from readily accessible non-volatile elemental chalcogens. The photo-assisted copper catalysis manifold proved suitable for a wide range of substrates with good functional group tolerance and exhibited high catalytic efficacy even at a reaction temperature of 25 °C.
May 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Chiara Samorì, Erik Caroselli, Fiorella Prada, Michela Reggi, Simona Fermani, Zvy Dubinsky, Stefano Goffredo, Giuseppe Falini
The intra-skeletal fatty acid concentration and composition of four Mediterranean coral species, namely Cladocora caespitosa, Balanophyllia europaea, Astroides calycularis and Leptopsammia pruvoti, were examined in young and old individuals living in three different locations of the Mediterranean Sea. These species are characterized by diverse levels of organization (solitary or colonial) and trophic strategies (symbiotic or non-symbiotic). Fatty acids have manifold fundamental roles comprehensive of membrane structure fluidity, cell signaling and energy storage...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Seki, Toshiyuki Takayanagi, Motoyuki Shiga
Ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations have been performed to understand the photoexcitation dynamics of an Ag atom embedded in a low-temperature cluster consisting of 500 helium atoms, after the electronic excitation 5p (2)P1/2 ← 5p (2)S1/2 and 5p (2)P3/2 ← 5p (2)S1/2 of the Ag atom. Along the RPMD trajectory the time evolution of electronic wavefunction within the spin-orbit (2)P manifold is calculated, whereby the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and the RPMD equation of motion are coupled, using the à la Ehrenfest mean field approach...
May 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Natalia Polouliakh, Richard Nock
To obtain the global picture of genetic machinery for massive high-throughput gene expression data, novel data-driven unsupervised learning approaches are becoming essentially important. For this purpose, basic analytic workflow has been established and should include two steps: first, unsupervised clustering to identify genes with similar behavior upon exposure to a signal, and second, identification of transcription factors regulating those genes. In this chapter, we will describe an advanced tool that can be used for analyzing and characterizing large-scale time-series gene expression composed of a two-step approach...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paolo Inglese, James S McKenzie, Anna Mroz, James Kinross, Kirill Veselkov, Elaine Holmes, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy K Nicholson, Robert C Glen
Visual inspection of tumour tissues does not reveal the complex metabolic changes that differentiate cancer and its sub-types from healthy tissues. Mass spectrometry imaging, which quantifies the underlying chemistry, represents a powerful tool for the molecular exploration of tumour tissues. A 3-dimensional topological description of the chemical properties of the tumour permits the formulation of hypotheses about the biological composition and interactions and the possible causes of its heterogeneous structure...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
D Avitabile, M Desroches, E Knobloch
Canards are special solutions to ordinary differential equations that follow invariant repelling slow manifolds for long time intervals. In realistic biophysical single-cell models, canards are responsible for several complex neural rhythms observed experimentally, but their existence and role in spatially extended systems is largely unexplored. We identify and describe a type of coherent structure in which a spatial pattern displays temporal canard behavior. Using interfacial dynamics and geometric singular perturbation theory, we classify spatiotemporal canards and give conditions for the existence of folded-saddle and folded-node canards...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
G P Beretta, Omar Al-Abbasi, M R von Spakovsky
The steepest entropy ascent (SEA) dynamical principle provides a general framework for modeling the dynamics of nonequilibrium (NE) phenomena at any level of description, including the atomistic one. It has recently been shown to provide a precise implementation and meaning to the maximum entropy production principle and to encompass many well-established theories of nonequilibrium thermodynamics into a single unifying geometrical framework. Its original formulation in the framework of quantum thermodynamics (QT) assumes the simplest and most natural Fisher-Rao metric to geometrize from a dynamical standpoint the manifold of density operators, which represent the thermodynamic NE states of the system...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Dong-Ping Yang, P A Robinson
A physiologically based corticothalamic model of large-scale brain activity is used to analyze critical dynamics of transitions from normal arousal states to epileptic seizures, which correspond to Hopf bifurcations. This relates an abstract normal form quantitatively to underlying physiology that includes neural dynamics, axonal propagation, and time delays. Thus, a bridge is constructed that enables normal forms to be used to interpret quantitative data. The normal form of the Hopf bifurcations with delays is derived using Hale's theory, the center manifold theorem, and normal form analysis, and it is found to be explicitly expressed in terms of transfer functions and the sensitivity matrix of a reduced open-loop system...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Neelesh Soni, M S Madhusudhan
Computational methods to predict the 3D structures of protein interactions fall into 3 categories-template based modeling, protein-protein docking and hybrid/integrative modeling. The two most important considerations for modeling methods are sampling and scoring conformations. Sampling has benefitted from techniques such as fast Fourier transforms (FFT), spherical harmonics and higher order manifolds. Scoring complexes to determine binding free energy is still a challenging problem. Rapid advances have been made in hybrid modeling where experimental data are amalgamated with computations...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Dongdong Chen, Jiancheng Lv, Zhang Yi
The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) has received an increasing amount of interest in recent years. It determines good mapping weights that capture useful latent features in an unsupervised manner. The RBM and its generalizations have been successfully applied to a variety of image classification and speech recognition tasks. However, most of the existing RBM-based models disregard the preservation of the data manifold structure. In many real applications, the data generally reside on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in high-dimensional ambient space...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Barbara Fingleton
Inflammation is a central mechanism for dealing with insults to tissue, either from pathogenic invaders or by other damage-inducing means, such that the threat is removed, the tissue is healed and there is a return to homeostasis. It is a multi-step process with manifold methods of regulation built in. Proteolysis is one such regulatory method and members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteinases have been shown to influence inflammation in myriad of ways. It is becoming more and more clear that no single MMP can be unequivocally labeled as 'good' or 'bad' when considering inflammation in general - the net result of proteolytic activity is dependent on context...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Roberto Anichini, Laura Policardo, Flavia Lucia Lombardo, Elisabetta Salutini, Anna Tedeschi, Secondina Viti, Piergiorgio Francia, Enrico Brocco, Marina Maggini, Giuseppe Seghieri, Alessandra De Bellis
AIMS: To provide data on hospitalization and incidence rates of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) and its relation to lower limbs' amputations/revascularizations in population with diabetes of Italy as well as of one of its regions (Tuscany). METHODS: Hospitalizations with CN diagnosis (codes ICD-9-CM: 7130, 7135, 7138) have been recorded in people with diabetes over years 2003-2013 in Italy and 2008-2015 in Tuscany. Amputations, peripheral vascular disease, revascularizations and infections were likewise evaluated...
April 28, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yufeng Zhao, Bo Liu, Liyun He, Wenjing Bai, Xueyun Yu, Xinyu Cao, Lin Luo, Peijing Rong, Yuxue Zhao, Guozheng Li, Baoyan Liu
Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines...
May 13, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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