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Trajectory of illness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904343/acute-stress-induced-epigenetic-modulations-and-their-potential-protective-role-toward-depression
#1
Francesco Rusconi, Elena Battaglioli
Psychiatric disorders entail maladaptive processes impairing individuals' ability to appropriately interface with environment. Among them, depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms including hopelessness and anhedonia, dramatically impacting the propensity to live a social and active life and seriously affecting working capability. Relevantly, besides genetic predisposition, foremost risk factors are stress-related, such as experiencing chronic psychosocial stress-including bullying, mobbing and abuse-, and undergoing economic crisis or chronic illnesses...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897430/post-consultation-illness-trajectories-in-children-with-acute-cough-and-respiratory-tract-infection-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Knut-Arne Wensaas, Jon Heron, Niamh Redmond, Sophie Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Hannah Thornton, Tim J Peters, Peter S Blair, Alastair D Hay
Background: Little is known about respiratory tract infection (RTI) severity in children following consultation. Objectives: To investigate post-consultation symptom trajectories in children with acute cough and RTI and whether baseline characteristics predict trajectory group. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 2296 children (3 months-16 years) whose parents were invited to report cough severity and duration using a 7-point Likert scale...
April 20, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877727/the-interplay-of-familial-and-individual-risk-in-predicting-clinical-improvements-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#3
Cara J Kiff, Stephanie Ernestus, Araceli Gonzalez, Philip C Kendall, Anne Marie Albano, Scott N Compton, Boris Birmaher, Golda S Ginsburg, Moira Rynn, John T Walkup, James McCracken, John Piacentini
Bioecological models of developmental psychopathology underscore the role of familial experiences of adversity and children's individual-level characteristics in heightening risk for pediatric anxiety through direct, combined, and interactive effects. To date, much of the existing research dedicated to pediatric anxiety disorders has largely been examined in bioecological models of diathesis-stress using community samples. This study extends our understanding of children's differential responsiveness to familial adversity by examining the diathesis-stress interaction of cumulative risk and children's individual-level vulnerabilities (negative affectivity and coping efficacy) within a clinic-referred treatment study for pediatric anxiety disorders...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874525/duration-and-determinants-of-hospice-based-specialist-palliative-care-a-national-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Matthew J Allsop, Lucy E Ziegler, Matthew R Mulvey, Sarah Russell, Ros Taylor, Michael I Bennett
BACKGROUND: Understanding service provision for patients with advanced disease is a research priority, with a need to identify barriers that limit widespread integration of palliative care. AIM: To identify patient and organisational factors that influence the duration of hospice-based palliative care in the United Kingdom prior to death. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 64 UK hospices providing specialist palliative care inpatient beds and community services extracted data for all adult decedents (aged over 17 years) with progressive, advanced disease, with a prior referral (e...
June 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872112/response-to-therapeutic-sleep-deprivation-a-naturalistic-study-of-clinical-and-genetic-factors-and-post-treatment-depressive-symptom-trajectory
#5
Nina Trautmann, Jerome C Foo, Josef Frank, Stephanie H Witt, Fabian Streit, Jens Treutlein, Steffen Conrad von Heydendorff, Maria Gilles, Andreas J Forstner, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, Markus M Nöthen, Michael Deuschle, Marcella Rietschel
Research has shown that therapeutic sleep deprivation (SD) has rapid antidepressant effects in the majority of depressed patients. Investigation of factors preceding and accompanying these effects may facilitate the identification of the underlying biological mechanisms. This exploratory study aimed to examine clinical and genetic factors predicting response to SD and determine the impact of SD on illness course. Mood during SD was also assessed via visual analogue scale. Depressed inpatients (n = 78) and healthy controls (n = 15) underwent ~36 h of SD...
