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Thyroid and pregnancy

N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
The isolated hypothyroxinemia of pregnancy (IHP) has gained specific attention in the specialized literature during the recent years as the possible factor impeding the intellectual development of fetus and increasing the risk of complications related with pregnancy, delivery and perinatal period. Aim of the study was to define the importance of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the development of obstetric and somatic pathologies in outpatient population of pregnant females. The study of prospective design was performed at the base of "David Gagua Clinic" Ltd...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Yixin Zhang, Cong Du, Wei Wang, Wen Chen, Ping Shao, Chongdan Wang, Junhong Leng, Jun Shen, Long Tan, Wanqi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal TSH screening is effective in detecting congenital hypothyroidism and estimating iodine status in a given population, but various factors influence TSH levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal and neonatal factors on neonatal TSH levels. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data were obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study. A total of 988 pregnant women and their newborn infants participated in the study from April 2015 to May 2017 at Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Center and Tanggu Maternity Hospital in Tianjin, China...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Shristi Rawal, Michael Y Tsai, Stefanie N Hinkle, Yeyi Zhu, Wei Bao, Yuan Lin, Pranati Panuganti, Paul S Albert, Ronald C W Ma, Cuilin Zhang
CONTEXT: Triiodothyronine (T3) is the biologically-active thyroid hormone involved in glucose metabolism. fT3:fT4 ratio, a marker indicating conversion of free thyroxine (fT4) to free T3 (fT3), is also implicated in glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of fT3 and fT3:fT4 ratio with gestational diabetes (GDM). DESIGN: In a case-control study, thyroid markers (fT3, fT4, TSH) were measured and fT3:fT4 ratio was derived across four visits in pregnancy, including first (gestational weeks 10-14) and second (weeks 15-26) trimester...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yuan Wang, Jun Han, Xi Chen, Xinning Zeng, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Jie Chen
Iodine is an essential component for thyroid hormone synthesis. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated that maternal mild iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia can affect intellectual and behavioral function in offspring. There is no definitive evidence demonstrating the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurobehavioral function in regional areas with mild ID. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of maternal mild ID and iodine supplementation on motor coordination in offspring and illuminate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Kris Poppe, Flora Veltri, Candice Autin
Evidence on the treatment of euthyroid infertile women and thyroid autoimmunity with thyroid hormone is scare, and therefore the recent study by Wang et al. is a welcome addition to it. Based on their results, thyroid hormone seems not to be indicated to decrease the miscarriage rate in that particular group of infertile women. This comment is meant to put the study results into perspective with the available evidence and the current guidelines, and to highlight its strengths and weaknesses.
2018: Thyroid Research
V F Koehler, M Reincke, C Spitzweg
The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is primarily based on clinical signs and symptoms as well as measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by elevated TSH with normal serum free thyroxine (fT4 ) and triiodothyronine (fT3 ) levels, while in manifest hypothyroidism serum fT4 and fT3 levels are reduced. Common causes of primary hypothyroidism are autoimmune thyroiditis as well as therapeutic interventions, such as thyroid surgery or radioiodine therapy...
June 5, 2018: Der Internist
Zsolt Hepp, Maureen J Lage, Ramon Espaillat, Ved V Gossain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes associated with adherence to levothyroxine (LT4) in the US adult hypothyroidism population. METHODS: We used data from Truven's MarketScan databases from July 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015. Patients aged 18 or older were diagnosed with hypothyroidism (confirmed at least twice) and prescribed LT4. Patients were excluded if they did not have continuous insurance coverage or if they received a diagnosis of thyroid cancer or pregnancy during the study period...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Maria Elisabeth Street, Sabrina Angelini, Sergio Bernasconi, Ernesto Burgio, Alessandra Cassio, Cecilia Catellani, Francesca Cirillo, Annalisa Deodati, Enrica Fabbrizi, Vassilios Fanos, Giancarlo Gargano, Enzo Grossi, Lorenzo Iughetti, Pietro Lazzeroni, Alberto Mantovani, Lucia Migliore, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Anna Maria Papini, Stefano Parmigiani, Barbara Predieri, Chiara Sartori, Gabriele Tridenti, Sergio Amarri
Wildlife has often presented and suggested the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Animal studies have given us an important opportunity to understand the mechanisms of action of many chemicals on the endocrine system and on neurodevelopment and behaviour, and to evaluate the effects of doses, time and duration of exposure. Although results are sometimes conflicting because of confounding factors, epidemiological studies in humans suggest effects of EDCs on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility, and on carcinogenesis mainly through epigenetic mechanisms...
