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Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christen Ravn, Ulrika Furustrand Tafin, Bertrand Bétrisey, Søren Overgaard, Andrej Trampuz
Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin...
October 24, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Vigneshwaran Mani, Bhairav Paleja, Karima Larbi, Pavanish Kumar, Jo Ann Tay, Jie Yee Siew, Fatih Inci, ShuQi Wang, Cynthia Chee, Yee Tang Wang, Utkan Demirci, Gennaro De Libero, Amit Singhal
Access to point-of-care (POC), rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and instrument-free tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge. Here, we report a simple and low-cost microchip-based TB ELISA (MTBE) platform for the detection of anti-mycobacterial IgG in plasma samples in less than 15 minutes. The MTBE employs a flow-less, magnet-actuated, bead-based ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG responses against multiple mycobacterial antigens. Anti-trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) IgG responses were the strongest predictor for differentiating active tuberculosis (ATB) from healthy controls (HC) and latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI)...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arnaud Hemmerle, Matthias Schröter, Lucas Goehring
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Undine Schulz, Angelika Reil, Volker Kiefel, Jürgen Bux, Rainer Moog
BACKGROUND: To reduce the risk of transfusion-associated acute lung injury (TRALI), a high number of plasma donors were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies. For HNA antibody detection, the gold standard is a combination of the granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and the granulocyte agglutination test (GAT). However, these tests are not suitable for a high-throughput of samples. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To evaluate the new generation of the LABScreen MULTI assay (One Lambda, Inc...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Maurizio Forte, Luigi Mita, Rosa Perrone, Sergio Rossi, Mario Argirò, Damiano Gustavo Mita, Marco Guida, Marianna Portaccio, Tzonka Godievargova, Yavour Ivanov, Mahmoud T Tamer, Ahmed M Omer, Mohamed S Mohy Eldin
The removal of methylparaben (MP), a well-known endocrine disruptor, from aqueous solutions using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads has been studied under batch conditions, at room temperature and at different initial MP concentrations. The kinetic and equilibrium results have been analyzed. Kinetic modeling analysis has been carried out with three different types of adsorption models: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich model. Kinetic data analysis indicated that the adsorption was a second-order process...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Luke Burke, Chris J Mortimer, Daniel J Curtis, Aled R Lewis, Rhodri Williams, Karl Hawkins, Thierry G G Maffeis, Chris J Wright
We demonstrate a facile, one-step process to form polymer scaffolds composed of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) contained within electrospun nano- and micro-fibres of two biocompatible polymers, Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). This was achieved with both needle and free-surface electrospinning systems demonstrating the scalability of the composite fibre manufacture; a 228 fold increase in fibre fabrication was observed for the free-surface system. In all cases the nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds displayed morphological properties as good as or better than those previously described and fabricated using complex multi-stage techniques...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nenad B Milosavić, Radivoje M Prodanović, Dušan Velićković, Aleksandra Dimitrijević
One of the most used procedures for enzyme stabilization is immobilization. Although immobilization on solid supports has been pursued since the 1950s, there are no general rules for selecting the best support for a giving application. A macroporous copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate (poly (GMA-co-EGDMA)) is a carrier consisting of macroporous beads for immobilizing enzymes of industrial potential for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zorica D Knežević-Jugović, Sanja Ž Grbavčić, Jelena R Jovanović, Andrea B Stefanović, Dejan I Bezbradica, Dušan Ž Mijin, Mirjana G Antov
A selection of best combination of adequate immobilization support and efficient immobilization method is still a key requirement for successful application of immobilized enzymes on an industrial level. Eupergit(®) supports exhibit good mechanical and chemical properties and allow establishment of satisfactory hydrodynamic regime in enzyme reactors. This is advantageous for their wide application in enzyme immobilization after finding the most favorable immobilization method. Methods for enzyme immobilization that have been previously reported as efficient considering the obtained activity of immobilized enzyme are presented: direct binding to polymers via their epoxy groups, binding to polymers via a spacer made from ethylene diamine/glutaraldehyde, and coupling the periodate-oxidized sugar moieties of the enzymes to the polymer beads...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
M Y Othman, S Srihari
Foreign body ingestion among children is common and most usually pass through the gastrointestinal tract without requiring any intervention. Magnets, however, pose a greater threat especially when more than one are ingested. We report a case of multiple bowel perforation secondary to ingestion of magnetic beads in a 3-year-old.
