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AlphaScreen assay

Elisabeth Weber, Ina Rothenaigner, Stefanie Brandner, Kamyar Hadian, Kenji Schorpp
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in a broad range of cellular signaling pathways. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational protein modification that involves the action of an enzymatic cascade (E1, E2, and E3 enzymes) for the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins. The emerging knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and correlation of deregulation of the ubiquitin system in human diseases is uncovering new opportunities for therapeutics development. The E3 ligase RNF8 acts in cooperation with the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ubc13/Uev1a to generate ubiquitin conjugates at the sides of DNA double-strand breaks, and recent findings suggest RNF8 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Jing Wang, Pengfei Fang, Peter Chase, Sagi Tshori, Ehud Razin, Timothy P Spicer, Louis Scampavia, Peter Hodder, Min Guo
Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) is a master transcription factor expressed in melanocytes, essential for melanocyte survival, differentiation, and pigment formation, and is a key oncogenic factor in melanoma initiation, migration, and treatment resistance. Although identified as an important therapeutic target for melanoma, clinical inhibitors directly targeting the MITF protein are not available. Based on the functional state of MITF, we have designed an MITF dimerization-based AlphaScreen (MIDAS) assay that sensitively and specifically mirrors the dimerization of MITF in vitro...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Aleksandra R Dukic, David W McClymont, Kjetil Taskén
Connexin 43 (Cx43), the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein, directly interacts with the A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP) Ezrin in human cytotrophoblasts and a rat liver epithelial cells (IAR20). The Cx43-Ezrin-protein kinase (PKA) complex facilitates Cx43 phosphorylation by PKA, which triggers GJ opening in cytotrophoblasts and IAR20 cells and may be a general mechanism regulating GJ intercellular communication (GJIC). Considering the importance of Cx43 GJs in health and disease, they are considered potential pharmaceutical targets...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Sisley Austin, Saïd Taouji, Eric Chevet, Harald Wodrich, Fabienne Rayne
AlphaScreen(®) is a technology particularly suitable for bi-molecular inhibitor screening assays, e.g. using protein-protein interactions with purified recombinant proteins. Each binding partner of the bi-molecular interaction is coupled either to donor or to acceptor beads. The technology is based on the quantifiable transfer of oxygen singlets from donor to acceptor microbeads brought together by a specific interaction between the partners. We identified the conserved interaction between WW domains of cellular ubiquitin ligases of the Nedd4 family and a short peptide motif (PPxY) present in several structural and non-structural viral proteins as a potential drug target...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Waleed M Hussein, Phil Choi, Cheng Zhang, Mei Su, Emma Sierecki, Wayne Johnston, Vincent Fagan, Kirill Alexandrov, Mariusz Skwarczynski, Yann Gambin, Istvan Toth, P Simerska
Peptide-based vaccines are considered to be the next generation of modern immunizations, as they are safe, easy to produce and well-defined. However, due to their weak immunogenic effect, it is important to first develop an appropriate adjuvant for peptide-based vaccines. In this work, a series of four adjuvanting moieties was synthesized as alkyne derivatives, incorporating dipalmitoyl serine (DPS), 1,3-diglyceride (DG), two hexadecane lipoamino acids (diLAA), and 2,3-dipalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam2Cys)...
August 4, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Ayumi Kudoh, Kei Miyakawa, Satoko Matsunaga, Yuki Matsushima, Isao Kosugi, Hirokazu Kimura, Satoshi Hayakawa, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Akihide Ryo
Virus-host interactions play vital roles in viral replication and virus-induced pathogenesis. Viruses rely entirely upon host cells to reproduce progeny viruses; however, host factors positively or negatively regulate virus replication by interacting with viral proteins. The elucidation of virus-host protein interaction not only provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which host cells combat viral infections, but also facilitates the development of new anti-viral therapeutics. Identification of relevant host factors requires techniques that enable comprehensive characterization of virus-host protein interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xi-Shan Wu, Rui Wang, Yan-Li Xing, Xiao-Qian Xue, Yan Zhang, Yong-Zhi Lu, Yu Song, Xiao-Yu Luo, Chun Wu, Yu-Lai Zhou, Jian-Qin Jiang, Yong Xu
AIM: Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors (RORs) are orphan nuclear receptors that show constitutive activity in the absence of ligands. Among 3 subtypes of RORs, RORc is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. Here, we report novel RORc inverse agonists discovered through structure-based drug design. METHODS: Based on the structure of compound 8, a previously described agonist of RORa, a series of 4-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized...
