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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425113/environmental-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-exposure-drives-t-cell-activation-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#1
Adam C Soloff, Bethany Jacobs Wolf, Natasha D White, Derek Muir, Sean Courtney, Gary Hardiman, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable compounds that have been associated with immunotoxicity in epidemiologic studies and experimental rodent models. Lengthy half-lives and resistance to environmental degradation result in bioaccumulation of PFAAs in humans and wildlife. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most prevalent PFAA detected within the environment, is found at high levels in occupationally exposed humans. We have monitored the environmental exposure of dolphins in the Charleston, SC region for over 10 years and levels of PFAAs, and PFOS in particular, were significantly elevated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424314/muscle-biochemistry-of-a-pelagic-delphinid-stenella-longirostris-longirostris-insight-into-fishery-induced-separation-of-mothers-and-calves
#2
Shawn R Noren, Kristi West
The length of time required for postnatal maturation of the locomotor muscle (longissimus dorsi) biochemistry [myoglobin (Mb) content and buffering capacity] in marine mammals typically varies with nursing duration, but it can be accelerated by species-specific behavioral demands, such as deep-diving and sub-ice transit. We examined how the swimming demands of a pelagic lifestyle influence postnatal maturation of Mb and buffering capacity in spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris longirostris). Mb content of newborn (1...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418765/brucella-ceti-infection-in-a-common-minke-whale-balaenoptera-acutorostrata-with-associated-pathology
#3
Nicholas J Davison, Lorraine L Perrett, Claire Dawson, Mark P Dagleish, Gary Haskins, Jakub Muchowski, Adrian M Whatmore
There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418700/three-dimensional-analysis-of-upper-airway-morphology-in-skeletal-class-iii-patients-with-and-without-mandibular-asymmetry
#4
Xi Wen, Xiyu Wang, Shuqi Qin, Lorenzo Franchi, Yan Gu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the upper airway in skeletal Class III patients with and without mandibular asymmetry and to investigate the possible underlying correlations between the morphology of the upper airway and mandibular deviation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography images of 54 subjects with skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle ≤ 0.4°, Wits ≤ -5.5°) were taken and 3D upper airway models were reconstructed using Dolphin 3D software...
April 18, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410968/increase-in-serum-noradrenaline-concentration-by-short-dives-with-bradycardia-in-indo-pacific-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-aduncus
#5
Miwa Suzuki, Mika Tomoshige, Miki Ito, Sotaro Koga, Makio Yanagisawa, Takashi Bungo, Yuya Makiguchi
In cetaceans, diving behavior immediately induces a change in blood circulation to favor flow to the brain and heart; this is achieved by intense vasoconstriction of the blood vessels that serve other organs. This blood circulation response is allied to a decrease in heart rate in order to optimize oxygen usage during diving. Vasoconstrictors are present in all mammals and stimulate the contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels. The most important of these vasoconstrictors are the hormones adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA), and angiotensin II (ANG II)...
April 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409094/successful-treatment-of-azole-resistant-invasive-aspergillosis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-with-high-dose-posaconazole
#6
Paulien E Bunskoek, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Steven J M Gans, Peter B J van Vierzen, Willem J G Melchers, Cornelis E van Elk, Johan W Mouton, Paul E Verweij
Invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded, high dose posaconazole was initiated aimed at achieving trough levels exceeding 3 mg/l. Posaconazole serum levels of 3-9.5 mg/l were achieved without significant side-effects. Follow-up bronchoscopy and computed tomography showed complete resolution of the lesions...
June 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406176/male-alliance-behaviour-and-mating-access-varies-with-habitat-in-a-dolphin-social-network
#7
Richard C Connor, William R Cioffi, Srđan Randić, Simon J Allen, Jana Watson-Capps, Michael Krützen
Within-species variation in social structure has attracted interest recently because of the potential to explore phenotypic plasticity and, specifically, how demographic and ecological variation influence social structure. Populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) vary in male alliance formation, from no alliances to simple pairs to, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, the most complex nested alliances known outside of humans. Examination of ecological contributions to this variation is complicated by differences among populations in other potentially explanatory traits, such as phylogenetic distance, as well as female reproductive schedules, sexual size dimorphism, and body size...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387333/elemental-classification-of-the-tusks-of-dugong-dugong-dugong-by-hh-xrf-analysis-and-comparison-with-other-species
#8
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Patcharaporn Kaewmong, Phaothep Cherdsukjai, Kongkiat Kittiwatanawong, Chatchote Thitaram
The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF)...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380506/dietary-cation-anion-difference-may-explain-why-ammonium-urate-nephrolithiasis-occurs-more-frequently-in-common-bottlenose-dolphins-under-human-care-than-in-free-ranging-common-bottlenose-dolphins
#9
A J Ardente, R S Wells, C R Smith, M T Walsh, E D Jensen, T L Schmitt, J Colee, B J Vagt, R C Hill
Ammonium urate nephrolithiasis frequently develops in common bottlenose dolphins () managed under human care but is rare in free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins. In other species, the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) can affect ammonium urate urolith formation by increasing proton excretion as ammonium ions. Therefore, differences in diet between the 2 dolphin populations could affect urolith formation, but the DCAD of most species consumed by free-ranging and managed dolphins is unknown. To compare the nutrient composition of diets consumed by free-ranging and managed bottlenose dolphins, samples ( = 5) of the 8 species of fish commonly consumed by free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, and the 7 species of fish and squid commonly fed to managed bottlenose dolphins were analyzed for nutrient content...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379988/symbol-value-association-and-discrimination-in-the-archerfish
#10