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Meng Chen, Ning Gan, You Zhou, Tianhua Li, Qing Xu, Yuting Cao, Yinji Chen
An ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for simultaneous detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) and kanamycin (KAN) has been developed based on metal ions doped metal organic frame materials (MOFs) as signal tracers and RecJf exonuclease-catalyzed targets recycling amplification. The aptasensor consists of capture beads (the anti-single-stranded DNA Antibody, as anti-ssDNA Ab, labeled on Dynabeads) and nanoscale MOF (NMOF) based signal tracers (simplified as Apts-MNM, the NMOF labeled with metal ions and the aptamers)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Gabriel G Arantes de Carvalho, Stalin Kondaveeti, Denise F S Petri, Alexandre M Fioroto, Luiza G R Albuquerque, Pedro V Oliveira
Analytical methods for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in natural waters by plasma spectrochemical techniques often require sample preparation procedures for analytes preconcentration as well as for removing matrix constituents, that may interfere on the analytical measurements. In the present work, calcium alginate (CA) beads were used for the first time aiming at Ce, La and Nd preconcentration from groundwater samples for further determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Maria Angélica Luque-González, Mavys Tabraue-Chávez, Mario Antonio Fara, Barbara López-Longarela, Victoria Cano-Cortes, Francisco Javier López-Delgado, Rosario María Sánchez-Martín, Hugh Ilyine, Mark Bradley, Salvatore Pernagallo, Juan José Díaz-Mochón
Over the last decade, circulating microRNAs have received attention as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In particular, microRNA122 has been demonstrated to be an early and more sensitive indicator of drug-induced liver injury than the widely used biomarkers such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Recently, microRNA122 has been used in vitro to assess the cellular toxicity of new drugs and as a biomarker for the development of a rapid test for drug overdose/liver damage. In this proof-of-concept study, we report a PCR-free and label-free detection method that has a limit of detection (3 standard deviations) of 15 fmoles of microRNA122, by integrating a dynamic chemical approach for "Single Nucleobase Labelling" with a bead-based platform (Luminex(®)) thereby, in principle, demonstrating the exciting prospect of rapid and accurate profiling of any microRNAs related to diseases and toxicology...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Christine F Markwalter, Keersten M Ricks, Anna L Bitting, Lwiindi Mudenda, David W Wright
We have developed a rapid magnetic microparticle-based detection strategy for malarial biomarkers Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (PfHRPII). In this assay, magnetic particles functionalized with antibodies specific for pLDH and PfHRPII as well as detection antibodies with distinct enzymes for each biomarker are added to parasitized lysed blood samples. Sandwich complexes for pLDH and PfHRPII form on the surface of the magnetic beads, which are washed and sequentially re-suspended in detection enzyme substrate for each antigen...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Deying Liu, Jinxiang Liu, Jinghua Wang, Congcong Liu, Sirui Yang, Yanfang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Circulating follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are a heterogeneous population of CD4(+) helper T cells that promotes pathogenic immune responses in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we examined the status of different subpopulations of Tfh cells in peripheral circulation and their associations with various clinical characteristics of IgA vasculitis (IgAV). METHODS: According to the phenotypic expressions of different molecules, focus was given on six subpopulations of Tfh cells: CD4(+)CXCR5(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(+)PD-1(+), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD-1(high), CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(-)PD-1(+), and CXCR5(+)CD45RA(-)IL-21(+)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Immunology
Simon Felz, Salah Al-Zuhairy, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yue Mei Lin
To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), formaldehyde with NaOH and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with heat and constant mixing). AGS was collected from a pilot wastewater treatment reactor. The ionic gel-forming property of the extracted EPS of the six different extraction methods was tested with calcium ions (Ca(2+))...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nitzan Samra, Yoav Arava
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in every aspect of RNA metabolism and regulation. Their identification is a major challenge in modern biology. Only a few in vitro and in vivo methods enable the identification of RBPs associated with a particular target mRNA. However, their main limitations are the identification of RBPs in a non-cellular environment (in vitro) or the low efficiency isolation of RNA of interest (in vivo). An RNA-binding protein purification and identification (RaPID) methodology was designed to overcome these limitations in yeast and enable efficient isolation of proteins that are associated in vivo...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tanja Macheiner, Vera Heike Ingeborg Fengler, Marlene Agreiter, Tobias Eisenberg, Frank Madeo, Dagmar Kolb, Berthold Huppertz, Richard Ackbar, Karine Sargsyan
In the course of mitochondrial diseases standard care mostly focuses on treatment of symptoms, while therapeutic approaches aimed at restoring mitochondrial function are currently still in development. The transfer of healthy or modified mitochondria into host cells would open up the possibilities of new cell therapies. Therefore, in this study, a novel method of mitochondrial transfer is proposed by anti-TOM22 magnetic bead-labeled mitochondria with the assistance of a magnetic plate. In comparison to the passive transfer method, the magnetomitotransfer method was more efficient at transferring mitochondria into cells (78-92% vs 0-17% over 3 days)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Jonathan Sabaté Del Río, Teresa Mairal, Markéta Svobodová, Mohammad S El-Shahawi, Abdulaziz S Bashammakh, Abdulrahman O Alyoubi, Ciara K O'Sullivan
Lupin is increasingly being used in a variety of food products due to its nutritional, functional and nutraceutical properties. However, several examples of severe and even fatal food-associated anaphylaxis due to lupin inhalation or ingestion have been reported, resulting in the lupin subunit β-conglutin, being defined as the Lup an 1 allergen by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) in 2008. Here, we report an innovative method termed aptamer-recombinase polymerase amplification (Apta-RPA) exploiting the affinity and specificity of a DNA aptamer selected against the anaphylactic β-conglutin allergen termed β-conglutin binding aptamer II (β-CBA II), facilitating ultrasensitive detection via isothermal amplification...
October 20, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Christe Sonia Mary, Sasikumar Swamiappan
Purpose: Floating drug delivery system reduces the quantity of drug intake and the risk of overloading the organs with excess drug. Methods: In the present study, we prepared the blends of sodium alginate with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a matrix, sodium hydrogen carbonate as a pore forming agent, methyl cellulose as a binder and barium chloride containing 10% acetic acid as a hardening agent. Different ratios of pore forming agent to the polymer blend was used to prepare the floating beads with different porosity and morphology...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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