May 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867602/cognitive-and-neurophysiological-recovery-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-study-protocol
#6
Ben J A Palanca, Hannah R Maybrier, Angela M Mickle, Nuri B Farber, R Edward Hogan, Emma R Trammel, J Wylie Spencer, Donald D Bohnenkamp, Troy S Wildes, ShiNung Ching, Eric Lenze, Mathias Basner, Max B Kelz, Michael S Avidan
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) employs the elective induction of generalizes seizures as a potent treatment for severe psychiatric illness. As such, ECT provides an opportunity to rigorously study the recovery of consciousness, reconstitution of cognition, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity following seizures. Fifteen patients with major depressive disorder refractory to pharmacologic therapy will be enrolled (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02761330). Adequate seizure duration will be confirmed following right unilateral ECT under etomidate anesthesia...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29865157/the-impact-of-austerity-on-mental-health-service-provision-a-uk-perspective
#7
Ian Cummins
This is a discussion paper which examines the impact of austerity policies on the provision of mental health services in the United Kingdom. Austerity is a shorthand for a series of policies introduced by the Conservative and Liberal Democrat Coalition government in the UK from 2010 onwards. In response to the fiscal crisis following the bail out of the banks in 2008, it was argued that significant reductions in public spending were required. The background to these policies is examined before a consideration of their impact on mental health services...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863925/hospice-use-and-end-of-life-spending-trajectories-in-medicare-beneficiaries-on-hemodialysis
#8
Ann M O'Hare, Susan M Hailpern, Melissa Wachterman, William Kreuter, Ronit Katz, Yoshio N Hall, Maria Montez-Rath, Manjula Kurella Tamura, Kenn B Daratha
Infrequent and late referral to hospice among patients on dialysis likely reflects the impact of a Medicare payment policy that discourages the concurrent receipt of these services, but it may also reflect these patients' less predictable illness trajectories. Among a national cohort of patients on hemodialysis, we identified four distinct spending trajectories during the last year of life that represented markedly different intensities of care. Within the cohort, 9 percent had escalating spending and 13 percent had persistently high spending throughout the last year of life, while 41 percent had relatively low spending with late escalation, and 37 percent had moderate spending with late escalation...
June 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848349/the-majority-of-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-achieve-a-health-related-quality-of-life-that-is-similar-to-that-of-healthy-peers-results-of-the-german-multicenter-inception-cohort-icon
#9
Miriam Listing, Kirsten Mönkemöller, Ina Liedmann, Martina Niewerth, Claudia Sengler, Joachim Listing, Dirk Foell, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Ariane Klein, Gerd Horneff, Gerd Ganser, Johannes-Peter Haas, Jens Klotsche, Kirsten Minden
BACKGROUND: Achieving the best possible health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for a patient is an important treatment goal in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We investigated the 36-month trajectories of HRQoL in children with JIA compared with healthy peers and identified the predictors of an unfavorable HRQoL. METHODS: Patients with a recent JIA diagnosis were enrolled in the German inception cohort study ICON. As a peer group, friends of patients of the same age and sex were asked to cooperate...
May 30, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848004/the-anrs-ipergay-trial-an-opportunity-to-use-qualitative-research-to-understand-the-perception-of-the-participant-physician-relationship
#10
Marion Di Ciaccio, Christel Protiere, Daniela Rojas Castro, Marie Suzan-Monti, Julie Chas, Laurent Cotte, Martin Siguier, Eric Cua, Bruno Spire, Jean-Michel Molina, Marie Preau
The ANRS-IPERGAY trial consisted in providing sexual activity-based antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention (PrEP) with a package of prevention tools (counselling, condoms, HIV and sexually transmitted infections' screening) to highly exposed HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). Few data exist concerning the patient-physician relationship in the particular context of PrEP, where physicians discuss sexual behaviours with MSM who are not classic patients, in that consultation is for prevention purposes, not for illness...
May 30, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800298/trajectories-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-parents-of-children-with-a-serious-childhood-illness-or-injury
#11
Frank Muscara, Maria C McCarthy, Stephen J C Hearps, Jan M Nicholson, Kylie Burke, Anica Dimovski, Simone Darling, Meredith Rayner, Vicki A Anderson
Objective: Serious childhood illness is associated with significant parent psychological distress. This study aimed to (a) document acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in parents of children with various life-threatening illnesses; (b) identify trajectory patterns of parental PTSS and recovery over 18 months; (c) determine psychosocial, demographic, and illness factors associated with trajectory group membership. Methods: In total, 159 parents (115 mothers, 44 fathers) from 122 families participated in a prospective, longitudinal study that assessed parent psychological responses across four time points-at diagnosis, and 3, 6, and 18 months later...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793469/whose-job-the-staffing-of-advance-care-planning-support-in-twelve-international-healthcare-organizations-a-qualitative-interview-study
#12
Josie Dixon, Martin Knapp
BACKGROUND: ACP involving a facilitated conversation with a health or care professional is more effective than document completion alone. In policy, there is an expectation that health and care professionals will provide ACP support, commonly within their existing roles. However, the potential contributions of different professionals are outlined only broadly in policy and guidance. Research on opportunities and barriers for involving different professionals in providing ACP support, and feasible models for doing so, is currently lacking...
