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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761055/primary-producers-may-ameliorate-impacts-of-daytime-co-2-addition-in-a-coastal-marine-ecosystem
#1
Matthew E S Bracken, Nyssa J Silbiger, Genevieve Bernatchez, Cascade J B Sorte
Predicting the impacts of ocean acidification in coastal habitats is complicated by bio-physical feedbacks between organisms and carbonate chemistry. Daily changes in pH and other carbonate parameters in coastal ecosystems, associated with processes such as photosynthesis and respiration, often greatly exceed global mean predicted changes over the next century. We assessed the strength of these feedbacks under projected elevated CO2 levels by conducting a field experiment in 10 macrophyte-dominated tide pools on the coast of California, USA...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754239/bio-algorithmic-workflows-for-standardized-synthetic-biology-constructs
#2
Angel Goñi-Moreno, Víctor de Lorenzo
A synthetic biology workflow covers the roadmap from conceptualization of a genetic device to its construction and measurement. It is composed of databases that provide DNA parts/plasmids, wet-lab methods , software tools to design circuits, simulation packages , and tools to analyze circuit performance. The interdisciplinary nature of such a workflow requires that experimental results and their in-silico counterparts proceed alongside, with constant feedback between them. We present an end-to-end use case for engineering a simple synthetic device, where information standards maintain coherence throughout the workflow...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708081/predictors-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-recommendation-disagreement
#3
Laura L Bio, Jenna F Kruger, Betty P Lee, Matthew S Wood, Hayden T Schwenk
OBJECTIVETo identify predictors of disagreement with antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback recommendations (PAFR) at a free-standing children's hospital.DESIGNRetrospective cohort study of audits performed during the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) from March 30, 2015, to April 17, 2017.METHODSThe ASP included audits of antimicrobial use and communicated PAFR to the care team, with follow-up on adherence to recommendations. The primary outcome was disagreement with PAFR. Potential predictors for disagreement, including patient-level, antimicrobial, programmatic, and provider-level factors, were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models...
April 30, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619463/constrained-stoichiometric-network-analysis
#4
Vuk Radojković, Igor Schreiber
Stoichiometric network analysis (SNA) is a method for studying the stability of steady states of stoichiometric systems by decomposing the corresponding network into elementary subnetworks (also known as extreme currents) and identifying those that may cause loss of a network's stability via interplay of positive and negative feedback. Experimentally studied complex (bio)chemical reactions often display dynamical instabilities leading to oscillations or bistable switches. When modelling such systems, a frequently met case is that an assumed detailed mechanism in terms of power law kinetics is available, but some of the rate coefficients are unknown and obtaining them by traditional kinetic methods based on a least-square fit is cumbersome or unfeasible...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617118/feedback-induced-temporal-control-of-breathing-polymersomes-to-create-self-adaptive-nanoreactors
#5
Hailong Che, Shoupeng Cao, Jan C M van Hest
Over the years, scientists have been inspired by nature to construct synthetic non-equilibrium systems which show life-like properties. In most cases, these self-regulating systems have been extensively investigated with regard to adaptive structural features, whereas temporal control over function still persists as a very intriguing challenge. Here we present the development of self-regulated and feedback-induced "breathing" polymersome nanoreactors that show temporally programmable bio-catalysis induced by a chemical fuel...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474840/production-of-muconic-acid-in-plants
#6
Aymerick Eudes, Roland Berthomieu, Zhangying Hao, Nanxia Zhao, Veronica Teixeira Benites, Edward E K Baidoo, Dominique Loqué
Muconic acid (MA) is a dicarboxylic acid used for the production of industrially relevant chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and caprolactam. Because the synthesis of these polymer precursors generates toxic intermediates by utilizing petroleum-derived chemicals and corrosive catalysts, the development of alternative strategies for the bio-based production of MA has garnered significant interest. Plants produce organic carbon skeletons by harvesting carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, and therefore represent advantageous hosts for engineered metabolic pathways towards the manufacturing of chemicals...
