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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127039/biodegradable-sting-agonist-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
David R Wilson, Rupashree Sen, Joel C Sunshine, Drew M Pardoll, Jordan J Green, Young J Kim
Therapeutic cancer vaccines require adjuvants leading to robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine responses in the tumor microenvironment to induce an anti-tumor response. Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), a potent Stimulator of Interferon Receptor (STING) agonist, are currently in phase I trials. However, their efficacy may be limited to micromolar concentrations due to the cytosolic residence of STING in the ER membrane. Here we utilized biodegradable, poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) nanoparticles to deliver CDNs to the cytosol leading to robust immune response at >100-fold lower extracellular CDN concentrations in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026995/cross-species-prophylactic-efficacy-of-sm-p80-based-vaccine-and-intracellular-localization-of-sm-p80-sm-p80-ortholog-proteins-during-development-in-schistosoma-mansoni-schistosoma-japonicum-and-schistosoma-haematobium
#2
Adebayo J Molehin, Souad R Sennoune, Weidong Zhang, Juan U Rojo, Arif J Siddiqui, Karlie A Herrera, Laura Johnson, Justin Sudduth, Jordan May, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis remains a major global health problem. Despite large-scale schistosomiasis control efforts, clear limitations such as possible emergence of drug resistance and reinfection rates highlight the need for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine. Schistosoma mansoni large subunit of calpain (Sm-p80)-based vaccine formulations have shown remarkable efficacy in protecting against S. mansoni challenge infections in mice and baboons. In this study, we evaluated the cross-species protective efficacy of Sm-p80 vaccine against S...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942744/biological-function-of-dictyocaulus-viviparus-asparaginyl-peptidase-legumain-1-and-its-suitability-as-a-vaccine-target
#3
Julia Holzhausen, Claas Haake, Sabine Schicht, Petra Hinse, Daniela Jordan, Elisabeth Kremmer, Christina Strube
The present study characterized the biological function of the asparaginyl peptidase legumain-1 (LEG-1) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and its suitability as a recombinant vaccine against dictyocaulosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed LEG-1 to be almost exclusively transcribed and expressed in parasitic lungworm stages. Immunohistochemistry localized the enzyme in the parasite's gut, which was confirmed by immunoblots detecting LEG-1 in the gut as well as male testes...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837572/efficient-and-stable-production-of-modified-vaccinia-ankara-virus-in-two-stage-semi-continuous-and-in-continuous-stirred-tank-cultivation-systems
#4
Felipe Tapia, Ingo Jordan, Yvonne Genzel, Udo Reichl
One important aim in cell culture-based viral vaccine and vector production is the implementation of continuous processes. Such a development has the potential to reduce costs of vaccine manufacturing as volumetric productivity is increased and the manufacturing footprint is reduced. In this work, continuous production of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus was investigated. First, a semi-continuous two-stage cultivation system consisting of two shaker flasks in series was established as a small-scale approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812526/parvovirus-infection-is-associated-with-myocarditis-and-myocardial-fibrosis-in-young-dogs
#5
Jordan Ford, Laura McEndaffer, Randall Renshaw, Alex Molesan, Kathleen Kelly
Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805672/challenges-in-estimating-vaccine-coverage-in-refugee-and-displaced-populations-results-from-household-surveys-in-jordan-and-lebanon
#6
Timothy Roberton, William Weiss, Shannon Doocy
Ensuring the sustained immunization of displaced persons is a key objective in humanitarian emergencies. Typically, humanitarian actors measure coverage of single vaccines following an immunization campaign; few measure routine coverage of all vaccines. We undertook household surveys of Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon, outside of camps, using a mix of random and respondent-driven sampling, to measure coverage of all vaccinations included in the host country's vaccine schedule. We analyzed the results with a critical eye to data limitations and implications for similar studies...