June 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Y T Ren, Q Z Jia, X D Zhang, B S Guo, F F Zhang, X T Cheng, Y P Wang
Objective: To investigate the effects of high iodine intake on thyroid function in pregnant and lactating women. Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 130 pregnant women and 220 lactating women aged 19-40 years in areas with high environment iodine level (>300 μg/L) or proper environment iodine level (50-100 μg/L) in Shanxi in 2014. The general information, urine samples and blood samples of the women surveyed and water samples were collected. The water and urine iodine levels were detected with arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometric method, the blood TSH level was detected with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and thyroid stimulating hormone (FT(4)), antithyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) were detected with chemiluminescence immunoassay...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
A G Gunin, N N Golubtsova
This work was aimed to study levels of thyroid hormone receptors in human dermal fibroblasts from the development to deep aging. Skin specimens from human fetuses died antenatally from 20 to 40 weeks of pregnancy, humans died from different causes from birth to 85 years of life were used for the study. Total number of fibroblasts, percent of proliferating cells nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive dermal fibroblasts, expression of thyroid hormone receptors-α and -β in dermal fibroblasts were examined. PCNA and thyroid hormone receptors were viewed immunohistochemically...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Spyridoula Maraka, Naykky M Singh Ospina, George Mastorakos, Derek T O'Keeffe
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), a mild form of hypothyroidism defined as elevated TSH with normal free thyroxine levels, is a common diagnosis among women of reproductive age. In some, but not all, studies, it has been associated with infertility, an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and possibly with an increased risk of neurocognitive deficits in offspring. Despite well-established recommendations on treatment of overt hypothyroid pregnant women, a consensus has not yet been reached on whether to treat women with SCH...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Keiko Yamazaki, Yu Ait Bamai, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura
Since "Our Stolen Future" by Theo Colborn was published in 1996, global interest on the impact of chemical substances, such as the endocrine-disrupting action of chemicals, has increased. In Japan, "The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health: Malformation, Development and Allergy" was launched in 2001. It was a model of Japan Environment and Children's Study of the Ministry of the Environment. In a large-scale, Hokkaido cohort, we obtained the consent of 20,926 mothers at the organogenesis stage with the cooperation of 37 obstetrics clinics in Hokkaido...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Victor Pop, Maarten Broeren, Hennie Wijnen, Joyce Endendijk, Anneloes van Baar, Wilmar Wiersinga, Graham R Williams
Context: Most studies of thyroid function changes during pregnancy use a cross-sectional design comparing means between groups rather than similarities within groups. Objective: Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) is a novel approach to investigate longitudinal changes that provide dynamic understanding of the relationship between thyroid status and advancing pregnancy. Design: Prospective observational study with repeated assessments. Setting: General community...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hosu Kim, Kyong Young Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Jaehoon Jung
CONTEXT: It is unclear whether reproductive factors such as pregnancy, parity, menstruation, and breastfeeding are risk factors for thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of reproductive factors with thyroid cancer risk. DESIGN/SETTING: Large-scale nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from representative samples from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-VI (2010 to 2015). RESULTS: In this study, 38,086 people over the age of 18 were enrolled, of which 241 had a diagnosis of thyroid cancer...
May 28, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Margherita A C Pomatto, Chiara Gai, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Ciro Tetta, Giovanni Camussi
RNA molecules are essential and fine regulators of important biological processes. Their role is well documented also in the endocrine system, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Increasing interest is arising about the function and the importance of noncoding RNAs shuttled by extracellular vesicles (EVs). In fact, EV membrane protects nucleic acids from enzyme degradation. Nowadays, the research on EVs and their cargoes, as well as their biological functions, faces the lack of standardization in EV purification...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Q Wei, L Zhang, X X Liu, X M Pu, Y Xu
Objective: To explore the reference intervals of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4)) in normal pregnant women. Methods: Prospective and longitudinal sequential collection of the cases were performed. A total of 155 singleton pregnant women who had regular prenatal examination and delivery in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2015 to December 2015 were included as the research group. Blood samples were sequentially collected from the pregnant women at the first (9-13(+6) weeks) , the second (24-27(+6) weeks) , the third (32-36 weeks) trimesters, respectively...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Kimberly Berger, Robert B Gunier, Jonathan Chevrier, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi, Kim G Harley
Environmental phenols and parabens are commonly used in personal care products and other consumer products and human exposure to these chemicals is widespread. Although human and animal studies suggest an association between exposure to phenols and parabens and thyroid hormone levels, few studies have investigated the association of in utero exposure to these chemicals and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their neonates. We measured four environmental phenols (triclosan, benzophenone-3, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and three parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl paraben) in urine collected from mothers at two time points during pregnancy as part of the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Research
Jasper Most, Porsha M Vallo, L Anne Gilmore, Marshall St Amant, Daniel S Hsia, Abby D Altazan, Robbie A Beyl, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify factors that may predispose women to excess gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: Seventy-two healthy women with obesity (30 class I, 24 class II, 18 class III) expecting a singleton pregnancy were studied at 13 to 16 weeks gestation. Energy expenditure (EE) was measured during sleep (SleepEE, average EE from 0200-0500 hours) in a whole-room calorimeter, and total daily EE (TDEE) over 7 days using doubly labeled water. Glucose, insulin, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines were measured...
June 2018: Obesity
Dina K Gaynullina, Svetlana I Sofronova, Anastasia A Shvetsova, Ekaterina K Selivanova, Anna P Sharova, Andrey A Martyanov, Olga S Tarasova
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid deficiency can increase Rho-kinase procontractile influence in arteries of 2-week-old progeny. Here we hypothesized that augmented role of Rho-kinase persists in arteries from adult progeny of hypothyroid rats. METHODS: Dams were treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water (0.0007%) during pregnancy and 2 weeks postpartum; control (CON) females received PTU-free water. At the age of 10-12-weeks, serum T3 /T4 levels did not differ between PTU and CON male offspring...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jianran Sun, Cancan Hui, Tongjia Xia, Min Xu, Datong Deng, Faming Pan, Youmin Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect changes in hormone levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with hypothyroidism, and identify differences in the pregnancy and abortion rates of female adult rats. The potential role of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) as the link between the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and reproductive function regulated by thyroid hormones was also investigated. METHODS: Female SD rats (n = 136) were causally classified into two groups: the normal-drinking-water group (n = 60) and the 0...
May 24, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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