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Dolphin A

Kevin C Wakeman, Akinori Yabuki, Katsunori Fujikura, Ko Tomikawa, Takeo Horiguchi
In an effort to broaden our understanding of the biodiversity and distribution of gregarines infecting crustaceans, this study describes two new species of gregarines, Thiriotia hyperdolphinae n. sp. and Cephaloidophora oradareae n. sp., parasitizing a deep sea amphipod (Oradarea sp.). Amphipods were collected using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin at a depth of 855 m while on a cruise in Sagami Bay, Japan. Gregarine trophozoites and gamonts were isolated from the gut of the amphipod and studied with light and scanning electron microscopy, and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Sarah A Marley, Chandra P Salgado Kent, Christine Erbe, Iain M Parnum
The potential disturbance of dolphins from tourism boats has been widely discussed in the literature, in terms of both physical vessel presence and associated underwater noise. However, less attention has been paid to the potential impact of non-tourism vessels, despite these being much more widespread and occurring in greater numbers throughout coastal dolphin habitats. The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) community using the Fremantle Inner Harbour, Western Australia, is exposed to high levels of vessel traffic...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Eric D Jensen, Victoria Hulubei, Lindsay M Fry, Randy E Sacco, William C Davis
The slow progress in understanding immunotoxic effects of environmental contaminants and their influence on disease susceptibility in whales is largely due to the limited information available on the immune systems and immune function of species included in the Cetancodontamorpha clade. Studies in species in the other major clades included in the Artiodactylamorpha, Ruminantiamorpha, Suinamorpha, and Camelidamorpha have revealed the immune systems are similar, but not identical. The present study was undertaken to expand the available monoclonal antibody reagents needed to gain insight into the composition, function, and evolution of the immune system in Cetancodontamorpha, using the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) as a model cetacean species...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Zhuo Yang, Deng-Feng Kuang, Fang Cheng
We present a dolphin-shaped cell meta-surface, which is a combination of dolphin-shaped metallic cells and dielectric substrate, for vector vortex beam generation with the illumination of linearly polarized light. Surface plasmon polaritons are excited at the boundary of the metallic cells, then guided by the metallic structures, and finally squeezed to the tips to form highly localized strong electromagnetic fields, which generate the intensity of vector vortex beams at z component. Synchronously, the abrupt phase change produced by the meta-surface is utilized to explain the vortex phase generated by elements...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
Kieran C R Fox, Michael Muthukrishna, Susanne Shultz
Encephalization, or brain expansion, underpins humans' sophisticated social cognition, including language, joint attention, shared goals, teaching, consensus decision-making and empathy. These abilities promote and stabilize cooperative social interactions, and have allowed us to create a 'cognitive' or 'cultural' niche and colonize almost every terrestrial ecosystem. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) also have exceptionally large and anatomically sophisticated brains. Here, by evaluating a comprehensive database of brain size, social structures and cultural behaviours across cetacean species, we ask whether cetacean brains are similarly associated with a marine cultural niche...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Luize Severo Martins, Gabriela Salatino Liedke, Luis Dias da Silveira Heraldo, Priscila Fernanda da Silveira, Nadia Assein Arus, Edwin M Ongkosuwito, Mariana Boessio Vizzotto
Objectives: No consensus exists on the assessment of airway in CBCT scans. Two-dimensional measures remain the standard in the cephalometric analysis. This research aimed to evaluate linear and area measurements in two-dimensional views from specific airway regions of interest and compare these to the correspondent volume in CBCT exams. Materials and Methods: 250-selected CBCT scans were retrospectively analyzed. A trained and calibrated examiner performed the linear, area and volume measurements in specific sites for nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx compartments...
September 23, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
Thamer Alkhadra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if there is any difference in alveolar bone surface area in patients with high vertical facial dimension (long face), average vertical facial dimension (average face), and low vertical facial dimension (square short face). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients who had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as part of their orthodontic records were chosen according to their facial vertical dimension. Each group consisted of fifteen patients...
