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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145191/antioxidants-maintain-cellular-redox-homeostasis-by-elimination-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Long He, Ting He, Shabnam Farrar, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living cells as normal cellular metabolic byproduct. Under excessive stress conditions, cells will produce numerous ROS, and the living organisms eventually evolve series of response mechanisms to adapt to the ROS exposure as well as utilize it as the signaling molecules. ROS molecules would trigger oxidative stress in a feedback mechanism involving many biological processes, such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Growing evidences have suggested that ROS play a critical role as the signaling molecules throughout the entire cell death pathway...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137909/use-of-expired-air-carbon-monoxide-testing-in-clinical-tobacco-treatment-settings
#2
REVIEW
Adam O Goldstein, Stephanie P Gans, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Chris Kotsen, Matthew Bars
Carbon Monoxide (CO) testing is considered an easy, non-invasive, and objective contribution to the assessment of smoking behavior, as CO is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream when lit cigarettes or cigars are inhaled. CO testing is a medically important, billable outpatient service that can contribute to sustainability of face-to-face tobacco use treatment services by clinicians. This article reviews research on the clinical use of CO testing to provide bio-medical feedback in assessing smoking behavior, on educating smokers on tobacco health effects, on assisting with treatment planning, and as a motivational tool to encourage people to become tobacco free...
November 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035042/nmrml-a-community-supported-open-data-standard-for-the-description-storage-and-exchange-of-nmr-data
#3
Daniel Schober, Daniel Jacob, Michael Wilson, Joseph A Cruz, Ana Marcu, Jason R Grant, Annick Moing, Catherine Deborde, Luis F de Figueiredo, Kenneth Haug, Philippe Rocca-Serra, John M Easton, Timothy M D Ebbels, Jie Hao, Christian Ludwig, Ulrich L Günther, Antonio Rosato, Matthias S Klein, Ian Lewis, Claudio Luchinat, Andrew R Jones, Arturas Grauslys, Martin Larralde, Masashi Yokochi, Naohiro Kobayashi, Andrea Porzel, Julian Griffin, Mark R Viant, David S Wishart, Christoph Steinbeck, Reza M Salek, Steffen Neumann
NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters and, where available, spectral metadata such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments...
October 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976367/morphological-and-control-criteria-for-self-stable-underwater-hopping
#4
Marcello Calisti, Cecilia Laschi
This paper presents the self-stabilisation features of a hopping gait during underwater legged locomotion. We used a bio-inspired fundamental model of this gait, the underwater spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, to numerically derive quantitative (dimension of the basin of attraction, Floquet multipliers, mean horizontal speed) and qualitative (shape of the basin) features which characterise the self-stability of the system. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained with a terrestrial self-stable running model (i...
October 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938853/women-s-perceptions-of-journeying-toward-an-unknown-future-with-breast-cancer-the-lives-at-risk-study
#5
Frances Rapport, Ashrafunnesa Khanom, Marcus A Doel, Hayley A Hutchings, Mia Bierbaum, Anne Hogden, Patti Shih, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Clare Clement
Breast cancer risk classifications are useful for prognosis, yet little is known of their effect on patients. This study clarified women's understandings of risk as they "journeyed" through the health care system. Breast cancer patients and women undergoing genetic investigation were recruited ( N = 25) from a large UK Health Board, 2014-2015, completing a "Book of Experience," and Bio-photographic elicitation interviews. Stakeholder and Participant Feedback Forums were undertaken with key stakeholders, including patients, oncologists, funders, and policy developers, to inform team understanding...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887016/myotome-adaptability-confers-developmental-robustness-to-somitic-myogenesis-in-response-to-fibre-number-alteration
#6
Shukolpa D Roy, Victoria C Williams, Tapan G Pipalia, Kuoyu Li, Christina L Hammond, Stefanie Knappe, Robert D Knight, Simon M Hughes
Balancing the number of stem cells and their progeny is crucial for tissue development and repair. Here we examine how cell numbers and overall muscle size are tightly regulated during zebrafish somitic muscle development. Muscle stem/precursor cell (MPCs) expressing Pax7 are initially located in the dermomyotome (DM) external cell layer, adopt a highly stereotypical distribution and thereafter a proportion of MPCs migrate into the myotome. Regional variations in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of MPCs contribute to growth of the myotome...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814027/challenges-in-using-compliant-ligaments-for-position-estimation-within-robotic-joints
#7
Felix Russell, Lei Gao, Peter Ellison, Ravi Vaidyanathan
The mechanical advantages of bio-inspired condylar robotic knee joints for use in prosthetics or rehabilitation has been argued extensively in literature. A common limitation of these designs is the difficulty of estimating joint angle and therefore accurately controlling the joint. Furthermore, the potential role of ligament-like structures in robotic knees is not very well established. In this work, we investigate the role of compliant stretch sensing ligaments and their integration into a condylar robotic knee...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777291/iii-v-on-silicon-photonic-integrated-circuits-for-spectroscopic-sensing-in-the-2-4-%C3%AE-m-wavelength-range
#8
REVIEW
Ruijun Wang, Anton Vasiliev, Muhammad Muneeb, Aditya Malik, Stephan Sprengel, Gerhard Boehm, Markus-Christian Amann, Ieva Šimonytė, Augustinas Vizbaras, Kristijonas Vizbaras, Roel Baets, Gunther Roelkens
The availability of silicon photonic integrated circuits (ICs) in the 2-4 μm wavelength range enables miniature optical sensors for trace gas and bio-molecule detection. In this paper, we review our recent work on III-V-on-silicon waveguide circuits for spectroscopic sensing in this wavelength range. We first present results on the heterogeneous integration of 2.3 μm wavelength III-V laser sources and photodetectors on silicon photonic ICs for fully integrated optical sensors. Then a compact 2 μm wavelength widely tunable external cavity laser using a silicon photonic IC for the wavelength selective feedback is shown...
