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Bio feedback

Kazuhiro Takumi, Mikhail Kharisovich Ziyatdinov, Viktor Samsonov, Gen Nonaka
: Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB...
December 21, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Elisa Donati, Martin Worm, Stefano Mintchev, Marleen van der Wiel, Giovanni Benelli, Gerhard von der Emde, Cesare Stefanini
A robotic fish has been developed to create a mixed bio-hybrid system made up of weakly electric fish and a mobile dummy fish. Weakly electric fish are capable of interacting with each other via sequences of self-generated electric signals during electrocommunication. Here we present the design of an artificial dummy fish, which is subsequently tested in behavioural experiments. The robot consists of two parts: a flexible tail that can move at different frequencies and amplitudes, performing a carangiform oscillation, and a rigid head containing the motor for the tail oscillation...
December 1, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Anna M Kohl, Eleni Kelasidi, Alireza Mohammadi, Manfredi Maggiore, Kristin Y Pettersen
This paper investigates the problem of planar maneuvering control for bio-inspired underwater snake robots that are exposed to unknown ocean currents. The control objective is to make a neutrally buoyant snake robot which is subject to hydrodynamic forces and ocean currents converge to a desired planar path and traverse the path with a desired velocity. The proposed feedback control strategy enforces virtual constraints which encode biologically inspired gaits on the snake robot configuration. The virtual constraints, parametrized by states of dynamic compensators, are used to regulate the orientation and forward speed of the snake robot...
November 24, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Priyadharshini Mani, Taj Keshavarz, T S Chandra, Godfrey Kyazze
Biocathodes may be a suitable replacement of platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) if the cost of MFCs is to be reduced. However, the use of enzymes as bio-cathodes is fraught with loss of activity as time progresses. A possible cause of this loss in activity might be pH increase in the cathode as pH gradients in MFCs are well known. This pH increase is however, accompanied by simultaneous increase in salinity; therefore salinity may be a confounding variable. This study investigated various ways of mitigating pH changes in the cathode of MFCs and their effect on laccase activity and decolourisation of a model azo dye Acid orange 7 in the anode chamber...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Zhongming Zhang, Mengyun Wang, Xiaocui Miao, Yijuan Li, Glenn Hitchman, Zhen Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) hypothesis predicts that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a deficit in subjective convictions, which may lead to a reliance on external substitutes for the perceptions of an individual's internal states. Two well-designed studies were performed for the present work that adopted a false bio-feedback procedure in a muscle tension task to examine the SPIS hypothesis. METHODS: The false bio-feedback paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Takashi Morishita, Tooru Inoue
Interactive bio-feedback (iBF) was initially developed for the rehabilitation of motor function in patients with neurological disorders, and subsequently yielded the development of the hybrid assistive limb (HAL). Here, we provide a review of the theory underlying HAL treatment as well as our clinical experience and recommendations for future clinical studies using HAL in acute stroke patients. We performed a PubMed-based literature search, a retrospective data review of our acute stroke case series, and included a sample case report of our findings...
October 15, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
C Poeplau, T Kätterer, N I W Leblans, B D Sigurdsson
Terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks to global warming are major uncertainties in climate models. For in-depth understanding of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) after soil warming, long-term responses of SOC stabilisation mechanisms such as aggregation, organo-mineral interactions and chemical recalcitrance need to be addressed. This study investigated the effect of six years of geothermal soil warming on different SOC fractions in an unmanaged grassland in Iceland. Along an extreme warming gradient of +0 to ~+40°C, we isolated five fractions of SOC that varied conceptually in turnover rate from active to passive in the following order: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC in sand and stable aggregates (SA), SOC in silt and clay (SC-rSOC) and resistant SOC (rSOC)...
September 3, 2016: Global Change Biology
Anna Fiedler, Sebastian Raeth, Fabian J Theis, Angelika Hausser, Jan Hasenauer
BACKGROUND: Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Francesco Tabaro, Giovanni Minervini, Faiza Sundus, Federica Quaglia, Emanuela Leonardi, Damiano Piovesan, Silvio C E Tosatto
Mutations in von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) predispose to develop tumors affecting specific target organs, such as the retina, epididymis, adrenal glands, pancreas and kidneys. Currently, more than 400 pVHL interacting proteins are either described in the literature or predicted in public databases. This data is scattered among several different sources, slowing down the comprehension of pVHL's biological role. Here we present VHLdb, a novel database collecting available interaction and mutation data on pVHL to provide novel integrated annotations...
2016: Scientific Reports
Angel Goñi-Moreno, Marta Carcajona, Juhyun Kim, Esteban Martínez-García, Martyn Amos, Víctor de Lorenzo
As synthetic biology moves away from trial and error and embraces more formal processes, workflows have emerged that cover the roadmap from conceptualization of a genetic device to its construction and measurement. This latter aspect (i.e., characterization and measurement of synthetic genetic constructs) has received relatively little attention to date, but it is crucial for their outcome. An end-to-end use case for engineering a simple synthetic device is presented, which is supported by information standards and computational methods and focuses on such characterization/measurement...
