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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230056/threshold-of-long-term-survival-of-a-coastal-delphinid-in-anthropogenically-degraded-environment-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-in-pearl-river-delta
#1
Leszek Karczmarski, Shiang-Lin Huang, Stephen C Y Chan
Defining demographic and ecological threshold of population persistence can assist in informing conservation management. We undertook such analyses for the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, southeast China. We use adult survival estimates for assessments of population status and annual rate of change. Our estimates indicate that, given a stationary population structure and minimal risk scenario, ~2000 individuals (minimum viable population in carrying capacity, MVPk) can maintain the population persistence across 40 generations...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221675/environmental-changes-and-anthropogenic-factors-modulate-social-play-in-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#2
Agathe Serres, Fabienne Delfour
Social play varies among species and individuals and changes in frequency and duration during ontogeny. This type of play is modulated by environmental changes (e.g., resource availability). In captivity, cetaceans and their environment are managed by humans, and training sessions and/or public presentations punctuate the day as well as other frequent or occasional events. There is a lack of research on the effects of environmental events that occur in captivity and might affect dolphins' behavior. We studied the context in which nine bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) played socially and the events that could potentially impact this social interaction...
February 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215870/acute-fatal-sarcocystosis-hepatitis-in-an-indo-pacific-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-aduncus-in-hong-kong
#3
R Calero-Bernal, N F Mauroo, S W Hui, T Kuiken, M W G van de Bildt, A W de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, L Sims, A Gendron-Fitzpatrick, D Carmena, C K Cerqueira-Cézar, B M Rosenthal, J P Dubey
Unlike most species in the genus Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis canis has a broad intermediate host range. Its life cycle is incompletely known and most reports are from the USA. Here we report fatal hepatitis in a 4year old male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) from Hong Kong associated with a S. canis-like infection. Diagnosis was made based on clinical presentation, histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and molecular characterization. Microscopically, S. canis-like like infection was confined to the liver...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197145/dolphin-morbillivirus-in-a-cuvier-s-beaked-whale-ziphius-cavirostris-italy
#4
Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Beffagna, Giuseppe Palmisano, Giovanni Franzo, Cristina Casalone, Alessandra Pautasso, Federica Giorda, Fabio Di Nocera, Doriana Iaccarino, Mario Santoro, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#5
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192446/range-extension-for-the-common-dolphin-delphinus-sp-to-the-colombian-caribbean-with-taxonomic-implications-from-genetic-barcoding-and-phylogenetic-analyses
#6
Nohelia Farías-Curtidor, Dalia C Barragán-Barrera, Paula Alejandra Chávez-Carreño, Cristina Jiménez-Pinedo, Daniel M Palacios, Dalila Caicedo, Fernando Trujillo, Susana Caballero
The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (~11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183920/new-zealand-s-endemic-dolphins-are-hanging-by-a-thread
#7
Christopher Pala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177289/hepatitis-e-virus-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#8
María Caridad Montalvo Villalba, Danilo Cruz Martínez, Imran Ahmad, Licel A Rodriguez Lay, Marite Bello Corredor, Celia Guevara March, Liena Sánchez Martínez, Laima Sánchez Martínez-Campo, Shahid Jameel
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects several animal species that act as zoonotic reservoirs for viral transmission. Solid and liquid residues from infected animals could lead to HEV contamination of food and surface waters. Evidence of human HEV infection through ingestion of seafood (shellfish, mussels) has been reported. Dolphins generally feed on fish and squid but are able to adapt to an environment and consume whatever prey is available. Clinical signs of infected dolphins include lethargy, inappetence, behavioral aberrations and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
February 8, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163874/sleeping-on-the-wing
#9
REVIEW