August 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755956/a-note-on-stress-driven-anisotropic-diffusion-and-its-role-in-active-deformable-media
#9
Christian Cherubini, Simonetta Filippi, Alessio Gizzi, Ricardo Ruiz-Baier
We introduce a new model to describe diffusion processes within active deformable media. Our general theoretical framework is based on physical and mathematical considerations, and it suggests to employ diffusion tensors directly influenced by the coupling with mechanical stress. The proposed generalised reaction-diffusion-mechanics model reveals that initially isotropic and homogeneous diffusion tensors turn into inhomogeneous and anisotropic quantities due to the intrinsic structure of the nonlinear coupling...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664270/curcin-c-a-novel-type-i-ribosome-inactivating-protein-from-the-post-germinating-cotyledons-of-jatropha-curcas
#10
Yangxue Zhang, Qian Yang, Chenyang Li, Mengmeng Ding, Xueyan Lv, Chengqiu Tao, Hongwu Yu, Fang Chen, Ying Xu
A novel type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), designated as curcin C, was purified from Jatropha curcas, an important feedback source of bio-fuel. Molecular mass and isoelectric point of curcin C were 31.398 kDa and 7.12 as detected by MALTI-TOF assay and capillary electrophoresis assay, respectively. N-terminal sequence and LC-MS/MS analyses confirmed that curcin C is a type I RIP having high homology, but not the exactly the same with curcin, another type 1 RIP isolated from the endosperm of J. curcas...
June 29, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659756/proprioceptive-feedback-through-a-neuromorphic-muscle-spindle-model
#11
Lorenzo Vannucci, Egidio Falotico, Cecilia Laschi
Connecting biologically inspired neural simulations to physical or simulated embodiments can be useful both in robotics, for the development of a new kind of bio-inspired controllers, and in neuroscience, to test detailed brain models in complete action-perception loops. The aim of this work is to develop a fully spike-based, biologically inspired mechanism for the translation of proprioceptive feedback. The translation is achieved by implementing a computational model of neural activity of type Ia and type II afferent fibers of muscle spindles, the primary source of proprioceptive information, which, in mammals is regulated through fusimotor activation and provides necessary adjustments during voluntary muscle contractions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656975/light-controlled-3d-micromotors-powered-by-bacteria
#12
Gaszton Vizsnyiczai, Giacomo Frangipane, Claudio Maggi, Filippo Saglimbeni, Silvio Bianchi, Roberto Di Leonardo
Self-propelled bacteria can be integrated into synthetic micromachines and act as biological propellers. So far, proposed designs suffer from low reproducibility, large noise levels or lack of tunability. Here we demonstrate that fast, reliable and tunable bio-hybrid micromotors can be obtained by the self-assembly of synthetic structures with genetically engineered biological propellers. The synthetic components consist of 3D interconnected structures having a rotating unit that can capture individual bacteria into an array of microchambers so that cells contribute maximally to the applied torque...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648720/an-engineered-home-environment-for-untethered-data-telemetry-from-nonhuman-primates
#13
Marc P Powell, William R Britz, James S Harper, David A Borton
BACKGROUND: Wireless neural recording technologies now provide untethered access to large populations of neurons in the nonhuman primate brain. Such technologies enable long-term, continuous interrogation of neural circuits and importantly open the door for chronic neurorehabilitation platforms. For example, by providing continuous consistent closed loop feedback from a brain machine interface, the nervous system can leverage plasticity to integrate more effectively into the system than would be possible in short experimental sessions...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631623/morphological-self-stabilization-of-locomotion-gaits-illustration-on-a-few-examples-from-bio-inspired-locomotion
#14
Christine Chevallereau, Frédéric Boyer, Mathieu Porez, Johan Mauny, Yannick Aoustin
To a large extent, robotics locomotion can be viewed as cyclic motions, named gaits. Due to the high complexity of the locomotion dynamics, to find the control laws that ensure an expected gait and its stability with respect to external perturbations, is a challenging issue for feedback control. To address this issue, a promising way is to take inspiration from animals that intensively exploit the interactions of the passive degrees of freedom of their body with their physical surroundings, to outsource the high-level exteroceptive feedback control to low-level proprioceptive ones...
