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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631623/morphological-self-stabilization-of-locomotion-gaits-illustration-on-a-few-examples-from-bio-inspired-locomotion
#1
Christine Chevallereau, Frédéric Boyer, Mathieu Porez, Johan Mauny, Yannick Aoustin
To a large extent, robotics locomotion can be viewed as cyclic motions, named gaits. Due to the high complexity of the locomotion dynamics, to find the control laws that ensure an expected gait and its stability with respect to external perturbations, is a challenging issue for feedback control. To address this issue, a promising way is to take inspiration from animals that intensively exploit the interactions of the passive degrees of freedom of their body with their physical surroundings, to outsource the high-level exteroceptive feedback control to low-level proprioceptive ones...
June 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606596/mini-review-recombinant-production-of-tailored-bio-pharmaceuticals-in-different-bacillus-strains-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Antonia Lakowitz, Thibault Godard, Rebekka Biedendieck, Rainer Krull
Bio-pharmaceuticals like antibodies, hormones and growth factors represent about one-fifth of commercial pharmaceuticals. Host candidates of growing interest for recombinant production of these proteins are strains of the genus Bacillus, long being established for biotechnological production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Bacillus strains benefit from development of efficient expression systems in the last decades and emerge as major industrial workhorses for recombinant proteins due to easy cultivation, non-pathogenicity and their ability to secrete recombinant proteins directly into extracellular medium allowing cost-effective downstream processing...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602075/a-synthetic-recombinase-based-feedback-loop-results-in-robust-expression
#3
Thomas Folliard, Harrison Steel, Thomas P Prescott, George Wadhams, Lynn J Rothschild, Antonis Papachristodoulou
Accurate control of a biological process is essential for many critical functions in biology, from the cell cycle to proteome regulation. To achieve this, negative feedback is frequently employed to provide a highly robust and reliable output. Feedback is found throughout biology and technology, but due to challenges posed by its implementation, it is yet to be widely adopted in synthetic biology. In this paper we design a synthetic feedback network using a class of recombinase proteins called integrases, which can be re-engineered to flip the orientation of DNA segments in a digital manner...
June 21, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588302/spectral-comb-of-highly-chirped-pulses-generated-via-cascaded-fwm-of-two-frequency-shifted-dissipative-solitons
#4
Evgeniy V Podivilov, Denis S Kharenko, Anastasia E Bednyakova, Mikhail P Fedoruk, Sergey A Babin
Dissipative solitons generated in normal-dispersion mode-locked lasers are stable localized coherent structures with a mostly linear frequency modulation (chirp). The soliton energy in fiber lasers is limited by the Raman effect, but implementation of the intracavity feedback at the Stokes-shifted wavelength enables synchronous generation of a coherent Raman dissipative soliton. Here we demonstrate a new approach for generating chirped pulses at new wavelengths by mixing in a highly-nonlinear fiber of these two frequency-shifted dissipative solitons, as well as cascaded generation of their clones forming in the spectral domain a comb of highly chirped pulses...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586690/the-vulnerability-and-resilience-of-reef-building-corals
#5
REVIEW
Hollie M Putnam, Katie L Barott, Tracy D Ainsworth, Ruth D Gates
Reef-building corals provide the foundation for the structural and biological diversity of coral-reef ecosystems. These massive biological structures, which can be seen from space, are the culmination of complex interactions between the tiny polyps of the coral animal in concert with its unicellular symbiotic algae and a wide diversity of closely associated microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses). While reef-building corals have persisted in various forms for over 200 million years, human-induced conditions threaten their function and persistence...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504931/robust-real-time-musculoskeletal-modeling-driven-by-electromyograms
#6
Guillaume Durandau, Dario Farina, Massimo Sartori
OBJECTIVE: Current clinical biomechanics involves lengthy data acquisition and time-consuming offline analyses and current biomechanical models cannot be used for real-time control in man-machine interfaces. We developed a method that enables online analysis of neuromusculoskeletal function in vivo in the intact human. METHODS: We used electromyography (EMG)-driven musculoskeletal modeling to simulate all transformations from muscle excitation onset (EMGs) to mechanical moment production around multiple lower-limb degrees of freedom (DOFs)...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483446/molecular-recognition-of-the-environment-and-mechanisms-of-the-origin-of-species-in-quantum-like-modeling-of-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Alexey V Melkikh, Andrei Khrennikov
A review of the mechanisms of speciation is performed. The mechanisms of the evolution of species, taking into account the feedback of the state of the environment and mechanisms of the emergence of complexity, are considered. It is shown that these mechanisms, at the molecular level, cannot work steadily in terms of classical mechanics. Quantum mechanisms of changes in the genome, based on the long-range interaction potential between biologically important molecules, are proposed as one of possible explanation...
