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Rajesh Khanna channels

Jennifer Y Xie, Lindsey A Chew, Xiaofang Yang, Yuying Wang, Chaoling Qu, Yue Wang, Lauren M Federici, Stephanie D Fitz, Matthew S Ripsch, Michael R Due, Aubin Moutal, May Khanna, Fletcher A White, Todd W Vanderah, Philip L Johnson, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Uncoupling the protein-protein interaction between collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) with an allosteric CRMP2-derived peptide (CBD3) is antinociceptive in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We investigated the efficacy, duration of action, abuse potential, and neurobehavioral toxicity of an improved mutant CRMP2 peptide. A homopolyarginine (R9)-conjugated CBD3-A6K (R9-CBD3-A6K) peptide inhibited the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction in a concentration-dependent fashion and diminished surface expression of CaV2...
September 2016: Pain
Aubin Moutal, Erik T Dustrude, Rajesh Khanna
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (Nf1) is a progressive, autosomal disorder with a large degree of variability and severity of manifestations including neurological, cutaneous, ocular/orbital, orthopedic, and vascular abnormalities. Nearly half of Nf1 patients presents with cognitive impairment, specifically spatial learning deficits. These clinical manifestations suggest a global impairment of both central and peripheral nervous system functions in neurofibromatosis. Nf1 encodes for neurofibromin, a Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP) that has been implicated in the regulation of long-term potentiation (LTP), Ras/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling, and learning in mice...
May 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Aubin Moutal, Lindsey A Chew, Xiaofang Yang, Yue Wang, Seul Ki Yeon, Edwin Telemi, Seeneen Meroueh, Ki Duk Park, Raghuraman Shrinivasan, Kerry B Gilbraith, Chaoling Qu, Jennifer Y Xie, Amol Patwardhan, Todd W Vanderah, May Khanna, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Chronic pain affects the life of millions of people. Current treatments have deleterious side effects. We have advanced a strategy for targeting protein interactions which regulate the N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channel as an alternative to direct channel block. Peptides uncoupling CaV2.2 interactions with the axonal collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) were antinociceptive without effects on memory, depression, and reward/addiction. A search for small molecules that could recapitulate uncoupling of the CaV2...
July 2016: Pain
Robert Torregrosa, Xiao-Fang Yang, Erik T Dustrude, Theodore R Cummins, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
Six novel 3″-substituted (R)-N-(phenoxybenzyl) 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamides were prepared and then assessed using whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiology for their anticonvulsant activities in animal seizure models and for their sodium channel activities. We found compounds with various substituents at the terminal aromatic ring that had excellent anticonvulsant activity. Of these compounds, (R)-N-4'-((3″-chloro)phenoxy)benzyl 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((R)-5) and (R)-N-4'-((3″-trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl 2-N-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide ((R)-9) exhibited high protective indices (PI=TD50/ED50) comparable with many antiseizure drugs when tested in the maximal electroshock seizure test to mice (intraperitoneally) and rats (intraperitoneally, orally)...
July 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Liberty François-Moutal, Yue Wang, Aubin Moutal, Karissa E Cottier, Ohannes K Melemedjian, Xiaofang Yang, Yuying Wang, Weina Ju, Tally M Largent-Milnes, May Khanna, Todd W Vanderah, Rajesh Khanna
Targeting proteins within the N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2) complex has proven to be an effective strategy for developing novel pain therapeutics. We describe a novel peptide aptamer derived from the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), a CaV2.2-regulatory protein. Addition of a 14-carbon myristate group to the peptide (myr-tat-CBD3) tethered it to the membrane of primary sensory neurons near surface CaV2.2. Pull-down studies demonstrated that myr-tat-CBD3 peptide interfered with the CRMP2-CaV2...
July 2015: Pain
Ki Duk Park, Xiao-Fang Yang, Erik T Dustrude, Yuying Wang, Matthew S Ripsch, Fletcher A White, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
The functionalized amino acid, lacosamide ((R)-2), and the α-aminoamide, safinamide ((S)-3), are neurological agents that have been extensively investigated and have displayed potent anticonvulsant activities in seizure models. Both compounds have been reported to modulate voltage-gated sodium channel activity. We have prepared a series of chimeric compounds, (R)-7-(R)-10, by merging key structural units in these two clinical agents, and then compared their activities with (R)-2 and (S)-3. Compounds were assessed for their ability to alter sodium channel kinetics for inactivation, frequency (use)-dependence, and steady-state activation and fast inactivation...