June 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606596/mini-review-recombinant-production-of-tailored-bio-pharmaceuticals-in-different-bacillus-strains-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Antonia Lakowitz, Thibault Godard, Rebekka Biedendieck, Rainer Krull
Bio-pharmaceuticals like antibodies, hormones and growth factors represent about one-fifth of commercial pharmaceuticals. Host candidates of growing interest for recombinant production of these proteins are strains of the genus Bacillus, long being established for biotechnological production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Bacillus strains benefit from development of efficient expression systems in the last decades and emerge as major industrial workhorses for recombinant proteins due to easy cultivation, non-pathogenicity and their ability to secrete recombinant proteins directly into extracellular medium allowing cost-effective downstream processing...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602075/a-synthetic-recombinase-based-feedback-loop-results-in-robust-expression
#16
Thomas Folliard, Harrison Steel, Thomas P Prescott, George Wadhams, Lynn J Rothschild, Antonis Papachristodoulou
Accurate control of a biological process is essential for many critical functions in biology, from the cell cycle to proteome regulation. To achieve this, negative feedback is frequently employed to provide a highly robust and reliable output. Feedback is found throughout biology and technology, but due to challenges posed by its implementation, it is yet to be widely adopted in synthetic biology. In this paper we design a synthetic feedback network using a class of recombinase proteins called integrases, which can be re-engineered to flip the orientation of DNA segments in a digital manner...
September 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588302/spectral-comb-of-highly-chirped-pulses-generated-via-cascaded-fwm-of-two-frequency-shifted-dissipative-solitons
#17
Evgeniy V Podivilov, Denis S Kharenko, Anastasia E Bednyakova, Mikhail P Fedoruk, Sergey A Babin
Dissipative solitons generated in normal-dispersion mode-locked lasers are stable localized coherent structures with a mostly linear frequency modulation (chirp). The soliton energy in fiber lasers is limited by the Raman effect, but implementation of the intracavity feedback at the Stokes-shifted wavelength enables synchronous generation of a coherent Raman dissipative soliton. Here we demonstrate a new approach for generating chirped pulses at new wavelengths by mixing in a highly-nonlinear fiber of these two frequency-shifted dissipative solitons, as well as cascaded generation of their clones forming in the spectral domain a comb of highly chirped pulses...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586690/the-vulnerability-and-resilience-of-reef-building-corals
#18
REVIEW
Hollie M Putnam, Katie L Barott, Tracy D Ainsworth, Ruth D Gates
Reef-building corals provide the foundation for the structural and biological diversity of coral-reef ecosystems. These massive biological structures, which can be seen from space, are the culmination of complex interactions between the tiny polyps of the coral animal in concert with its unicellular symbiotic algae and a wide diversity of closely associated microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses). While reef-building corals have persisted in various forms for over 200 million years, human-induced conditions threaten their function and persistence...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504931/robust-real-time-musculoskeletal-modeling-driven-by-electromyograms
#19
Guillaume Durandau, Dario Farina, Massimo Sartori
OBJECTIVE: Current clinical biomechanics involves lengthy data acquisition and time-consuming offline analyses and current biomechanical models cannot be used for real-time control in man-machine interfaces. We developed a method that enables online analysis of neuromusculoskeletal function in vivo in the intact human. METHODS: We used electromyography (EMG)-driven musculoskeletal modeling to simulate all transformations from muscle excitation onset (EMGs) to mechanical moment production around multiple lower-limb degrees of freedom (DOFs)...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483446/molecular-recognition-of-the-environment-and-mechanisms-of-the-origin-of-species-in-quantum-like-modeling-of-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Alexey V Melkikh, Andrei Khrennikov
A review of the mechanisms of speciation is performed. The mechanisms of the evolution of species, taking into account the feedback of the state of the environment and mechanisms of the emergence of complexity, are considered. It is shown that these mechanisms, at the molecular level, cannot work steadily in terms of classical mechanics. Quantum mechanisms of changes in the genome, based on the long-range interaction potential between biologically important molecules, are proposed as one of possible explanation...
November 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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