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epigenetics & major depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707086/epigenetics-of-metabolic-syndrome-as-a-mood-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Sermin Kesebir
Mood disorders comprise major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and the milder forms of these two disorders. Reccurring MDD is also known as unipolar disorder. The distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders was first suggested in 1957 by Leonard and was made official after support by several studies in 1980. Indeed, in 150 AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia wrote "It seems to me that melancholia is the beginning and a part of mania". Additionally, Kraepelin, who proposed the first medical disease model in psychiatry a century ago, considered recurrent unipolar depression cases under the category of bipolar disorder and conceptualized spectrum disorders...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701114/blood-biomarkers-and-treatment-response-in-major-depression
#2
Cristina Mora, Valentina Zonca, Marco A Riva, Annamaria Cattaneo
Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression, but despite advances in pharmacological therapies, many patients do not experience symptomatic remission or treatment response, even after treatments with several medications. As such, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that can not only predict the treatment response, but also allow a rational selection of optimal therapy for each patient. Areas covered: This review examines the recent findings, coming from different "omic sciences", in human blood-based biomarkers associated with antidepressant treatment response with particular attention on genetic/epigenetic and biochemical biomarkers...
April 27, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656664/epigenetic-aging-in-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Laura K M Han, Moji Aghajani, Shaunna L Clark, Robin F Chan, Mohammad W Hattab, Andrey A Shabalin, Min Zhao, Gaurav Kumar, Lin Ying Xie, Rick Jansen, Yuri Milaneschi, Brian Dean, Karolina A Aberg, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is associated with an increased risk of mortality and aging-related diseases. The authors examined whether major depression is associated with higher epigenetic aging in blood as measured by DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns, whether clinical characteristics of major depression have a further impact on these patterns, and whether the findings replicate in brain tissue. METHOD: DNAm age was estimated using all methylation sites in blood of 811 depressed patients and 319 control subjects with no lifetime psychiatric disorders and low depressive symptoms from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650294/increased-methylation-at-an-unexplored-glucocorticoid-responsive-element-within-exon-1-d-of-nr3c1-gene-is-related-to-anxious-depressive-disorders-and-decreased-hippocampal-connectivity
#4
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Cristian Tornador, Carles Falcón, Núria Bargalló, Gustavo Deco, Lourdes Fañanás
Among the major psychiatric disorders, anxious-depressive disorders stand out as one of the more prevalent and more frequently associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities. Methylation at the exon 1F of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 has been associated with both early stress exposure and risk for developing a psychiatric disorder; however, other NR3C1 promoter regions have been underexplored. Exon 1D emerges as a suggestive new target in stress-related disorders epigenetically sensitive to early adversity...
April 9, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618598/routine-assessment-and-promotion-of-physical-activity-in-healthcare-settings-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#5
REVIEW
Felipe Lobelo, Deborah Rohm Young, Robert Sallis, Michael D Garber, Sandra A Billinger, John Duperly, Adrian Hutber, Russell R Pate, Randal J Thomas, Michael E Widlansky, Michael V McConnell, Elizabeth A Joy
Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent major health risk factors, with 8 in 10 US adults not meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, and is associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Improving and maintaining recommended levels of physical activity leads to reductions in metabolic, hemodynamic, functional, body composition, and epigenetic risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Physical activity also has a significant role, in many cases comparable or superior to drug interventions, in the prevention and management of >40 conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression, Alzheimer disease, and arthritis...
May 1, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595559/mthfr-gene-methylation-is-associated-with-perceived-stress-in-healthy-young-adults
#6
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Diego A Forero
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors have been identified in the past years as interesting candidates for psychiatric disorders and related endophenotypes. It has been found that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with major depressive disorder, and the aim of the current study was to examine the possible association between perceived stress and MTHFR methylation, taking into account depressive symptoms as a covariate. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy Colombian participants (mean age=20...
June 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512466/mitochondria-a-connecting-link-in-the-major-depressive-disorder-jigsaw
#7
Shilpa Sharma, Ravi Shankar Akundi
BACKGROUND: Depression is a widespread phenomenon with varying degrees of pathology in different patients. Various hypotheses have been proposed for the cause and continuance of depression. Some of these include, but not limited to, the monoamine hypothesis, the neuroendocrine hypothesis, and the more recent epigenetic and inflammatory hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: In this article, we review all the above hypotheses with a focus on the role of mitochondria as the connecting link...