February 18, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Sarah M Wilson, Aubin Moutal, Ohannes K Melemedjian, Yuying Wang, Weina Ju, Liberty François-Moutal, May Khanna, Rajesh Khanna
Activity-dependent neurite outgrowth is a highly complex, regulated process with important implications for neuronal circuit remodeling in development as well as in seizure-induced sprouting in epilepsy. Recent work has linked outgrowth to collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an intracellular phosphoprotein originally identified as axon guidance and growth cone collapse protein. The neurite outgrowth promoting function of CRMP2 is regulated by its phosphorylation state. In this study, depolarization (potassium chloride)-driven activity increased the level of active CRMP2 by decreasing its phosphorylation by GSK3β via a reduction in priming by Cdk5...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hyosung Lee, Ki Duk Park, Robert Torregrosa, Xiao-Fang Yang, Erik T Dustrude, Yuying Wang, Sarah M Wilson, Cindy Barbosa, Yucheng Xiao, Theodore R Cummins, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
We prepared 13 derivatives of N-(biphenyl-4'-yl)methyl (R)-2-acetamido-3-methoxypropionamide that differed in type and placement of a R-substituent in the terminal aryl unit. We demonstrated that the R-substituent impacted the compound's whole animal and cellular pharmacological activities. In rodents, select compounds exhibited excellent anticonvulsant activities and protective indices (PI=TD50/ED50) that compared favorably with clinical antiseizure drugs. Compounds with a polar, aprotic R-substituent potently promoted Na+ channel slow inactivation and displayed frequency (use) inhibition of Na+ currents at low micromolar concentrations...
July 24, 2014: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sarah M Wilson, Rajesh Khanna
The novel antiepileptic drug lacosamide (LCM; SPM927, Vimpat®) has been heralded as having a dual-mode of action through interactions with both the voltage-gated sodium channel and the neurite outgrowth-promoting collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2). Lacosamide's ability to dampen neuronal excitability through the voltage-gated sodium channel likely underlies its efficacy in attenuating the symptoms of epilepsy (i.e., seizures). While the role of CRMP2 in epilepsy has not been well studied, given the proposed involvement of circuit reorganization in epileptogenesis, the ability of lacosamide to alter CRMP2 function may prove disease modifying...
April 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Sarah M Wilson, Seul Ki Yeon, Xiao-Fang Yang, Ki Duk Park, Rajesh Khanna
Aberrant ion channel function has been heralded as a main underlying mechanism driving epilepsy and its symptoms. However, it has become increasingly clear that treatment strategies targeting voltage-gated sodium or calcium channels merely mask the symptoms of epilepsy without providing disease-modifying benefits. Ion channel function is likely only one important cog in a highly complex machine. Gross morphological changes, such as reactive sprouting and outgrowth, may also play a role in epileptogenesis. Mechanisms responsible for these changes are not well-understood...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Weina Ju, Jiang Wu, Michael B Pritz, Rajesh Khanna
Vertebrate brains share many features in common. Early in development, both the hindbrain and diencephalon are built similarly. Only later in time do differences in morphology occur. Factors that could potentially influence such changes include certain physiological properties of neurons. As an initial step to investigate this problem, embryonic Alligator brain neurons were cultured and calcium responses were characterized. The present report is the first to document culture of Alligator brain neurons in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) as well as in standard mammalian tissue culture medium supplemented with growth factors...
September 1, 2013: Translational Neuroscience
Hyosung Lee, Alexander S Gold, Xiao-Fang Yang, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
Several antiepileptic drugs exert their activities by inhibiting Na(+) currents. Recent studies demonstrated that compounds containing a biaryl-linked motif (Ar-X-Ar') modulate Na(+) currents. We, and others, have reported that compounds with an embedded benzyloxyphenyl unit (ArOCH2Ar', OCH2=X) exhibit potent anticonvulsant activities. Here, we show that benzyloxybenzylammonium chlorides ((+)H3NCH2C6H4OCH2Ar' Cl(-)) displayed notable activities in animal seizure models. Electrophysiological studies of 4-(2'-trifluoromethoxybenzyloxy)benzylammonium chloride (9) using embryonic cortical neurons demonstrated that 9 promoted both fast and slow inactivation of Na(+) channels...
December 15, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Tam T Quach, Sarah M Wilson, Veronique Rogemond, Naura Chounlamountri, Pappachan E Kolattukudy, Stephanie Martinez, May Khanna, Marie-Francoise Belin, Rajesh Khanna, Jerome Honnorat, Anne-Marie Duchemin
Although hippocampal neurons are well-distinguished by the morphological characteristics of their dendrites and their structural plasticity, the mechanisms involved in regulating their neurite initiation, dendrite growth, network formation and remodeling are still largely unknown, in part because the key molecules involved remain elusive. Identifying new dendrite-active cues could uncover unknown molecular mechanisms that would add significant understanding to the field and possibly lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapy because these neurons are impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 15, 2013: Journal of Cell Science
Erik T Dustrude, Sarah M Wilson, Weina Ju, Yucheng Xiao, Rajesh Khanna
Voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) trafficking is incompletely understood. Post-translational modifications of NaVs and/or auxiliary subunits and protein-protein interactions have been posited as NaV-trafficking mechanisms. Here, we tested if modification of the axonal collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) by a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) could affect NaV trafficking; CRMP2 alters the extent of NaV slow inactivation conferred by the anti-epileptic (R)-lacosamide, implying NaV-CRMP2 functional coupling...