October 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
Morag J Andrew, Jeremy R Parr, Christine Montague-Johnson, Karen Laler, Cathy Qi, Bonny Baker, Peter B Sullivan
AIM: To investigate whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and uridine-5-monophosphate (UMP) supplementation improves neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with suspected cerebral palsy (CP) versus a comparison group of children. METHOD: Infants aged 1 to 18 months with suspected CP were recruited from UK child development centres. Participants received daily treatment or control supplementation for 2 years (double-blind randomized control design). Stratification was by age, sex, predominant pattern of motor involvement (four limbs or other), and visual impairment (or not)...
October 12, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Etsuko Katsumata, Sukanya Jaroenporn, Yoko Ueda, Kazutoshi Arai, Hiroshi Katsumata, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya
To reveal the reproductive biology in male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), circulating gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and testicular hormones (testosterone and inhibin) were monitored for 8 -12 years in 2 captive bottlenose dolphins (Mars and Regulus). During the study period, Mars was undergoing sexual maturation, whereas Regulus was already mature at the beginning of the study. Assuming that Mars had reached sexual maturity when the significant increase in circulating testosterone levels was observed, serum concentration of inhibin was higher in the sexually immature stage than in the mature stage, whereas the serum concentration of FSH was higher in the sexually mature stage than in the immature stage...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Kate R Sprogis, Fredrik Christiansen, Moritz Wandres, Lars Bejder
Large-scale climate modes such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence population dynamics in many species, including marine top predators. However, few quantitative studies have investigated the influence of large-scale variability on resident marine top predator populations. We examined the effect of climate variability on the abundance and temporary emigration of a resident bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population off Bunbury, Western Australia (WA). This population has been studied intensively over six consecutive years (2007-2013), yielding a robust dataset that captures seasonal variations in both abundance and movement patterns...
October 8, 2017: Global Change Biology
Fátima Karoline Araújo Alves Dultra, Alana Tavares, Joaquim de Almeida Dultra, Cristina Salles, Iêda Margarida Crusoé-Rebelo, Inessa Barbosa, Adelmir Souza-Machado
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the oropharyngeal space of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and asthma by means of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included individuals with OSA and asthma (n=10), with OSA and without asthma (n=6), asthmatics without OSA (n=6) and healthy individuals (n=25). All patients were evaluated by a pneumologist and submitted to a nocturnal polysomnogram...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida, Aline Siqueira Butzke Marçal, Thais Maria Freire Fernandes, Juliana Brito Vasconcelos, Renato Rodrigues de Almeida, Ravindra Nanda
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare external apical root resorption (EARR) of maxillary incisors treated by intrusion arch or continuous archwire mechanics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) study analyzed 28 deep bite patients in the permanent dentition who were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1, 12 patients with initial mean age of 15.1 ± 1.6 years and mean overbite of 4.6 ± 1.2 mm treated with the Connecticut intrusion arch (CIA) in the upper arch (Ortho Organizers, Carlsbad, Calif) for a mean period of 5...
October 6, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
Ing Chen, Shin Nishida, Wei-Cheng Yang, Tomohiko Isobe, Yuko Tajima, A Rus Hoelzel
The evolutionary processes that shape patterns of diversity in highly mobile marine species are poorly understood, but important towards transferable inference on their effective conservation. In this study, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) are studied to address this broader question. They exhibit remarkable geographical variation for morphology, life history, and genetic diversity, and this high level of variation has made the taxonomy of the genus controversial. A significant population structure has been reported for the most widely distributed species, the common bottlenose dolphin (T...