Niels C Rattenborg
Wakefulness enables animals to interface adaptively with the environment. Paradoxically, in insects to humans, the efficacy of wakefulness depends on daily sleep, a mysterious, usually quiescent state of reduced environmental awareness. However, several birds fly non-stop for days, weeks or months without landing, questioning whether and how they sleep. It is commonly assumed that such birds sleep with one cerebral hemisphere at a time (i.e. unihemispherically) and with only the corresponding eye closed, as observed in swimming dolphins...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146563/social-differentiation-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-that-engage-in-human-related-foraging-behaviors
#10
Carolyn J Kovacs, Robin M Perrtree, Tara M Cox
Both natural and human-related foraging strategies by the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) have resulted in social segregation in several areas of the world. Bottlenose dolphins near Savannah, Georgia beg at an unprecedented rate and also forage behind commercial shrimp trawlers, providing an opportunity to study the social ramifications of two human-related foraging behaviors within the same group of animals. Dolphins were photo-identified via surveys conducted throughout estuarine waterways around Savannah in the summers of 2009-2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141994/corrigendum-to-the-microbiome-of-a-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-stranded-in-portugal-res-microbiol-2017-85-93
#11
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Arnold Rodriguez-Hilario, Ana Luísa Alves, Filipa Gonçalves, Beatriz Cabrera-Colon, Cristina Sousa Mesquita, Pedro Soares-Castro, Marisa Ferreira, Ana Marçalo, José Vingada, Catarina Eira, Pedro Miguel Santos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141710/the-curse-of-the-dolphins-cognitive-decline-and-psychosis
#12
Randall Phelps, Anne Tsai, Arlene Hagen, Joseph Pinter, Raegan Smith, Martin T Stein
Isela is an 11-year-old Mexican-American girl with mild intellectual disability. During a vacation with her family, she went swimming with dolphins. A few days later, Isela awoke at night with laughing spells; during the day, she was pacing, aggressive, and had a decline in self-care and communication skills. Her parents attributed the symptoms to the dolphins. She was evaluated by a pediatric neurologist. The sleep-deprived electroencephalogram, brain magnetic resonance imaging, lumbar puncture, and thyroid function tests were normal...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134317/genomic-and-structural-investigation-on-dolphin-morbillivirus-dmv-in-mediterranean-fin-whales-balaenoptera-physalus
#13
Giorgia Beffagna, Cinzia Centelleghe, Giovanni Franzo, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has been deemed as one of the most relevant threats for fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) being responsible for a mortality outbreak in the Mediterranean Sea in the last years. Knowledge of the complete viral genome is essential to understand any structural changes that could modify virus pathogenesis and viral tissue tropism. We report the complete DMV sequence of N, P/V/C, M, F and H genes identified from a fin whale and the comparison of primary to quaternary structure of proteins between this fin whale strain and some of those isolated during the 1990-'92 and the 2006-'08 epidemics...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122370/comparison-of-dolphins-body-and-brain-measurements-with-four-other-groups-of-cetaceans-reveals-great-diversity
#14
Sam H Ridgway, Kevin P Carlin, Kaitlin R Van Alstyne, Alicia C Hanson, Raymond J Tarpley
We compared mature dolphins with 4 other groupings of mature cetaceans. With a large data set, we found great brain diversity among 5 different taxonomic groupings. The dolphins in our data set ranged in body mass from about 40 to 6,750 kg and in brain mass from 0.4 to 9.3 kg. Dolphin body length ranged from 1.3 to 7.6 m. In our combined data set from the 4 other groups of cetaceans, body mass ranged from about 20 to 120,000 kg and brain mass from about 0.2 to 9.2 kg, while body length varied from 1.21 to 26...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122193/cetacean-morbillivirus-in-odontocetes-stranded-along-the-central-california-coast-2000-2015
#15
Liliana Serrano, Claire A Simeone, Kathleen M Colegrove, Padraig J Duignan, Tracey Goldstein, Frances M D Gulland