August 23, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Polina Feldman, Rajesh Khanna
Chronic neuropathic pain management is a worldwide concern. Pharmaceutical companies globally have historically targeted ion channels as the therapeutic catechism with many blockbuster successes. Remarkably, no new pain therapeutic has been approved by European or American regulatory agencies over the last decade. This article will provide an overview of an alternative approach to ion channel drug discovery: targeting regulators of ion channels, specifically focusing on voltage-gated calcium channels. We will highlight the discovery of an anti-nociceptive peptide derived from a novel calcium channel interacting partner - the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2)...
December 17, 2013: Neuroscience Letters
Hyosung Lee, Ki Duk Park, Xiao-Fang Yang, Erik T Dustrude, Sarah M Wilson, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
We have reported that compounds containing a biaryl linked unit (Ar-X-Ar') modulated Na(+) currents by promoting slow inactivation and fast inactivation processes and by inducing frequency (use)-dependent inhibition of Na(+) currents. These electrophysiological properties have been associated with the mode of action of several antiepileptic drugs. In this study, we demonstrate that the readily accessible (biphenyl-4-yl)methylammonium chlorides (compound class B) exhibited a broad range of anticonvulsant activities in animal models, and in the maximal electroshock seizure test the activity of (3'-trifluoromethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)methylammonium chloride (8) exceeded that of phenobarbital and phenytoin upon oral administration to rats...
July 25, 2013: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Weina Ju, Qi Li, Sarah M Wilson, Joel M Brittain, Louay Meroueh, Rajesh Khanna
The axon/dendrite specification collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) bidirectionally modulates N-type voltage-gated Ca ( 2+) channels (CaV2.2). Here we demonstrate that small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein modifies CRMP2 via the SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 in vivo. Removal of a SUMO conjugation site KMD in CRMP2 (K374A/M375A/D376A; CRMP2AAA) resulted in loss of SUMOylated CRMP2 without compromising neurite branching, a canonical hallmark of CRMP2 function. Increasing SUMOylation levels correlated inversely with calcium influx in sensory neurons...
May 2013: Channels
Ki Duk Park, Xiao-Fang Yang, Hyosung Lee, Erik T Dustrude, Yuying Wang, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
Lacosamide ((R)-1) is a recently marketed, first-in-class, antiepileptic drug. Patch-clamp electrophysiology studies are consistent with the notion that (R)-1 modulates voltage-gated Na(+) channel function by increasing and stabilizing the slow inactivation state without affecting fast inactivation. The molecular pathway(s) that regulate slow inactivation are poorly understood. Affinity baits are chemical reactive units, which when appended to a ligand (drug) can lead to irreversible, covalent modification of the receptor thus permitting drug binding site identification including, possibly, the site of ligand function...
March 20, 2013: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Rajesh Khanna, Sarah M Wilson, Joel M Brittain, Jill Weimer, Rukhsana Sultana, Allan Butterfield, Kenneth Hensley
CRMP2, also known as DPYSL2/DRP2, Unc-33, Ulip or TUC2, is a cytosolic phosphoprotein that mediates axon/dendrite specification and axonal growth. Mapping the CRMP2 interactome has revealed previously unappreciated functions subserved by this protein. Together with its canonical roles in neurite growth and retraction and kinesin-dependent axonal transport, it is now known that CRMP2 interacts with numerous binding partners to affect microtubule dynamics; protein endocytosis and vesicular cycling, synaptic assembly, calcium channel regulation and neurotransmitter release...
November 1, 2012: Future Neurology
Amber M King, Xiao-Fang Yang, Yuying Wang, Erik T Dustrude, Cindy Barbosa, Michael R Due, Andrew D Piekarz, Sarah M Wilson, Fletcher A White, Christophe Salomé, Theodore R Cummins, Rajesh Khanna, Harold Kohn
Four compounds that contained the N-benzyl 2-amino-3-methoxypropionamide unit were evaluated for their ability to modulate Na(+) currents in catecholamine A differentiated CAD neuronal cells. The compounds differed by the absence or presence of either a terminal N-acetyl group or a (3-fluoro)benzyloxy moiety positioned at the 4'-benzylamide site. Analysis of whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology data showed that the incorporation of the (3-fluoro)benzyloxy unit, to give the (3-fluoro)benzyloxyphenyl pharmacophore, dramatically enhanced the magnitude of Na(+) channel slow inactivation...
December 19, 2012: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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