August 12, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#7
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770187/t-cell-lymphopenia-detected-by-newborn-screening-in-two-siblings-with-an-xq13-1-duplication
#8
Xavier Rios, Ivan K Chinn, Jordan S Orange, Celine I Hanson, Nicholas L Rider
Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency has proven successful in identifying infants with T-cell deficiencies before they become severely ill. Additionally, the newborn screen can detect subtle early phenotypes that may become severe later in life. We present the case of siblings with features suggestive of T-cell lymphopenia identified as having low T-cell receptor excision circles counts by newborn screening. Expanded immune testing showed robust lymphocyte mitogen and antigen responses with normal vaccine responses and immunoglobulin levels for both boys over time...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747311/an-n-terminal-pfs230-domain-produced-in-baculovirus-as-a-biological-active-transmission-blocking-vaccine-candidate
#9
Shwu-Maan Lee, Chia-Kuei Wu, Jordan L Plieskatt, Kazutoyo Miura, John M Hickey, C Richter King
Transmission-blocking vaccines have the potential to accelerate malaria parasite elimination by inducing antibodies that block parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Pfs230, a gametocyte surface protein involved in gamete function, has long been a promising candidate. Due to the large size (3,135 amino acids), complex domains, and repeating six-cysteine (6-Cys) motifs with a multitude of disulfide bonds, the feasibility of expression of a full-length protein has been difficult. A priority focus, therefore, has been on the generation of single domains, including N-terminal fragments...
July 26, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739557/facebook-recruitment-of-vaccine-hesitant-canadian-parents-cross-sectional-study
#10
Jordan Lee Tustin, Natasha Sarah Crowcroft, Dionne Gesink, Ian Johnson, Jennifer Keelan, Barbara Lachapelle
BACKGROUND: There is concern over the increase in the number of "vaccine-hesitant" parents, which contributes to under-vaccinated populations and reduced herd immunity. Traditional studies investigating parental immunization beliefs and practices have relied on random digit dialing (RDD); however, this method presents increasing limitations. Facebook is the most used social media platform in Canada and presents an opportunity to recruit vaccine-hesitant parents in a novel manner. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the use of Facebook as a tool to reach vaccine-hesitant parents, as compared with RDD methods...
July 24, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729620/self-management-behaviour-and-support-among-primary-care-copd-patients-cross-sectional-analysis-of-data-from-the-birmingham-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-cohort
#11
Ainee Khan, Andrew P Dickens, Peymane Adab, Rachel E Jordan
Self-management support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is recommended by UK national guidelines, but extent of implementation is unknown. We aimed to describe self-management behaviour and support among COPD patients and explore behaviour associated with having a self-management plan. We undertook cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data from diagnosed COPD patients in the Birmingham COPD Cohort study. Questionnaire items relevant to self-management behaviour, knowledge of COPD, receipt of self-management plans and advice from healthcare professionals were examined...
July 20, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713676/immunotherapy-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-current-status-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Jordan Dozier, Hua Zheng, Prasad S Adusumilli
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been marked historically by poor prognosis. Current standard of care for this deadly disease results in sub-optimal improvements in overall survival (OS), which has prompted researchers to explore innovative treatment alternatives. Immunotherapy is an emerging therapeutic modality that harnesses the power of the human immune system. In this review, we summarize the different methods of immunotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Using ClinicalTrials.gov we searched the terms "immunotherapy" and "immune therapy" combined with "pleural mesothelioma"...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686416/decorating-self-assembled-peptide-cages-with-proteins
#13
James F Ross, Angela Bridges, Jordan M Fletcher, Deborah Shoemark, Dominic Alibhai, Harriet E V Bray, Joseph L Beesley, William M Dawson, Lorna R Hodgson, Judith Mantell, Paul Verkade, Colin M Edge, Richard B Sessions, David Tew, Derek N Woolfson
An ability to organize and encapsulate multiple active proteins into defined objects and spaces at the nanoscale has potential applications in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and synthetic biology. Previously, we have described the design, assembly, and characterization of peptide-based self-assembled cages (SAGEs). These ≈100 nm particles comprise thousands of copies of de novo designed peptide-based hubs that array into a hexagonal network and close to give caged structures. Here, we show that, when fused to the designed peptides, various natural proteins can be co-assembled into SAGE particles...
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659436/broad-spectrum-antiviral-gs-5734-inhibits-both-epidemic-and-zoonotic-coronaviruses
#14
Timothy P Sheahan, Amy C Sims, Rachel L Graham, Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, James B Case, Sarah R Leist, Krzysztof Pyrc, Joy Y Feng, Iva Trantcheva, Roy Bannister, Yeojin Park, Darius Babusis, Michael O Clarke, Richard L Mackman, Jamie E Spahn, Christopher A Palmiotti, Dustin Siegel, Adrian S Ray, Tomas Cihlar, Robert Jordan, Mark R Denison, Ralph S Baric
Emerging viral infections are difficult to control because heterogeneous members periodically cycle in and out of humans and zoonotic hosts, complicating the development of specific antiviral therapies and vaccines. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a proclivity to spread rapidly into new host species causing severe disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) successively emerged, causing severe epidemic respiratory disease in immunologically naïve human populations throughout the globe...