May 5, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456879/anti-inflammatory-effect-as-a-mechanism-of-effectiveness-underlying-the-clinical-benefits-of-pelotherapy-in-osteoarthritis-patients-regulation-of-the-altered-inflammatory-and-stress-feedback-response
#8
E Ortega, I Gálvez, M D Hinchado, J Guerrero, L Martín-Cordero, S Torres-Piles
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate whether an anti-inflammatory effect together with an improvement of the regulation of the interaction between the inflammatory and stress responses underlies the clinical benefits of pelotherapy in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study evaluated the effects of a 10-day cycle of pelotherapy at the spa centre 'El Raposo' (Spain) in a group of 21 OA patients diagnosed with primary knee OA. Clinical assessments included pain intensity using a visual analog scale; pain, stiffness and physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; and health-related quality of life using the EuroQol-5D questionnaire...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322172/immune-neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis-a-revision-and-a-pilot-study
#9
Isabel Gálvez, Silvia Torres-Piles, María Dolores Hinchado, Alberto Álvarez-Barrientos, Pilar Torralbo-Jiménez, Jorge Guerrero, Leticia Martín-Cordero, Eduardo Ortega
BACKGROUND: Although osteoarthritis has predominantly been considered a non-inflammatory degenerative arthropathy, there is growing evidence that various inflammatory and immunological processes might contribute to the onset, progression, and burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present investigation was to study the systemic inflammatory and stress responses and the innate response mediated by neutrophils in OA patients. METHOD: A group of patients diagnosed with primary OA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria and a control group of age-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study...
March 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#10
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208731/in-vivo-imaging-of-local-gene-expression-induced-by-magnetic-hyperthermia
#11
Olivier Sandre, Coralie Genevois, Eneko Garaio, Laurent Adumeau, Stéphane Mornet, Franck Couillaud
The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter...
February 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195187/sensory-augmentation-integration-of-an-auditory-compass-signal-into-human-perception-of-space
#12
Frank Schumann, J Kevin O'Regan
Bio-mimetic approaches to restoring sensory function show great promise in that they rapidly produce perceptual experience, but have the disadvantage of being invasive. In contrast, sensory substitution approaches are non-invasive, but may lead to cognitive rather than perceptual experience. Here we introduce a new non-invasive approach that leads to fast and truly perceptual experience like bio-mimetic techniques. Instead of building on existing circuits at the neural level as done in bio-mimetics, we piggy-back on sensorimotor contingencies at the stimulus level...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178519/structural-inheritance-of-the-actin-cytoskeletal-organization-determines-the-body-axis-in-regenerating-hydra
#13
Anton Livshits, Lital Shani-Zerbib, Yonit Maroudas-Sacks, Erez Braun, Kinneret Keren
Understanding how mechanics complement bio-signaling in defining patterns during morphogenesis is an outstanding challenge. Here, we utilize the multicellular polyp Hydra to investigate the role of the actomyosin cytoskeleton in morphogenesis. We find that the supra-cellular actin fiber organization is inherited from the parent Hydra and determines the body axis in regenerating tissue segments. This form of structural inheritance is non-trivial because of the tissue folding and dynamic actin reorganization involved...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176677/predicting-burst-pressure-of-radiofrequency-induced-colorectal-anastomosis-by-bio-impedance-measurement
#14
Lingxi Zhao, Yu Zhou, Chengli Song, Zhigang Wang, Alfred Cuschieri
The present study investigates the relationship between bio-impedance and burst pressure of colorectal anastomosis created by radiofrequency (RF)-induced tissue fusion. Colorectal anastomosis were created with ex vivo porcine colorectal segments, during which 5 levels of compression pressure were applied by a custom-made bipolar prototype, with 5 replicate experiments at each compression pressure. Instant anastomotic tensile strength was assessed by burst pressure. Bio-impedance of fused tissue was measured by Impedance Analyzer across frequency that 100 Hz to 3 MHz...