March 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434327/iterative-feedback-bio-printing-derived-cell-laden-hydrogel-scaffolds-with-optimal-geometrical-fidelity-and-cellular-controllability
#7
Ling Wang, Ming-En Xu, Li Luo, Yongyong Zhou, Peijian Si
For three-dimensional bio-printed cell-laden hydrogel tissue constructs, the well-designed internal porous geometry is tailored to obtain the desired structural and cellular properties. However, significant differences often exist between the designed and as-printed scaffolds because of the inherent characteristics of hydrogels and cells. In this study, an iterative feedback bio-printing (IFBP) approach based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the fabrication of cell-laden hydrogel scaffolds with optimal geometrical fidelity and cellular controllability was proposed...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433061/specialization-of-the-auditory-system-for-the-processing-of-bio-sonar-information-in-the-frequency-domain-mustached-bats
#8
REVIEW
Nobuo Suga
For echolocation, mustached bats emit velocity-sensitive orientation sounds (pulses) containing a constant-frequency component consisting of four harmonics (CF1-4 ). They show unique behavior called Doppler-shift compensation for Doppler-shifted echoes and hunting behavior for frequency and amplitude modulated echoes from fluttering insects. Their peripheral auditory system is highly specialized for fine frequency analysis of CF2 (∼61.0 kHz) and detecting echo CF2 from fluttering insects. In their central auditory system, lateral inhibition occurring at multiple levels sharpens V-shaped frequency-tuning curves at the periphery and creates sharp spindle-shaped tuning curves and amplitude tuning...
April 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410578/effects-of-visual-feedback-balance-training-on-the-balance-and-ankle-instability-in-adult-men-with-functional-ankle-instability
#9
Seung-Min Nam, Kyoung Kim, Do Youn Lee
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of visual feedback balance training on the balance and ankle instability in adult men with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty eight adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed visual feedback balance training for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406749/maximum-caliber-can-characterize-genetic-switches-with-multiple-hidden-species
#10
Taylor Firman, Stephen Wedekind, T J McMorrow, Kingshuk Ghosh
Gene networks with feedback often involve interactions between multiple species of biomolecules, much more than experiments can actually monitor. Coupled with this is the challenge that experiments often measure gene expression in noisy fluorescence instead of protein numbers. How do we infer biophysical information and characterize the underlying circuits from this limited and convoluted data? We address this by building stochastic models using the principle of Maximum Caliber (MaxCal). MaxCal uses the basic information on synthesis, degradation, and feedback-without invoking any other auxiliary species and ad hoc reactions-to generate stochastic trajectories similar to those typically measured in experiments...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397904/mif-promotes-a-differential-th1-th2-th17-inflammatory-response-in-human-primary-cell-cultures-predominance-of-th17-cytokine-profile-in-pbmc-from-healthy-subjects-and-increase-of-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-pbmc-from-active-sle-patients
#11
Ulises De la Cruz-Mosso, Trinidad García-Iglesias, Richard Bucala, Iris Estrada-García, Laura González-López, Sergio Cerpa-Cruz, Isela Parra-Rojas, Jorge Iván Gámez-Nava, Edsaúl Emilio Pérez-Guerrero, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle
Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is a cytokine associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. There is evidence that MIF functions in a positive-feedback-loop with proinflammatory cytokines and could perpetuate the inflammatory process in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).The aim of this study was to assess the effect of recombinant-human-MIF (rhMIF) on the expression of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) from Healthy Subjects (HS) and SLE patients...
February 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391503/a-wearable-high-resolution-facial-electromyography-for-long-term-recordings-in-freely-behaving-humans
#12
Lilah Inzelberg, David Rand, Stanislav Steinberg, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein
Human facial expressions are a complex capacity, carrying important psychological and neurological information. Facial expressions typically involve the co-activation of several muscles; they vary between individuals, between voluntary versus spontaneous expressions, and depend strongly on personal interpretation. Accordingly, while high-resolution recording of muscle activation in a non-laboratory setting offers exciting opportunities, it remains a major challenge. This paper describes a wearable and non-invasive method for objective mapping of facial muscle activation and demonstrates its application in a natural setting...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379176/inorganic-carbon-addition-stimulates-snow-algae-primary-productivity
#13
Trinity L Hamilton, Jeff R Havig
Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 throughout much of its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often darkened by the presence of photoautotrophic snow algae, resulting in accelerated melt due to lowered albedo. Few studies report the productivity of snow algal communities and the parameters which constrain their growth on supraglacial surfaces-key factors for quantifying biologically induced albedo effects (bio-albedo)...
