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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#1
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901233/maxillary-dentoalveolar-assessment-following-retraction-of-maxillary-incisors-a-preliminary-study
#2
Tiago Maia Fernandes Oliveira, Lígia Vieira Claudino, Cláudia Trindade Mattos, Eduardo Franzotti Sant'Anna
Objective: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess changes in tooth length and alveolar thickness following retraction of maxillary incisors. Methods: A total of 11 patients presenting severe maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion revealed by initial (T1) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and whose treatment plan included extraction of maxillary first premolars and retraction of maxillary incisors, were selected and submitted to CBCT examination one month after the end of incisors retraction (T2)...
September 2016: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896667/head-and-neck-rhabdomyosarcoma-clinical-and-pathologic-characterization-of-seven-cases
#3
Eleanor Chen, Robert Ricciotti, Neal Futran, Dolphine Oda
Head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma occurs frequently in children and adolescents, and has been well studied in that population. In contrast, it is rare in adults and is not as well characterized clinically and pathologically. Seven cases of adult rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in head and neck were retrieved from the archives of Department of Pathology and Division of Oral Pathology at University of Washington. Radiologic findings and clinical history, as well as pathologic findings from hematoxylin and eosin slides and immunohistochemistry for myogenic markers were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896300/data-from-a-survey-to-determine-visitor-attitudes-and-knowledge-about-the-provisioning-of-wild-dolphins-at-a-marine-tourism-destination
#4
Greg Simpson, David Newsome, Alicia Day
In the Austral summer of 2014-2015 we surveyed visitors at the popular marine tourism destination of Koombana Bay, Bunbury, Western Australia to investigate resident and visitor attitudes towards the provisioning of the wild dolphins and their knowledge about the legal, social and environmental repercussions arising from the unregulated provisioning of the dolphins. We report the data collected in our survey along with our preliminary statistical analyses and the survey instrument we utilized to collect the data...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888363/evaluation-of-the-oropharynx-in-class-i-and-ii-skeletal-patterns-by-cbct
#5
Milena Cabral, Leila Ribeiro Brito de Queiroz Ribeiro, Carlos Maurício Cardeal, Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt, Iêda Margarida Crusoé-Rebello, Adelmir Souza-Machado
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the dimensions of the oropharynx and its shape in the minimum cross-sectional area, in individuals with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using three-dimensional CBCT images. METHODS: Forty-two cone-beam computed tomography images of grown individuals were evaluated. The images were divided according to the patient's skeletal patterns. The dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway space were determined using the Dolphin Imaging software...
November 26, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882914/propulsive-limb-coordination-and-body-acceleration-in-sprint-breaststroke-swimming
#6
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Piotr Kreżałek, Jacek Głodzik
BACKGROUND: This work is aimed at examining how coordination and kinematic indices interplay with swimming performance measured by average speed in 50m all-out test. METHODS: The group of 34 male competitive swimmers (19.1± 1.91 years old) participated in the study. The underwater movements of swimmers' bodies were recorded providing side- shots. Accelerations and angular velocity of pitch rotation of swimmer's sacrum were measured with inertial sensor device (three-axial accelerometer and gyroscope)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882842/activating-concepts-by-activating-experiential-traces-investigations-with-a-series-of-anagram-solution-tasks
#7
Eduard Berndt, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
According to the experiential-simulations view of cognition, words automatically activate experiential traces that stem from the reader's interactions with their referents. In the present study, we focused on the corresponding influence in the opposite direction. By means of an anagram-solving task we investigated whether activating spatial experiential traces would activate corresponding concepts, which in turn would facilitate access to words associated with them. Participants solved anagrams of nouns associated with the ocean or the sky (e...
November 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875700/metacognition-pre-verbal-infants-adapt-their-behaviour-to-their-knowledge-states
#8
Teodora Gliga, Victoria Southgate
Metacognitive abilities, such as knowing we know something or that we made the wrong decision, can be powerful tools for adapting behaviour and accelerating learning. Apes, dolphins, and even rats demonstrate some such abilities; a new study provides evidence that human infants can too.
November 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871889/spontaneous-prosocial-choice-by-captive-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#9
Fumio Nakahara, Masayuki Komaba, Ryoichi Sato, Hisako Ikeda, Kumiko Komaba, Akihiro Kawakubo
Dolphins exhibit prosocial behavior across several different contexts. However, only a few experimental studies have investigated the psychological mechanisms underlying this behavior. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying prosociality in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In the experiments, water shower devices, developed as environmental enrichment items, were used. Two paradigms were used to measure prosociality. The first was the prosocial choice task, involving the subject typically being offered one choice between two options...
November 18, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870149/development-of-sociality-and-emergence-of-independence-in-a-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-calf-from-birth-to-36-months
#10
Sara Guarino, Heather M Hill, Julie Sigman
Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period...
November 21, 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869614/cutaneous-granulomas-in-dolphins-caused-by-novel-uncultivated-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#11
Raquel Vilela, Gregory D Bossart, Judy A St Leger, Leslie M Dalton, John S Reif, Adam M Schaefer, Peter J McCarthy, Patricia A Fair, Leonel Mendoza
Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P...