March 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127401/synthetic-redesign-of-escherichia-coli-for-cadaverine-production-from-galactose
#15
Dong Hun Kwak, Hyun Gyu Lim, Jina Yang, Sang Woo Seo, Gyoo Yeol Jung
BACKGROUND: With increasing concerns over the environment, biological production of cadaverine has been suggested as an alternative route to replace polyamides generated from the petroleum-based process. For an ideal bioprocess, cadaverine should be produced with high yield and productivity from various sugars abundant in biomass. However, most microorganisms are not able to efficiently metabolize other biomass-derived sugars as fast as glucose. This results in reduced growth rate and low carbon flux toward the production of desired bio-chemicals...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003193/fermentative-production-of-cysteine-by-pantoea-ananatis
#16
Kazuhiro Takumi, Mikhail Kharisovich Ziyatdinov, Viktor Samsonov, Gen Nonaka
Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906686/investigation-of-collective-behaviour-and-electrocommunication-in-the-weakly-electric-fish-mormyrus-rume-through-a-biomimetic-robotic-dummy-fish
#17
Elisa Donati, Martin Worm, Stefano Mintchev, Marleen van der Wiel, Giovanni Benelli, Gerhard von der Emde, Cesare Stefanini
A robotic fish has been developed to create a mixed bio-hybrid system made up of weakly electric fish and a mobile dummy fish. Weakly electric fish are capable of interacting with each other via sequences of self-generated electric signals during electrocommunication. Here we present the design of an artificial dummy fish, which is subsequently tested in behavioural experiments. The robot consists of two parts: a flexible tail that can move at different frequencies and amplitudes, performing a carangiform oscillation, and a rigid head containing the motor for the tail oscillation...
December 1, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882895/planar-maneuvering-control-of-underwater-snake-robots-using-virtual-holonomic-constraints
#18
Anna M Kohl, Eleni Kelasidi, Alireza Mohammadi, Manfredi Maggiore, Kristin Y Pettersen
This paper investigates the problem of planar maneuvering control for bio-inspired underwater snake robots that are exposed to unknown ocean currents. The control objective is to make a neutrally buoyant snake robot which is subject to hydrodynamic forces and ocean currents converge to a desired planar path and traverse the path with a desired velocity. The proposed feedback control strategy enforces virtual constraints which encode biologically inspired gaits on the snake robot configuration. The virtual constraints, parametrized by states of dynamic compensators, are used to regulate the orientation and forward speed of the snake robot...
November 24, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871379/decolourisation-of-acid-orange-7-in-a-microbial-fuel-cell-with-a-laccase-based-biocathode-influence-of-mitigating-ph-changes-in-the-cathode-chamber
#19
Priyadharshini Mani, Taj Keshavarz, T S Chandra, Godfrey Kyazze
Biocathodes may be a suitable replacement of platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) if the cost of MFCs is to be reduced. However, the use of enzymes as bio-cathodes is fraught with loss of activity as time progresses. A possible cause of this loss in activity might be pH increase in the cathode as pH gradients in MFCs are well known. This pH increase is however, accompanied by simultaneous increase in salinity; therefore salinity may be a confounding variable. This study investigated various ways of mitigating pH changes in the cathode of MFCs and their effect on laccase activity and decolourisation of a model azo dye Acid orange 7 in the anode chamber...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710870/individuals-with-high-obsessive-compulsive-tendencies-or-undermined-confidence-rely-more-on-external-proxies-to-access-their-internal-states
#20
Zhongming Zhang, Mengyun Wang, Xiaocui Miao, Yijuan Li, Glenn Hitchman, Zhen Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) hypothesis predicts that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a deficit in subjective convictions, which may lead to a reliance on external substitutes for the perceptions of an individual's internal states. Two well-designed studies were performed for the present work that adopted a false bio-feedback procedure in a muscle tension task to examine the SPIS hypothesis. METHODS: The false bio-feedback paradigm was used to investigate our hypothesis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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