November 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Adam Yasgar, Ajit Jadhav, Anton Simeonov, Nathan P Coussens
AlphaScreen technology has been routinely utilized in high-throughput screening assays to quantify analyte accumulation or depletion, bimolecular interactions, and post-translational modifications. The high signal-to-background, dynamic range, and sensitivity associated with AlphaScreens as well as the homogenous assay format and reagent stability make the technology particularly well suited for high-throughput screening applications. Here, we describe the development of AlphaScreen assays to identify small-molecule inhibitors of enzymes and protein-protein interactions using the highly miniaturized 1536-well format...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hirotaka Takahashi, Atsushi Uematsu, Satoshi Yamanaka, Mei Imamura, Tatsuro Nakajima, Kousuke Doi, Saki Yasuoka, Chikako Takahashi, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tatsuya Sawasaki
Ubiquitination is a key post-translational modification in the regulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. The primary roles of ubiquitination are thought to be the triggering of protein degradation and the regulation of signal transduction. During protein ubiquitination, substrate specificity is mainly determined by E3 ubiquitin ligase (E3). Although more than 600 genes in the human genome encode E3, the E3s of many target proteins remain unidentified owing to E3 diversity and the instability of ubiquitinated proteins in cell...
2016: PloS One
Sharon Anavi-Goffer, Ruth A Ross
AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay is a novel technology that combines luminescent oxygen channeling technology, nano-beads, and monocloncal antibodies to detect the level of a selected protein in a volume lower than 5 μl. This method is more sensitive compared with the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and can detect an increasing number of new targets. Here, we described a method for AlphaScreen(®) SureFire(®) assay that targets ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a primary downstream signaling pathway that conveys activation of GPR55 by L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and certain cannabinoids...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sheng Y Ang, Dana S Hutchinson, Nitin Patil, Bronwyn A Evans, Ross A D Bathgate, Michelle L Halls, Mohammed A Hossain, Roger J Summers, Martina Kocan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a two-chain, three-disulphide bonded peptide of the insulin/relaxin superfamily, uniquely expressed in enteroendocrine L-cells of the colon. It is the cognate ligand of relaxin family peptide receptor 4 (RXFP4) that is mainly expressed in the colorectum and enteric nervous system. This study identifies new signalling pathways activated by INSL5 acting on RXFP4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: INSL5/RXFP4 signalling was investigated using AlphaScreen® proximity assays...
May 31, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Bebeka Gjoksi, Chafik Ghayor, Indranil Bhattacharya, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Franz E Weber
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is one of the consequences of estrogen deficiency and constitutes a major health problem. The present study highlights the effects of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) on adipogenesis in osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized rat model. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in body weight gain, increased femoral marrow adipocytes, and hypertrophic adipocytes in white adipose tissue, distorted serum leptin, and TNF-α and PPARγ levels...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Lin Ma, Kai Gu, Cheng-Hai Zhang, Xue-Tao Chen, Yi Jiang, Karsten Melcher, Juan Zhang, Min Wang, H Eric Xu
AIM: Nanobody is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain, which can be used for a variety of biotechnological and therapeutic purposes. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize a human signal domain antibody against VEGFR-2 domain3 (VEGFR D3) from a phage display library. METHODS: To produce antigen-specific recombinant nanobodies with high affinity to VEGFR2 D3, a liquid phase panning strategy was used for all rounds of panning...
