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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161016/selective-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-peptide-toxins-from-animal-venom-pharmacological-probes-and-analgesic-drug-development
#1
Ying Wu, Hui Ma, Fan Zhang, Chun-Lei Zhang, Xiaohan Zou, Zhengyu Cao
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play critical roles in action potential generation and propagation. Nav channelopathy as well as pathological sensitization contribute to allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent evidence has demonstrated the significant roles of Nav subtypes (Nav1.3, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9) in nociceptive transduction and therefore these Navs may represent attractive targets for analgesic drug discovery. Animal toxins are structurally diverse peptides that are highly potent yet selective on ion channel subtypes and therefore representing valuable probes to elucidate the structures, gating properties and cellular functions of ion channels...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160804/residual-endodontic-filling-material-after-post-space-preparation-a-confocal-microscopic-study
#2
Yu-Yao Teoh, Laurence J Walsh
This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w) sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™), or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™) or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™)...
November 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159314/vasoconstriction-triggered-by-hydrogen-sulfide-evidence-for-na-k-2cl-cotransport-and-l-type-ca-2-channel-mediated-pathway
#3
Sergei N Orlov, Svetlana V Gusakova, Liudmila V Smaglii, Svetlana V Koltsova, Svetalana V Sidorenko
Objectives: This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Methods: Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na(+)/K(+)-pump and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-)cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the (86)Rb influx, respectively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158847/photoactive-poly-3-hexylthiophene-nanoweb-for-optoelectrical-stimulation-to-enhance-neurogenesis-of-human-stem-cells
#4
Kisuk Yang, Jin Young Oh, Jong Seung Lee, Yoonhee Jin, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Soo Sang Chae, Eunji Cheong, Hong Koo Baik, Seung-Woo Cho
Optoelectrical manipulation has recently gained attention for cellular engineering; however, few material platforms can be used to efficiently regulate stem cell behaviors via optoelectrical stimulation. In this study, we developed nanoweb substrates composed of photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to enhance the neurogenesis of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) through photo-induced electrical stimulation. METHODS: The photoactive nanoweb substrates were fabricated by self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) P3HT nanostructures (nanofibrils and nanorods)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158595/genome-wide-identification-of-long-non-coding-rna-genes-and-their-association-with-insecticide-resistance-and-metamorphosis-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#5
Feiling Liu, Dianhao Guo, Zhuting Yuan, Chen Chen, Huamei Xiao
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of noncoding RNA >200 bp in length that has essential roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, we constructed a computational pipeline to identify lncRNA genes in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. In total, 3,324 lncRNAs corresponding to 2,475 loci were identified from 13 RNA-Seq datasets, including samples from parasitized, insecticide-resistant strains and different developmental stages...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158567/optogenetic-silencing-of-nociceptive-primary-afferents-reduces-evoked-and-ongoing-bladder-pain
#6
Vijay K Samineni, Aaron D Mickle, Jangyeol Yoon, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Melanie Y Pullen, Kaitlyn E Crawford, Kyung Nim Noh, Graydon B Gereau, Sherri K Vogt, H Henry Lai, John A Rogers, Robert W Gereau
Patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) suffer from chronic pain that severely affects quality of life. Although the underlying pathophysiology is not well understood, inhibition of bladder sensory afferents temporarily relieves pain. Here, we explored the possibility that optogenetic inhibition of nociceptive sensory afferents could be used to modulate bladder pain. The light-activated inhibitory proton pump Archaerhodopsin (Arch) was expressed under control of the sensory neuron-specific sodium channel (sns) gene to selectively silence these neurons...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158414/molecular-basis-of-selective-resistance-of-the-bumblebee-binav1-sodium-channel-to-tau-fluvalinate
#7
Shaoying Wu, Yoshiko Nomura, Yuzhe Du, Boris S Zhorov, Ke Dong
Insecticides are widely used to control pests in agriculture and insect vectors that transmit human diseases. However, these chemicals can have a negative effect on nontarget, beneficial organisms including bees. Discovery and deployment of selective insecticides is a major mission of modern toxicology and pest management. Pyrethroids exert their toxic action by acting on insect voltage-gated sodium channels. Honeybees and bumblebees are highly sensitive to most pyrethroids, but are resistant to a particular pyrethroid, tau-fluvalinate (τ-FVL)...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158357/evidence-for-a-role-of-vascular-endothelium-in-the-control-of-arterial-wall-viscosity-in-humans
#8
Frederic Roca, Michele Iacob, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Jeremy Bellien, Robinson Joannides
Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is a major cause of energy dissipation along the arterial tree. Its determinants remain controversial but an active endothelial regulation has been suggested. Our objective was to assess in humans the physiological role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the effect of modulating smooth muscle tone in the regulation of AWV. We simultaneously measured radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and arterial pressure in healthy volunteers during the local infusion of inhibitors of NO-synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis by cytochrome P450 (fluconazole), the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids cellular targets calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), alone and in combination...