May 24, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792039/identifying-palliative-care-needs-among-older-adults-in-nonclinical-settings
#13
Elissa Kozlov, Anna Cai, Jo Anne Sirey, Angela Ghesquiere, M Carrington Reid
Though palliative care is appropriate for patients with serious illness at any stage of the illness and treatment process, the vast majority of palliative care is currently delivered in inpatient medical settings in the past month of life during an acute hospitalization. Palliative care can have maximal benefit to patients when it is integrated earlier in the illness trajectory. One possible way to increase earlier palliative care use is to screen for unmet palliative care needs in community settings. The goal of this study was to assess the rates of unmet palliative care needs in older adults who attend New York City-based senior centers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790785/mental-health-trajectories-among-women-in-australia-as-they-age
#14
Thach Tran, Karin Hammarberg, Joanne Ryan, Judy Lowthian, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Alice Owen, Maggie Kirkman, Andrea Curtis, Heather Rowe, Helen Brown, Stephanie Ward, Carlene Britt, Jane Fisher
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the trajectories of mental health among women in Australia assessed in repeat waves from their early 70 s to the end of their lives or their mid 80 s. METHOD: Secondary analysis of data contributed by the 1921-26 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health Waves 1-6. Primary outcome was the 4-item SF-36 Vitality Subscale, which assesses mental health as life satisfaction, social participation, energy and enthusiasm. Structural, individual and intermediary factors were assessed using study-specific and standardised measures...
May 23, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788441/decision-making-involvement-and-prediction-of-adherence-in-youth-with-type-1-diabetes-a-cohort-sequential-study
#15
Victoria A Miller, Abbas F Jawad
Objective: To assess developmental trajectories of decision-making involvement (DMI), defined as the ways in which parents and children engage each other in decision-making about illness management, in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine the effects of DMI on levels of and changes in adherence with age. Methods: Participants included 117 youth with T1D, enrolled at ages 8-16 years and assessed five times over 2 years. The cohort sequential design allowed for the approximation of the longitudinal curve from age 8 to 19 from overlapping cohort segments...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781657/longitudinal-stability-of-cognitive-control-in-early-psychosis-nondegenerative-deficits-across-diagnoses
#16
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Ana-Maria Iosif, Tara A Niendam, Laura M Tully, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive impairment, particularly in the domain of cognitive control, is characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum and bipolar disorders (BDs). The longitudinal trajectory of these impairments, however, remains unclear. Indeed, some studies have observed degeneration and others stability or even improvement over time in these illnesses. Here we examined the longitudinal stability of the AX-Continuous Performance Task (AX-CPT), a cognitive control task, in 52 patients with recent-onset SZ (<2 years from first study measurement), 20 patients with recent-onset BD Type I with psychotic features, and 70 healthy control subjects...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779671/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-of-cognitive-performance-and-social-function-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-control-subjects
#17
Joseph D Viviano, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, James M Gold, George Foussias, Nikhil Bhagwat, Laura Stefanik, Colin Hawco, Pamela DeRosse, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Sofia Chavez, Peter Kochunov, Peter Kingsley, Xiangzhi Zhou, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g., good vs. poor cognition, deficit vs. nondeficit syndrome). METHODS: We evaluated a fully data-driven approach to do the same by building and validating a brain connectivity-based biomarker of social cognitive and neurocognitive performance in a sample using resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 74 healthy control participants, n = 114 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 188 total)...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774649/end-of-life-trajectory-of-coping-and-self-care-of-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-meta-synthesis-using-meta-ethnography
#18
Yasuko Igai
AIM: This study aimed to extract patient narratives regarding the end-of-life trajectory of their self-care and coping experiences as patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and to use meta-ethnography to discover common metaphors of their experience in order to inform the development of nursing interventions. METHODS: A comprehensive search of qualitative research using electronic databases, in English and Japanese, regarding patients with IPF, identified four articles...
May 17, 2018: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#19
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773478/preventive-strategies-for-mental-health
#20
REVIEW
Celso Arango, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Patrick D McGorry, Judith Rapoport, Iris E Sommer, Jacob A Vorstman, David McDaid, Oscar Marín, Elena Serrano-Drozdowskyj, Robert Freedman, William Carpenter
Available treatment methods have shown little effect on the burden associated with mental health disorders. We review promising universal, selective, and indicated preventive mental health strategies that might reduce the incidence of mental health disorders, or shift expected trajectories to less debilitating outcomes. Some of these interventions also seem to be cost-effective. In the transition to mental illness, the cumulative lifetime effect of multiple small effect size risk factors progressively increases vulnerability to mental health disorders...
May 14, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
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