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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299272/three-dimensional-planning-in-craniomaxillofacial-surgery
#1
Josep Rubio-Palau, Alejandra Prieto-Gundin, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Miguel Bejarano Serrano, Gemma Garcia Fructuoso, Francisco Parri Ferrandis, Alejandro Rivera Baró
INTRODUCTION: Three-dimensional (3D) planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery has become a standard in the planification of a variety of conditions such as dental implants and orthognathic surgery. By using custom-made cutting and positioning guides, the virtual surgery is exported to the operating room, increasing precision and improving results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present our experience in the treatment of craniofacial deformities with 3D planning. Software to plan the different procedures has been selected for each case, depending on the procedure (Nobel Clinician, Kodak 3DS, Simplant O&O, Dolphin 3D, Timeus, Mimics and 3-Matic)...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#2
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293739/a-new-synthesium-species-digenea-brachycladiidae-from-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-cetacea-delphinidae-in-southwestern-atlantic-waters
#3
Mariana B Ebert, Maria I Mülller, Juliana Marigo, Ana L S Valente, Marta J Cremer, Reinaldo J da Silva
A new species of Synthesium from the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in South Brazilian waters is described. Morphological and molecular identification was performed, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the ribosomal small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 and the mitochondrial NDH dehydrogenase subunit 3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 genes. The main characteristics of the new species are the subterminal round-shaped oral sucker, the anterior distribution of vitellaria reaching the level of the ovary and the oval-shaped testes...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283815/a-novel-cetacean-adenovirus-in-stranded-harbour-porpoises-from-the-north-sea-detection-and-molecular-characterization
#4
Steven J van Beurden, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Marco W G van de Bildt, Lineke Begeman, James F X Wellehan, Thomas B Waltzek, Geert de Vrieze, Andrea Gröne, Thijs Kuiken, M Hélène Verheije, Judit J Penzes
Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are the most prevalent cetaceans in the North Sea. The fecal viral flora of 21 harbour porpoises stranded along the Dutch coastline was analyzed by a metagenomics approach. Sequences of a novel cetacean mastadenovirus, designated harbour porpoise adenovirus 1 (HpAdV-1), were detected. The sequence of a 23-kbp genomic region, spanning the conserved late region, was determined using primer walking. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HpAdV-1 is most closely related to bottlenose dolphin adenovirus and clusters with Cetartiodactyla adenoviruses...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283410/insecticide-pyrethroids-in-liver-of-striped-dolphin-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#5
Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Joan Giménez, Renaud de Stephanis, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló
Pyrethroid pesticides were analysed in liver of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Alboran Sea (south of Spain, Mediterranean Sea). The occurrence and bioaccumulation of pyrethroid insecticides in marine mammal tissues from the northern hemisphere had never been determined before. Pyrethroids were detected in 87% of the specimens with a mean total concentration of 300 ng g(-1) lw ± 932 (range 2.7-5200 ng g(-1) lw). Permethrin and tetramethrin were the main contributors to the pyrethroid profiles, with enantiospecific accumulation for the first and isomer specific accumulation for the latter...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280561/temporally-and-spatially-partitioned-behaviours-of-spinner-dolphins-implications-for-resilience-to-human-disturbance
#6
Julian A Tyne, David W Johnston, Fredrik Christiansen, Lars Bejder
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275285/don-t-forget-the-porpoise-acoustic-monitoring-reveals-fine-scale-temporal-variation-between-bottlenose-dolphin-and-harbour-porpoise-in-cardigan-bay-sac
#7
Hanna K Nuuttila, Winnie Courtene-Jones, Sarah Baulch, Malene Simon, Peter G H Evans
Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275142/the-remarkable-convergence-of-skull-shape-in-crocodilians-and-toothed-whales
#8
Matthew R McCurry, Alistair R Evans, Erich M G Fitzgerald, Justin W Adams, Philip D Clausen, Colin R McHenry
The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position of skull bones...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273558/mutations-and-polymorphism-in-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-montagu-1821-albumin-gene-first-identification-of-mutations-responsible-for-inherited-bisalbuminemia
#9
Claudia Gili, Federico Bonsembiante, Giorgia Beffagna, Sandro Mazzariol, Maria Elena Gelain
Hereditary bisalbuminemia is an asymptomatic and heterozygous condition in a range of species characterized by the presence of two serum albumin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility resulting in a bicuspid pattern on serum electrophoresis. Bisalbuminemia has been diagnosed by electrophoresis in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) families, but causative mutations and the inheritance pattern have not been identified. The aims of this work are: to investigate polymorphisms of the bottlenose dolphin albumin gene and to identify mutations causative of bisalbuminemia; to identify the inheritance pattern in two bottlenose dolphin families...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257606/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-amazon-river-dolphin-inia-geoffrensis-spermatozoa
#10
Rodrigo S Amaral, Vera M F da Silva, Fabíola X Valdez Domingos, Anthony R Martin
The spermatozoa from seven adult Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis, CETACEA: INIIDAE) were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The spermatozoa showed an elongated ellipsoid shaped head and a long tail with a well distinguishable midpiece. The head spermatozoa have a smooth surface like other odontocetes examined, with the exception of the Delphinidae family. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were within the range already reported for other cetaceans. The spermatozoa midpiece, as in other cetaceans, showed a random pattern of mitochondria, different from that described for other mammals...