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866382/immunotoxic-effects-of-in-vitro-exposure-of-dolphin-lymphocytes-to-louisiana-sweet-crude-oil-and-corexit%C3%A2
#12
Natasha D White, Celine Godard-Codding, Sarah J Webb, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the worst environmental disasters on record in the United States. Response efforts to reduce the magnitude of the oil slick included the use of thousands of gallons of the chemical dispersant Corexit™ in surface and deep-water environments. The immunotoxicity of Louisiana sweet crude oil and the chemical dispersant Corexit was examined using lymphocyte proliferation (LP) and natural killer cell (NK) assays as measures of impact on the adaptive (LP) and innate (NK) immune response in bottlenose dolphins...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856149/accuracy-of-three-dimensional-soft-tissue-prediction-for-le-fort-i-osteotomy-using-dolphin-3d-software-a-pilot-study
#13
C M Resnick, R R Dang, S J Glick, B L Padwa
Three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue prediction is replacing two-dimensional analysis in planning for orthognathic surgery. The accuracy of different computational models to predict soft tissue changes in 3D, however, is unclear. A retrospective pilot study was implemented to assess the accuracy of Dolphin 3D software in making these predictions. Seven patients who had a single-segment Le Fort I osteotomy and had preoperative (T0) and >6-month postoperative (T1) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and 3D photographs were included...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853584/the-social-structure-of-golfo-dulce-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-and-the-influence-of-behavioural-state
#14
Kelsey Moreno, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez
Ecological factors such as habitat and food availability affect the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Here, we describe the social structure of bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, a semi-enclosed, fjord-like tropical embayment resembling a pelagic system. We also examine behaviour-linked social strategies by comparing social structure relative to behavioural state: feeding versus non-feeding. We analysed 333 sightings over 210 days from boat-based surveys. Despite the uniqueness of the area, the 47 analysed adults had a social structure similar to other populations: a well-differentiated fission-fusion society with sex-specific patterns of associations and aggression...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852812/a-retrospective-study-of-the-prevalence-of-calcium-oxalate-crystals-in-veterinary-aspergillus-cases
#15
Courtney L Payne, Michael J Dark, Julia A Conway, Lisa L Farina
Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851763/predicting-interactions-between-common-dolphins-and-the-pole-and-line-tuna-fishery-in-the-azores
#16
Maria João Cruz, Gui Menezes, Miguel Machete, Mónica A Silva
Common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are responsible for the large majority of interactions with the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores but the underlying drivers remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in promoting the interaction of common dolphins with this fishery and estimate the resultant catch losses. We analysed 15 years of fishery and cetacean interaction data (1998-2012) collected by observers placed aboard tuna fishing vessels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818651/a-new-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme-and-its-application-for-the-characterization-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-damselae-associated-with-mortality-in-cetaceans
#17
Patricia Alba, Andrea Caprioli, Cristiano Cocumelli, Angela Ianzano, Valentina Donati, Francesco Scholl, Luigi Sorbara, Giuliana Terracciano, Gianluca Fichi, Fabio Di Nocera, Alessia Franco, Antonio Battisti
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (PDD) is a known pathogen of fish, humans and marine mammals. In this study, a Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme based on six housekeeping genes (glp, gyrB, metG, pnt, pyrC, and toxR) was developed to better understand the PDD population structure and used to type 73 PDD isolates from cetaceans, mainly striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) involved in mortality episodes, and from a few marine chelonians. Five reference ATCC strains were also included in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816426/relationship-between-malocclusion-soft-tissue-profile-and-pharyngeal-airways-a-cephalometric-study
#18
Kristina Lopatienė, Antanas Šidlauskas, Arūnas Vasiliauskas, Lina Čečytė, Vilma Švalkauskienė, Mantas Šidlauskas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The recent years have been marked by a search for new interrelations between the respiratory function and the risk of the development of malocclusions, and algorithms of early diagnostics and treatment have been developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships between hard and soft tissues and upper airway morphology in patients with normal sagittal occlusion and Angle Class II malocclusion according to gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After the evaluation of clinical and radiological data, 114 pre-orthodontic patients with normal or increased ANB angle, were randomly selected for the study...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794535/convergence-in-thunniform-anatomy-in-lamnid-sharks-and-jurassic-ichthyosaurs
#19
Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Among extinct ichthyosaurs the Jurassic forms Ichthyosaurus and Stenopterygius share a number of anatomical specializations with lamnid sharks, characterized in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias These features allow their inclusion within the mode of high-speed thunniform swimming to which only two other equally distinctive phylogenetic groups belong, tuna and dolphins-a striking testaments to evolutionary convergence. Jurassic ichthyosaurs evolved from reptiles that had returned to the sea (secondarily adapted) about 250 million years ago (MYA) while lamnid sharks evolved about 50 MYA from early cartilaginous fishes (originating ca...
October 29, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794358/the-effects-of-click-and-masker-spectrum-on-the-auditory-brainstem-response-of-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#20
Jason Mulsow, James J Finneran, Dorian S Houser, Robert F Burkard
Two experiments were performed that investigated the effects of (1) click level and (2) continuous broadband noise on the binaural auditory brainstem response (ABR) of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). In addition to spectrally uncompensated clicks and noise, stimuli were digitally compensated to achieve "white" spectra (flat spectral density level) or "pink" spectra (spectral density level rolling off at -3 dB/octave). For experiment 1, in all spectral conditions, ABR peak latencies increased and peak amplitudes decreased with decreasing click level, but interwave intervals changed little...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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