January 29, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358378/redirection-of-lipid-flux-toward-phospholipids-in-yeast-increases-fatty-acid-turnover-and-secretion
#14
Raphael Ferreira, Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Bio-based production of fatty acids and fatty acid-derived products can enable sustainable substitution of petroleum-derived fuels and chemicals. However, developing new microbial cell factories for producing high levels of fatty acids requires extensive engineering of lipid metabolism, a complex and tightly regulated metabolic network. Here we generated a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain with a simplified lipid metabolism network with high-level production of free fatty acids (FFAs) due to redirected fatty acid metabolism and reduced feedback regulation...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301919/a-randomised-clinical-trial-of-feedback-on-inhaler-adherence-and-technique-in-patients-with-severe-uncontrolled-asthma
#15
Imran Sulaiman, Garrett Greene, Elaine MacHale, Jansen Seheult, Matshediso Mokoka, Shona D'Arcy, Terence Taylor, Desmond M Murphy, Eoin Hunt, Stephen J Lane, Gregory B Diette, J Mark FitzGerald, Fiona Boland, Aoife Sartini Bhreathnach, Breda Cushen, Richard B Reilly, Frank Doyle, Richard W Costello
In severe asthma, poor control could reflect issues of medication adherence or inhaler technique, or that the condition is refractory. This study aimed to determine if an intervention with (bio)feedback on the features of inhaler use would identify refractory asthma and enhance inhaler technique and adherence.Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma were subjected to a stratified-by-site random block design. The intensive education group received repeated training in inhaler use, adherence and disease management...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210980/superconducting-quantum-interferometers-for-nondestructive-evaluation
#16
REVIEW
M I Faley, E A Kostyurina, K V Kalashnikov, Yu V Maslennikov, V P Koshelets, R E Dunin-Borkowski
We review stationary and mobile systems that are used for the nondestructive evaluation of room temperature objects and are based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The systems are optimized for samples whose dimensions are between 10 micrometers and several meters. Stray magnetic fields from small samples (10 µm-10 cm) are studied using a SQUID microscope equipped with a magnetic flux antenna, which is fed through the walls of liquid nitrogen cryostat and a hole in the SQUID's pick-up loop and returned sidewards from the SQUID back to the sample...
December 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145191/antioxidants-maintain-cellular-redox-homeostasis-by-elimination-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#17
REVIEW
Long He, Ting He, Shabnam Farrar, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living cells as normal cellular metabolic byproduct. Under excessive stress conditions, cells will produce numerous ROS, and the living organisms eventually evolve series of response mechanisms to adapt to the ROS exposure as well as utilize it as the signaling molecules. ROS molecules would trigger oxidative stress in a feedback mechanism involving many biological processes, such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Growing evidences have suggested that ROS play a critical role as the signaling molecules throughout the entire cell death pathway...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137909/use-of-expired-air-carbon-monoxide-testing-in-clinical-tobacco-treatment-settings
#18
REVIEW
Adam O Goldstein, Stephanie P Gans, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Chris Kotsen, Matthew Bars
Carbon monoxide (CO) testing is considered an easy, noninvasive, and objective contribution to the assessment of smoking behavior, as CO is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream when lit cigarettes or cigars are inhaled. CO testing is a medically important billable outpatient service that can contribute to sustainability of face to face tobacco use treatment services by clinicians. This article reviews research on the clinical use of CO testing to provide biomedical feedback in assessing smoking behavior, educating smokers on tobacco health effects, assisting with treatment planning, and as a motivational tool to encourage people to become tobacco free...
February 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035042/nmrml-a-community-supported-open-data-standard-for-the-description-storage-and-exchange-of-nmr-data
#19
Daniel Schober, Daniel Jacob, Michael Wilson, Joseph A Cruz, Ana Marcu, Jason R Grant, Annick Moing, Catherine Deborde, Luis F de Figueiredo, Kenneth Haug, Philippe Rocca-Serra, John Easton, Timothy M D Ebbels, Jie Hao, Christian Ludwig, Ulrich L Günther, Antonio Rosato, Matthias S Klein, Ian A Lewis, Claudio Luchinat, Andrew R Jones, Arturas Grauslys, Martin Larralde, Masashi Yokochi, Naohiro Kobayashi, Andrea Porzel, Julian L Griffin, Mark R Viant, David S Wishart, Christoph Steinbeck, Reza M Salek, Steffen Neumann
NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison, and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical, and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters, and where available spectral metadata, such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976367/morphological-and-control-criteria-for-self-stable-underwater-hopping
#20
Marcello Calisti, Cecilia Laschi
This paper presents the self-stabilisation features of a hopping gait during underwater legged locomotion. We used a bio-inspired fundamental model of this gait, the underwater spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, to numerically derive quantitative (dimension of the basin of attraction, Floquet multipliers, mean horizontal speed) and qualitative (shape of the basin) features which characterise the self-stability of the system. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained with a terrestrial self-stable running model (i...
October 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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