March 3, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256585/lrp1-influences-trafficking-of-n-type-calcium-channels-via-interaction-with-the-auxiliary-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-subunit
#11
Ivan Kadurin, Simon W Rothwell, Beatrice Lana, Manuela Nieto-Rostro, Annette C Dolphin
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit, which determines the main functional and pharmacological attributes of the channel. The CaV1 and CaV2 channels are associated with auxiliary β- and α2δ-subunits. The molecular mechanisms involved in α2δ subunit trafficking, and the effect of α2δ subunits on trafficking calcium channel complexes remain poorly understood. Here we show that α2δ-1 is a ligand for the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1), a multifunctional receptor which mediates trafficking of cargoes...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253667/reconstruction-of-the-forehead-acoustic-properties-in-an-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-with-investigation-on-the-responses-of-soft-tissue-sound-velocity-to-temperature
#12
Zhongchang Song, Yu Zhang, Per Berggren, Chong Wei
Computed tomography (CT) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °C. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of the samples were read from CT scans. Linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density were revealed through regression analyses...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248616/precision-of-le-fort-i-osteotomy-planning-versus-outcome-a-multi-centre-retrospective-study
#13
Stefan Abela, David Tewson, Sharon Prince, Martyn Sherriff, Dirk Bister
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Le Fort I surgery by comparing planned surgical movements with actual outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A minimum number of seven consecutive cases that had undergone a Le Fort I osteotomy procedure alone or in combination with a mandibular osteotomy from six different hospital units in the East of England between 2009 and 2010 were identified. A total of 56 cases met the inclusion criteria where surgical splints were used and model surgery had been performed...
March 2017: Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238073/non-neurogenic-svz-like-niche-in-dolphins-mammals-devoid-of-olfaction
#14
Roberta Parolisi, Bruno Cozzi, Luca Bonfanti
Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in brain plasticity and brain repair. In mammals, it is mostly restricted to specific brain regions and specific physiological functions. The function and evolutionary history of mammalian adult neurogenesis has been elusive so far. The largest neurogenic site in mammals (subventricular zone, SVZ) generates neurons destined to populate the olfactory bulb. The SVZ neurogenic activity appears to be related to the dependence of the species on olfaction since it occurs at high rates throughout life in animals strongly dependent on this function for their survival...
February 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230056/threshold-of-long-term-survival-of-a-coastal-delphinid-in-anthropogenically-degraded-environment-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-in-pearl-river-delta
#15
Leszek Karczmarski, Shiang-Lin Huang, Stephen C Y Chan
Defining demographic and ecological threshold of population persistence can assist in informing conservation management. We undertook such analyses for the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, southeast China. We use adult survival estimates for assessments of population status and annual rate of change. Our estimates indicate that, given a stationary population structure and minimal risk scenario, ~2000 individuals (minimum viable population in carrying capacity, MVPk) can maintain the population persistence across 40 generations...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221675/environmental-changes-and-anthropogenic-factors-modulate-social-play-in-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#16
Agathe Serres, Fabienne Delfour
Social play varies among species and individuals and changes in frequency and duration during ontogeny. This type of play is modulated by environmental changes (e.g., resource availability). In captivity, cetaceans and their environment are managed by humans, and training sessions and/or public presentations punctuate the day as well as other frequent or occasional events. There is a lack of research on the effects of environmental events that occur in captivity and might affect dolphins' behavior. We studied the context in which nine bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) played socially and the events that could potentially impact this social interaction...
February 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215870/acute-fatal-sarcocystosis-hepatitis-in-an-indo-pacific-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-aduncus-in-hong-kong
#17
R Calero-Bernal, N F Mauroo, S W Hui, T Kuiken, M W G van de Bildt, A W de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, L Sims, A Gendron-Fitzpatrick, D Carmena, C K Cerqueira-Cézar, B M Rosenthal, J P Dubey
Unlike most species in the genus Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis canis has a broad intermediate host range. Its life cycle is incompletely known and most reports are from the USA. Here we report fatal hepatitis in a 4year old male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) from Hong Kong associated with a S. canis-like infection. Diagnosis was made based on clinical presentation, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular characterization. Microscopically, S. canis-like like infection was confined to the liver...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197145/dolphin-morbillivirus-in-a-cuvier-s-beaked-whale-ziphius-cavirostris-italy
#18
Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Beffagna, Giuseppe Palmisano, Giovanni Franzo, Cristina Casalone, Alessandra Pautasso, Federica Giorda, Fabio Di Nocera, Doriana Iaccarino, Mario Santoro, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#19
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192446/range-extension-for-the-common-dolphin-delphinus-sp-to-the-colombian-caribbean-with-taxonomic-implications-from-genetic-barcoding-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#20
Nohelia Farías-Curtidor, Dalia C Barragán-Barrera, Paula Alejandra Chávez-Carreño, Cristina Jiménez-Pinedo, Daniel M Palacios, Dalila Caicedo, Fernando Trujillo, Susana Caballero
The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014)...
2017: PloS One
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