October 21, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Koen F Dekkers, Maarten van Iterson, Roderick C Slieker, Matthijs H Moed, Marc Jan Bonder, Michiel van Galen, Hailiang Mei, Daria V Zhernakova, Leonard H van den Berg, Joris Deelen, Jenny van Dongen, Diana van Heemst, Albert Hofman, Jouke J Hottenga, Carla J H van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Coen D A Stehouwer, Ettje F Tigchelaar, André G Uitterlinden, Gonneke Willemsen, Alexandra Zhernakova, Lude Franke, Peter A C 't Hoen, Rick Jansen, Joyce van Meurs, Dorret I Boomsma, Cornelia M van Duijn, Marleen M J van Greevenbroek, Jan H Veldink, Cisca Wijmenga, Erik W van Zwet, P Eline Slagboom, J Wouter Jukema, Bastiaan T Heijmans
BACKGROUND: Cells can be primed by external stimuli to obtain a long-term epigenetic memory. We hypothesize that long-term exposure to elevated blood lipids can prime circulating immune cells through changes in DNA methylation, a process that may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. To interrogate the causal relationship between triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and genome-wide DNA methylation while excluding confounding and pleiotropy, we perform a stepwise Mendelian randomization analysis in whole blood of 3296 individuals...
2016: Genome Biology
Alicja Kubik, Paweł Kubik, Martyna Stanios, Bogusława Kraj
INTRODUCTION: ADHD occurs in 3% of school-age children (and in 70% of them in adulthood) and represents an important medical and social problem. It is characterized by attention deficits, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Neurofeedback therapy (EEG biofeedback, NF) is carried out based on the analysis of EEG. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of NF therapy on clinical status and parameters of the EEG in ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the years 2007-2014, 287 children (191 boys), aged 6-17 years were included into the study...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Maitane Aurrekoetxea, Igor Irastorza, Patricia García-Gallastegui, Lucia Jiménez-Rojo, Takashi Nakamura, Yoshihiko Yamada, Gaskon Ibarretxe, Fernando J Unda
BACKGROUND: We used an in vitro tooth development model to investigate the effects of overactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway during odontogenesis by bromoindirubin oxime reagent (BIO), a specific inhibitor of GSK-3 activity. RESULTS: Overactivating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway at tooth initiation upregulated and ectopically expressed the epithelial markers Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Epiprofin (Epfn), and Fibroblast growth factor8 (Fgf8), which are involved in the delimitation of odontogenic fields in the oral ectoderm...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Tim Genewein, Daniel A Braun
Bayesian inference and bounded rational decision-making require the accumulation of evidence or utility, respectively, to transform a prior belief or strategy into a posterior probability distribution over hypotheses or actions. Crucially, this process cannot be simply realized by independent integrators, since the different hypotheses and actions also compete with each other. In continuous time, this competitive integration process can be described by a special case of the replicator equation. Here we investigate simple analog electric circuits that implement the underlying differential equation under the constraint that we only permit a limited set of building blocks that we regard as biologically interpretable, such as capacitors, resistors, voltage-dependent conductances and voltage- or current-controlled current and voltage sources...
June 2016: Biological Cybernetics
Donald C Cole, Carol Levin, Cornelia Loechl, Graham Thiele, Frederick Grant, Aimee Webb Girard, Kirimi Sindi, Jan Low
Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP)...
June 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Sima Ajami, Fotooheh Teimouri
One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database)...
December 2015: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Catherine Grant, Giovanni Lo Iacono, Vupenyu Dzingirai, Bernard Bett, Thomas R A Winnebah, Peter M Atkinson
This review outlines the benefits of using multiple approaches to improve model design and facilitate multidisciplinary research into infectious diseases, as well as showing and proposing practical examples of effective integration. It looks particularly at the benefits of using participatory research in conjunction with traditional modelling methods to potentially improve disease research, control and management. Integrated approaches can lead to more realistic mathematical models which in turn can assist with making policy decisions that reduce disease and benefit local people...
February 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Sridharan Ramaratnam, Gus A Baker, Laura H Goldstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alwyn Williams, Daniel A Kane, Patrick M Ewing, Lesley W Atwood, Andrea Jilling, Meng Li, Yi Lou, Adam S Davis, A Stuart Grandy, Sheri C Huerd, Mitchell C Hunter, Roger T Koide, David A Mortensen, Richard G Smith, Sieglinde S Snapp, Kurt A Spokas, Anthony C Yannarell, Nicholas R Jordan
There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Samuel Rosset, Oluwaseun A Araromi, Samuel Schlatter, Herbert R Shea
This contribution demonstrates the fabrication process of dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs). DETs are stretchable capacitors consisting of an elastomeric dielectric membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. The large actuation strains of these transducers when used as actuators (over 300% area strain) and their soft and compliant nature has been exploited for a wide range of applications, including electrically tunable optics, haptic feedback devices, wave-energy harvesting, deformable cell-culture devices, compliant grippers, and propulsion of a bio-inspired fish-like airship...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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