Naomi Karoubi, Tali Leibovich, Ronen Segev
One of the most important aspects of mathematical cognition in humans is the ability to symbolically represent magnitudes and quantities. In the last 20 years it has been shown that not only humans but also other primates, birds and dolphins can use symbolic representation of quantities. However, it remains unclear to what extent this ability is spread across the animal kingdom. Here, by training archerfish to associate variable amounts of rewards with different geometric shapes, we show for the first time that lower vertebrates can also associate a value with a symbol and make a decision that maximizes their food intake based on this information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363054/anesthetic-management-of-an-indo-pacific-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-aduncus-requiring-surgical-debridement-of-a-tail-abscess
#11
Jun Tamura, Makio Yanagisawa, Yusuke Endo, Keiichi Ueda, Haruka Koga, Yasuharu Izumisawa, Kazuto Yamashita
This report describes the anesthetic management of a 14-yr-old, 160-kg, female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops aduncus ) that underwent surgical debridement for a refractory subcutaneous abscess twice within a 6-mo interval. The animal was otherwise in good physical condition at each anesthetic procedure. Following premedication with intramuscular midazolam and butorphanol, anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane by intubation. During surgery ventilation was controlled...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361602/sex-differences-in-pharyngeal-airway-morphology-in-adults-with-skeletal-class-iii-malocclusion
#12
Maria Fernanda Rabelo Bozzini, José Valladares-Neto, João Batista de Paiva, José Rino-Neto
OBJECTIVES: To compare the pharyngeal airway dimensions in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion and well-balanced faces, to ascertain whether sex can influence such measurements and to correlate skeletal pattern with pharyngeal dimensions. METHODOLOGY: Fifty adults were recruited and assigned to two groups: skeletal Class III (n = 25; 12 males and 13 females, mean age = 26.1 years), and skeletal Class I (n = 25; 11 males and 14 females, mean age = 26...
March 31, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358284/molecular-cloning-of-porcine-sun5-gene-and-association-between-a-snp-with-litter-size-trait
#13
Zhenhua Zhao, Yonggang Liu
SUN domain-containing protein 5 (SUN5) is an important reproduction related gene. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of porcine SUN5 gene through RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of this gene revealed that the pig SUN5 gene encodes a protein of 383 amino acids that has high homology with the SUN5 protein of eight species: wild Bactrian camel (95%), alpaca (95%), Yangtze River dolphin (94%), sperm whale (94%), sheep (93%), black flying fox (93%), goat (92%), and horse (91%). This gene is structured into 13 exons and 12 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355228/indo-pacific-humpback-dolphins-sousa-chinensis-in-hong-kong-modelling-demographic-parameters-with-mark-recapture-techniques
#14
Stephen C Y Chan, Leszek Karczmarski
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349911/evaluation-of-soft-tissue-landmark-reliability-between-manual-and-computerized-plotting-methods
#15
Geetha Kasinathan, Pradeep B Kommi, Senthil M Kumar, Aniruddh Yashwant, Nandakumar Arani, Senkutvan Sabapathy
AIM: The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of soft tissue landmark identification between manual and digital plot-tings in both X and Y axes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 pretreatment lateral cephalograms were selected from patients who reported for orthodontic treatment. The digital images of each cephalogram were imported directly into Dolphin software for onscreen digi-talization, while for manual tracing, images were printed using a compatible X-ray printer...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348143/daily-salivary-cortisol-levels-in-response-to-stress-factors-in-captive-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-a-potential-welfare-indicator
#16
T Monreal-Pawlowsky, A Carbajal, O Tallo-Parra, M Sabés-Alsina, L Monclús, J Almunia, H Fernández-Bellon, M Lopez-Bejar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347312/phenotyping-and-comparing-the-immune-cell-populations-of-free-ranging-atlantic-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-and-dolphins-under-human-care
#17
Mahyar Nouri-Shirazi, Brittany F Bible, Menghua Zeng, Saba Tamjidi, Gregory D Bossart
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that free-ranging bottlenose dolphins exhibit a suppressed immune system because of exposure to contaminants or microorganisms. However, due to a lack of commercially available antibodies specific to marine mammal immune cell surface markers, the research has been indecisive. The purpose of this study was to identify cross-reactive terrestrial-specific antibodies in order to assess the changes in the immune cell populations of dolphins under human care and free-ranging dolphins...
March 27, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330975/mitogenomes-and-relatedness-do-not-predict-frequency-of-tool-use-by-sea-otters
#18
Katherine Ralls, Nancy Rotzel McInerney, Roderick B Gagne, Holly B Ernest, M Tim Tinker, Jessica Fujii, Jesus Maldonado
Many ecological aspects of tool-use in sea otters are similar to those in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. Within an area, most tool-using dolphins share a single mitochondrial haplotype and are more related to each other than to the population as a whole. We asked whether sea otters in California showed similar genetic patterns by sequencing mitogenomes of 43 otters and genotyping 154 otters at 38 microsatellite loci. There were six variable sites in the mitogenome that yielded three haplotypes, one found in only a single individual...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322212/severe-mutilation-of-a-critically-endangered-taiwanese-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-taiwanensis-by-fishing-gear
#19
John Y Wang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322211/prey-species-of-franciscana-pontoporia-blainvillei-as-paratenic-hosts-of-helminths
#20
Tony Silveira, Mariana H Remião, Ricardo B Robaldo, Kaio Freitas, Ana Luísa S Valente
The distribution of franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1884, is restricted to the estuarine and coastal waters of the southwestern Atlantic. The diet of this dolphin is composed of fishes, squids, and shrimps, many of which harbor helminths that may infect franciscana. Larval forms of the trematode Synthesium pontoporiae and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma turbinella have been recorded in franciscana; however, they have not yet been identified in any of the prey species of this cetacean. We evaluated 3 components of the diet of franciscana as possible transmission sources of parasitiasis...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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