June 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Sharon Anavi-Goffer, Andrew J Irving, Ruth A Ross
BACKGROUND: GPR55 is a lipid-sensing G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by the endogenous lipid l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and can be modulated by certain cannabinoid ligands. METHODS: In this study we investigated the GPR55 activity of four synthetic CB2 receptor agonists using the AlphaScreen® SureFire® assay. RESULTS: Here we show that the CB2 receptor-selective agonists HU-308, HU-433 and HU-910 do not promote GPR55-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation up to a concentration of 3 μM...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jara K Brenke, Elena S Salmina, Larissa Ringelstetter, Scarlett Dornauer, Maria Kuzikov, Ina Rothenaigner, Kenji Schorpp, Fabian Giehler, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Arnd Kieser, Sheraz Gul, Igor V Tetko, Kamyar Hadian
In high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns, the binding of glutathione S-transferase (GST) to glutathione (GSH) is used for detection of GST-tagged proteins in protein-protein interactions or enzyme assays. However, many false-positives, so-called frequent hitters (FH), arise that either prevent GST/GSH interaction or interfere with assay signal generation or detection. To identify GST-FH compounds, we analyzed the data of five independent AlphaScreen-based screening campaigns to classify compounds that inhibit the GST/GSH interaction...
July 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Yu Song, Xiaoqian Xue, Xishan Wu, Rui Wang, Yanli Xing, Weiqun Yan, Yulai Zhou, Chao-Nan Qian, Yan Zhang, Yong Xu
Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs) are ligand-dependent transcriptional factors and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. RORs regulate inflammation, metabolic disorders and circadian rhythm. RORγ is a promising therapeutic drug target for treating Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. In our study, we performed structure-based virtual screening and ligand-based virtual screening targeting the RORγ ligand-binding domain and successfully identified N-phenyl-2-(N-phenylphenylsulfonamido) acetamides as a type of RORγ inverse agonist...
June 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Matthew R Evans, Shuguang Wei, Bruce A Posner, Roger H Unger, Michael G Roth
Glucose homeostasis is primarily controlled by two opposing hormones, insulin and glucagon, and diabetes results when insulin fails to inhibit glucagon action. Recent efforts to control glucagon in diabetes have focused on antagonizing the glucagon receptor, which is effective in lowering blood glucose levels but leads to hyperglucogonemia in rodents. An alternative strategy would be to control glucagon production with small molecules. In pursuit of this goal, we developed a homogeneous AlphaScreen assay for measuring glucagon in cell culture media and used this in a high-throughput screen to discover synthetic compounds that inhibited glucagon secretion from an alpha cell-like cell line...
April 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Liang Fang, Qionghua Zhu, Martin Neuenschwander, Edgar Specker, Annika Wulf-Goldenberg, William I Weis, Jens P von Kries, Walter Birchmeier
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a highly conserved pathway essential for embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. However, deregulation of this pathway can initiate and promote human malignancies, especially of the colon and head and neck. Therefore, Wnt/β-catenin signaling represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. We performed high-throughput screening using AlphaScreen and ELISA techniques to identify small molecules that disrupt the critical interaction between β-catenin and the transcription factor TCF4 required for signal transduction...
February 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Justin M Roberts, James E Bradner
Bromodomain-containing proteins have emerged as desirable targets for anti-neoplastic and anti-inflammatory drug discovery. Toward the development of selective inhibitors of the BET family of bromodomains, we optimized bead-based assays to detect interactions between bromodomains and poly-acetylated histone peptides. Donor and acceptor beads bound to target and ligand are brought into proximity by this protein-protein interaction. After laser illumination, singlet oxygen evolved from donor beads travels to the spatially close acceptor beads, resulting in chemiluminesence...
December 2, 2015: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Satoko Matsunaga, Takashi Masaoka, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Ryo Morishita, Yasumasa Iwatani, Masashi Tatsumi, Yaeta Endo, Naoki Yamamoto, Wataru Sugiura, Akihide Ryo
Due to their high frequency of genomic mutations, human retroviruses often develop resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a significant obstacle to the effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The development of a rapid and versatile drug-susceptibility assay would enable acquisition of phenotypic information and facilitate determination of the appropriate choice of antiretroviral agents. In this study, we developed a novel in vitro method, termed the Cell-free drug susceptibility assay (CFDSA), for monitoring phenotypic information regarding the drug resistance of HIV-1 protease (PR)...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
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