June 28, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588580/specific-antibody-deficiency-controversies-in-diagnosis-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Elena Perez, Francisco A Bonilla, Jordan S Orange, Mark Ballow
Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by normal immunoglobulins (Igs), IgA, IgM, total IgG, and IgG subclass levels, but with recurrent infection and diminished antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens following vaccination. There is a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD, and its clinical significance is not well understood. Here, we discuss current evidence and challenges regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD. SAD is normally diagnosed by determining protective titers in response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545100/intranasal-delivery-of-a-bivalent-norovirus-vaccine-formulated-in-an-in-situ-gelling-dry-powder
#16
Jordan P Ball, Michael J Springer, Yawei Ni, Isaac Finger-Baker, Juan Martinez, Jessica Hahn, John F Suber, Ashley V DiMarco, James D Talton, Ronald R Cobb
The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™) with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462527/dying-to-protect-cell-death-and-the-control-of-t-cell-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Kun-Po Li, Sharmila Shanmuganad, Kaitlin Carroll, Jonathan D Katz, Michael B Jordan, David A Hildeman
T cells play a critical role in immune responses as they specifically recognize peptide/MHC complexes with their T-cell receptors and initiate adaptive immune responses. While T cells are critical for performing appropriate effector functions and maintaining immune memory, they also can cause autoimmunity or neoplasia if misdirected or dysregulated. Thus, T cells must be tightly regulated from their development onward. Maintenance of appropriate T-cell homeostasis is essential to promote protective immunity and limit autoimmunity and neoplasia...
May 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339574/arm-paralysis-after-routine-childhood-vaccinations-application-of-advanced-molecular-methods-to-the-causality-assessment-of-an-adverse-event-after-immunization
#18
Jana Shaw, Neal A Halsey, Adriana Weinberg, D Scott Schmid, Kirsten St George, William C Weldon, Michael Jordan, Patrick W Bryant, Philip S LaRussa, Deborah Y Bradshaw, Theresa Harrington, Anne Gershon
Post-licensure surveillance for adverse events following immunizations (AEFI) can identify rare complications of vaccinations and rigorous vaccine adverse event causality assessments can help to identify possible causal relationships. We report the development of arm paralysis after varicella vaccination in a 1-year-old child. Paralysis was initially presumed to be due to vOka because of the temporal relationship between vaccination and onset of arm weakness; however, molecular studies identified wild-type varicella zoster virus VZV (WT-VZV) in the CSF, leading the authors to conclude that WT-VZV was the probable cause...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330443/influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-infants-study-iris-of-hospitalized-and-non-ill-infants-aged-1-year-in-four-countries-study-design-and-methods
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mark G Thompson, Danielle R Hunt, Ali K Arbaji, Artan Simaku, Veronica L Tallo, Holly M Biggs, Carolyn Kulb, Aubree Gordon, Ilham Abu Khader, Silvia Bino, Marilla G Lucero, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Pat Shifflett, Felix Sanchez, Basima I Marar, Ilirjana Bakalli, Eric A F Simões, Min Z Levine, Jennifer K Meece, Angel Balmaseda, Tareq M Al-Sanouri, Majlinda Dhimolea, Joanne N de Jesus, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber, Lionel Gresh
BACKGROUND: This multi-country prospective study of infants aged <1 year aims to assess the frequency of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections associated with hospitalizations, to describe clinical features and antibody response to infection, and to examine predictors of very severe disease requiring intensive care. METHODS/DESIGN: We are enrolling a hospital-based cohort and a sample of non-ill infants in four countries (Albania, Jordan, Nicaragua, and the Philippines) using a common protocol...
March 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301234/minimum-infectious-dose-determination-of-the-arkansas-delmarva-poultry-industry-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-delivered-by-hatchery-spray-cabinet
#20
Christina M Leyson, Deborah A Hilt, Brian J Jordan, Mark W Jackwood
The Arkansas Delmarva Poultry Industry (ArkDPI) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine is effective when administered by eye drop, where the vaccine virus is able to infect and replicate well in birds and is able to induce protection against homologous challenge. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the ArkDPI vaccine is ineffective when applied by hatchery spray cabinet using the same manufacturer-recommended dose per bird. For this study, we aimed to determine the minimum infectious dose for the spray-administered ArkDPI vaccine, which we designate as the dose that achieves the same level of infection and replication as the eye drop-administered ArkDPI vaccine...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
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