November 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156723/effects-of-pharmacological-gap-junction-and-sodium-channel-blockade-on-s1s2-restitution-properties-in-langendorff-perfused-mouse-hearts
#9
Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Guangping Li, Wendy Keung, Jie Ming Yeo, Yin Wah Fiona Chan, Bryan P Yan, Yat Sun Chan, Sunny Hei Wong, Ronald A Li, Jichao Zhao, William K K Wu, Wing Tak Wong
Gap junctions and sodium channels are the major molecular determinants of normal and abnormal electrical conduction through the myocardium, however, their exact contributions to arrhythmogenesis are unclear. We examined conduction and recovery properties of regular (S1) and extrasystolic (S2) action potentials (APs), S1S2 restitution and ventricular arrhythmogenicity using the gap junction and sodium channel inhibitor heptanol (2 mM) in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts (n=10). Monophasic action potential recordings obtained during S1S2 pacing showed that heptanol increased the proportion of hearts showing inducible ventricular tachycardia (0/10 vs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155487/novel-cyp6d1-and-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-alleles-of-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-and-their-roles-in-pyrethroid-resistance
#10
Jing Pan, Chan Yang, Yan Liu, Qi Gao, Mei Li, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: The house fly Musca domestica is an important disease vector. Point mutation mediated target-site insensitivity of the voltage gated sodium channel (VSSC) and increased detoxification mediated by CYP6D1 overexpression have been characterized to be two major mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance. In this study, genetic mutations in Vssc and CYP6D1 genes and their contribution to pyrethroid resistance were investigated. RESULTS: Twelve lines of house flies homozygous for four genotypes were established...
November 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154979/small-fiber-neuropathy-diagnosis-causes-and-treatment
#11
Damien Sène
Small fiber neuropathy, which affects the sensory A≏ and C fibers, is now a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Nearly 7% of the general population have chronic neuropathic pain responsible for severe quality-of-life impairments. Awareness must therefore be raised among clinicians of the somatosensory and autonomic symptoms that can reveal small fiber neuropathy, appropriate diagnostic investigations, most common causes, and best treatment options for each patient profile. To help achieve this goal, the present review article discusses the clinical presentation of neuropathic pain and paresthesia and/or autonomic dysfunction due to involvement of nerves supplying exocrine glands and smooth muscle; normal findings from standard electrophysiological investigations; most informative diagnostic tests (epidermal nerve fiber density in a skin biopsy, laser-evoked potentials, heat- and cold-detection thresholds, electrochemical skin conductance); main causes, which consist chiefly of metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance), dysimmunity syndromes (Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, monoclonal gammopathy), and genetic abnormalities (familial amyloidosis due to a transthyretin mutation, Fabry disease, sodium channel diseases); and the available symptomatic and etiological treatments...