Effects of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) on dolphins vary from causing epidemics to subclinical infections. The former have been documented in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea but not in the North Pacific Ocean, and the reasons for this are unknown. To explore the distribution of this virus in areas that have not experienced epidemics, we reviewed evidence for morbilliviral infection in odontocetes stranded along the California coast from 2000-2015. Nine of 212 animals examined histologically had lesions compatible with morbilliviral infection, and 11 were tested for CeMV via reverse transcriptase-PCR...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117769/a-robotic-platform-to-study-the-foreflipper-of-the-california-sea-lion
#16
Aditya A Kulkarni, Rahi K Patel, Chen Friedman, Megan C Leftwich
The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), is an agile and powerful swimmer. Unlike many successful swimmers (dolphins, tuna), they generate most of their thrust with their large foreflippers. This protocol describes a robotic platform designed to study the hydrodynamic performance of the swimming California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). The robot is a model of the animal's foreflipper that is actuated by motors to replicate the motion of its propulsive stroke (the 'clap'). The kinematics of the sea lion's propulsive stroke are extracted from video data of unmarked, non-research sea lions at the Smithsonian Zoological Park (SNZ)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117298/fatal-bacterial-septicemia-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-caused-by-streptococcus-iniae
#17
Zhiqi Song, Ruichao Yue, Yanming Sun, Chunfa Liu, Sher Hayat Khan, Chaosi Li, Ying Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou, Lifeng Yang, Deming Zhao
A captive 8 yr old male bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus succumbed to septicemia with multisystemic inflammation including suppurative enteritis, encephalitis, and pneumonia with chronic pancreatitis. A pure culture of beta-hemolytic, catalase- and oxidase-negative, Gram-positive cocci was isolated from the hilar lymph nodes and pancreas. The isolate was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Streptococcus iniae. Histological examination of the digestive system revealed a mixed infection of both bacteria and fungus...
January 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110003/bottlenose-dolphins-engaging-in-more-social-affiliative-behaviour-judge-ambiguous-cues-more-optimistically
#18
Isabella L K Clegg, Heiko G Rödel, Fabienne Delfour
Cognitive bias tests measure variation in emotional appraisal and are validated methods to assess animals' affective states. However, the link between social behaviours and cognitive bias has not yet been investigated. Bottlenose dolphins are a gregarious species for whom welfare research is increasing in importance, and thus are a good model to test such an association. We adapted a spatial location judgement bias test for eight captive bottlenose dolphins to investigate the link between cognitive bias and social behaviour, where we conducted behavioural observations outside of training sessions and did not experimentally induce an affective state...
January 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109641/three-dimensional-airways-volumetric-analysis-before-and-after-fast-and-early-mandibular-osteodistraction
#19
Valerio Ramieri, Emanuela Basile, Giulio Bosco, Elena Caresta, Paola Papoff, Piero Cascone
PURPOSE: Newborns with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and syndromic micrognathia show microgenia and glossoptosis, which cause reduction of the airway and breathing difficulty from birth. Our goal is to analyze quantitative and qualitative volumetric changes before and after fast and early mandibular osteodistraction (FEMOD) and to compare radiological data. METHODS: The sample was composed of 4 patients, who satisfied inclusion criteria for completeness of data. Computed tomography pre- and post-operation were performed, then a volumetric assessment was made with Dolphin Imaging...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108889/hg-and-se-exposure-in-brain-tissues-of-striped-dolphin-stenella-coeruleoalba-and-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-from-the-tyrrhenian-and-adriatic-seas
#20
Antonio Bellante, Fabio D'Agostino, Anna Traina, Daniela Piazzese, Maria Francesca Milazzo, Mario Sprovieri
In this study we analyzed Hg and Se concentrations in dolphin brain tissues of fifteen specimens of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and eight specimens of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, in order to assess the toxicological risks associated with Hg exposure. High Hg concentrations were found in brain tissues of both analyzed specie (1.86-243 mg/kg dw for striped dolphin and 2.1-98.7 mg/kg dw for bottlenose dolphin), exceeding levels associated with marine mammals neurotoxicity...
January 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
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