2017: Marine Biology
Fernanda L N Attademo, Jean C R Silva, Fábia O Luna, Joana Ikeda, Ernesto F C Foppel, Gláucia P Sousa, Augusto C Bôaviagem-Freire, Rodrigo M Soares, Thalita Faita, Maria C A Batinga, Lara B Keid
We surveyed 13 carcasses of marine mammals (12 Trichechus manatus and one Stenella clymene) that had stranded in northeastern Brazil during 1990-2013 for infectious diseases by screening tissues from the collection of the Brazilian National Center of Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammal, Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were investigated by culturing and PCR of tissue samples, whereas Sarcocystidae parasites, Leptospira spp., and Morbillivirus were surveyed for using specific PCR assays...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maria Isabel N Di Azevedo, Vitor L Carvalho, Alena M Iñiguez
Anisakidae are represented mainly by species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, Pseudoterranova Krabbe, 1878, and Contracaecum Railliet and Henry, 1913. Integrative taxonomy, based on morphological and genetic approaches, can provide a precise identification of species, increasing the knowledge of their systematics, biology, and evolution. In this study, integrative taxonomy was applied in order to identify, at generic and/or specific taxonomic level, 245 anisakids from 63 cetaceans of 12 different species, which stranded in the Brazilian coast...
October 3, 2017: Parasitology Research
Danièlle Gunn-Moore, Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin, María Carolina Gallego Iradi, Frank Gunn-Moore, Simon Lovestone
Two diseases of the modern world-Alzheimer's and diabetes mellitus-are linked by epidemiology, genetics, and molecular pathogenesis. They may also be linked by the remarkable observation that insulin signaling sets the limits on longevity. In worms, flies, and mice, disrupting insulin signaling increases life span leading some to speculate that caloric restriction might extend life span in man. It is our contention that man is already a long-lived organism, specifically with a remarkably high postfertility life span, and that it is the reason that results in the high prevalence of Alzheimer's and diabetes...
September 30, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Jean Chemin, Valentina Taiakina, Arnaud Monteil, Michael Piazza, Wendy Guan, Robert F Stephens, Ashraf Kitmitto, Zhiping P Pang, Annette C Dolphin, Edward Perez-Reyes, Thorsten Dieckmann, Joseph Guy Guillemette, J David Spafford
Calcium (Cav1 and Cav2) and sodium channels possess homologous CaM-binding motifs, known as IQ motifs in their C-termini, which associate with calmodulin (CaM), a universal calcium sensor. Cav3 T-type channels, which serve as pacemakers of the mammalian brain and heart, lack a C-terminal IQ motif. We illustrate that T-type channels associate with CaM using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and single particle cryo-electron microscopy. We demonstrate that protostome invertebrate (LCav3) and human Cav3.1, Cav3...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
S J Rehorek, W J Hillenius, D M Lovano, J G M Thewissen
The nasolacrimal duct (NLD) connects the orbital (often associated with the Deep Anterior Orbital gland: DAOG, a.k.a. Harderian gland) and nasal regions in many tetrapods. Adult cetaceans are usually said to lack an NLD, and there is little agreement in the literature concerning the identity of their orbital glands, which may reflect conflicting definitions rather than taxonomic variation. In this study we examined an embryological series of the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and report numerous divergences from other tetrapods...
September 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Elena M Panova, Alexandr V Agafonov
The research on imitation in the animal kingdom has more than a century-long history. A specific kind of imitation, auditory-vocal imitation, is well known in birds, especially among songbirds and parrots, but data for mammals are limited to elephants, marine mammals, and humans. Cetaceans are reported to imitate various signals, including species-specific calls, artificial sounds, and even vocalizations from other species if they share the same habitat. Here we describe the changes in the vocal repertoire of a beluga whale that was housed with a group of bottlenose dolphins...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
R Villagra-Blanco, L M R Silva, A Aguilella-Segura, I Arcenillas-Hernández, C Martínez-Carrasco, A Seipp, U Gärtner, R Ruiz de Ybañez, A Taubert, C Hermosilla
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures composed of nuclear DNA decorated with histones and cytoplasmic peptides which antiparasitic properties have not previously been investigated in cetaceans. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were isolated from healthy bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and stimulated with Neospora caninum tachyzoites and the NETs-agonist zymosan. In vitro interactions of PMN with the tachyzoites resulted in rapid extrusion of NETs. For the demonstration and quantification of cetacean NETs, extracellular DNA was stained by using either Sytox Orange(®) or Pico Green(®)...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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