November 15, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154907/an-integrated-mathematical-epithelial-cell-model-for-airway-surface-liquid-regulation-by-mechanical-forces
#12
Dan Wu, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button, Timothy Elston, Ching-Long Lin
A robust method based on reverse engineering was utilized to construct the ion-channel conductance functions for airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The ion-channel conductance models for both normal (NL) and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia were developed and then coupled to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism model and a fluid transport model (collectively called the integrated cell model) to investigate airway surface liquid (ASL) volume regulation and hence mucus concentration, by mechanical forces in NL and CF human airways...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153987/development-and-characterization-of-a-human-and-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayer-platform
#13
Kenji Kozuka, Ying He, Samantha Koo-McCoy, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Baoming Nie, Karen Shaw, Priscilla Chan, Michael Leadbetter, Limin He, Jason G Lewis, Ziyang Zhong, Dominique Charmot, Marwan Balaa, Andrew J King, Jeremy S Caldwell, Matthew Siegel
We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149030/using-next-generation-sequencing-to-detect-differential-expression-genes-in-bradysia-odoriphaga-after-exposure-to-insecticides
#14
Haoliang Chen, Lulu Lin, Farman Ali, Minghui Xie, Guangling Zhang, Weihua Su
Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is the most important pest of Chinese chive. Insecticides are used widely and frequently to control B. odoriphaga in China. However, the performance of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and clothianidin in controlling the Chinese chive maggot is quite different. Using next generation sequencing technology, different expression unigenes (DEUs) in B. odoriphaga were detected after treatment with chlorpyrifos and clothianidin for 6 and 48 h in comparison with control. The number of DEUs ranged between 703 and 1161 after insecticide treatment...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148067/should-theophylline-be-added-to-the-j-wave-syndrome-therapeutic-armamentarium
#15
EDITORIAL
Charles Antzelevitch, Sami Viskin
The substrate for both early repolarization syndrome (ERS) and Brugada syndrome (BrS), the so-called J wave syndromes, has been shown to develop as a consequence of genetic variants causing a loss of function of inward currents such sodium (INa ) and calcium (ICa ) channel currents or a gain of function in outward currents such as the transient outward current (Ito ). These changes in ion channel function result in an outward shift of the balance of currents active during the early phases of the epicardial action potential in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) of the heart in the case BrS and in the inferior left ventricle in the case of ERS...
November 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146176/neosaxitoxin-a-paralytic-shellfish-poison-toxin-effectively-manages-bucked-shins-pain-as-a-local-long-acting-pain-blocker-in-an-equine-model
#16
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145747/two-novel-families-with-hemiplegic-migraine-caused-by-recurrent-scn1a-mutation-p-f1499l
#17
Victoria Schubert, Eva Auffenberg, Saskia Biskup, Karin Jurkat-Rott, Tobias Freilinger
Background Familial hemiplegic migraine type 3 is a monogenic subtype of migraine caused by missense mutations in the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A, with 10 different mutations reported so far. In two familial hemiplegic migraine type 3 families, partial cosegregation with a rare eye phenotype (elicited repetitive daily blindness) was previously reported. Methods Two novel familial hemiplegic migraine pedigrees were subjected to genetic analysis and detailed work-up of associated clinical features...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144530/liddle-s-syndrome-in-an-african-male-due-to-a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-beta-subunit-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-gene
#18
Robert Freercks, Surita Meldau, Erika Jones, Jason Ensor, Clarise Weimers-Willard, Brian Rayner
Resistant hypertension is a common clinical problem in South Africa and is frequently associated with low renin and aldosterone levels, especially in black Africans. In South Africa, novel variants in the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) have been described to be associated with varying degrees of hypokalaemia and hypertension due to primary sodium retention. We report here a case of Liddle's syndrome due to a novel c.1709del11 (p.Ser570Tyrfs*20) deletion in the beta-subunit of the ENaC in a young black African male...
September 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143051/an-open-holey-structure-enhanced-rate-capability-in-a-nati2-po4-3-c-nanocomposite-and-provided-ultralong-life-sodium-ion-storage
#19
Liuxin Zhang, Xusheng Wang, Wenjun Deng, Xiaoling Zang, Chunyi Liu, Chang Li, Jitao Chen, Mianqi Xue, Rui Li, Feng Pan
Sodium-ion battery (SIB) technology is competitive in the fields of transportation and grid storage, which require electrode materials showing rapid energy conversion (high rate capability) and long cycle life. In this work, a NaTi2(PO4)3/C (NTP/C) nanocomposite with an open holey-structured framework was successfully prepared for the first time using a solvothermal reaction followed by pyrolysis. The nanocomposite realized fast sodium-ion transport and thus preferable battery performances. Within the wide rate range of 0...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142310/sodium-channel-nav1-3-is-important-for-enterochromaffin-cell-excitability-and-serotonin-release
#20
Peter R Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J Eggers, Joyce H Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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