March 2, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469820/the-unexpected-tuners-are-lncrnas-regulating-host-translation-during-infections
#8
Primoz Knap, Toma Tebaldi, Francesca Di Leva, Marta Biagioli, Mauro Dalla Serra, Gabriella Viero
Pathogenic bacteria produce powerful virulent factors, such as pore-forming toxins, that promote their survival and cause serious damage to the host. Host cells reply to membrane stresses and ionic imbalance by modifying gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional and translational level, to recover from the toxin attack. The fact that the majority of the human transcriptome encodes for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) raises the question: do host cells deploy non-coding transcripts to rapidly control the most energy-consuming process in cells-i...
November 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456074/histone-deacetylases-hdacs-as-therapeutic-target-for-depressive-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Paulina Misztak, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents approximately 40% of the disability caused by mental illnesses globally. The poorly understood pathophysiology and limited efficiency of pharmacological treatment (based primarily on the principles of the monoaminergic hypothesis) make depression a serious medical, public and socio-economical problem. An increasing number of studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (alterations in gene expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence) in certain brain regions and neural circuits represent a key mechanism through which environmental factors interact with individual's genetic constitution to affect risk of mental disorders...
April 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408968/microrna132-associated-multimodal-neuroimaging-patterns-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Shile Qi, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Vince D Calhoun, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Shengfeng Liu, Rongtao Jiang, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Xiaohong Ma
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons...
February 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396460/epigenetic-modulation-of-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-promotes-resilience-against-stress-in-mice
#11
Jun Wang, Georgia E Hodes, Hongxing Zhang, Song Zhang, Wei Zhao, Sam A Golden, Weina Bi, Caroline Menard, Veronika Kana, Marylene Leboeuf, Marc Xie, Dana Bregman, Madeline L Pfau, Meghan E Flanigan, Adelaida Esteban-Fernández, Shrishailam Yemul, Ali Sharma, Lap Ho, Richard Dixon, Miriam Merad, Ming-Hu Han, Scott J Russo, Giulio M Pasinetti
Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the brain and the immune system. Chronic stress in animals showed that epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms play important roles in mediating resilience and susceptibility to depression. Here, through a high-throughput screening, we identify two phytochemicals, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) and malvidin-3'-O-glucoside (Mal-gluc) that are effective in promoting resilience against stress by modulating brain synaptic plasticity and peripheral inflammation...
February 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361849/role-of-complex-epigenetic-switching-in-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-suicide-subjects
#12
Qingzhong Wang, Bhaskar Roy, Gustavo Turecki, Richard C Shelton, Yogesh Dwivedi
OBJECTIVE: Proinflammatory cytokines have recently received considerable attention for their role in suicidal behavior; however, how the expression of cytokine genes is regulated is not clearly known. The authors examined underlying mechanisms of critical cytokine gene tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dysregulation in the brains of individuals who died by suicide. METHOD: TNF-α expression was examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the postmortem brains of persons with and without major depressive disorder who died by suicide and of persons with major depressive disorder who died of causes other than suicide...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305581/an-epigenome-wide-methylation-study-of-healthy-individuals-with-or-without-depressive-symptoms
#13
Mihoko Shimada, Takeshi Otowa, Taku Miyagawa, Tadashi Umekage, Yoshiya Kawamura, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto, Tempei Ikegame, Mamoru Tochigi, Kiyoto Kasai, Hisanobu Kaiya, Hisashi Tanii, Yuji Okazaki, Katsushi Tokunaga, Tsukasa Sasaki
Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric disorder that is thought to be triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. Depressive symptoms are an important public health problem and contribute to vulnerability to major depression. Although a substantial number of genetic and epigenetic studies have been performed to date, the detailed etiology of depression remains unclear and there are no validated biomarkers. DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications that play diverse roles in the etiology of complex diseases...
March 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275155/htr1a-1b-dna-methylation-may-predict-escitalopram-treatment-response-in-depressed-chinese-han-patients
#14
Peipei Wang, Qinyu Lv, Yemeng Mao, Cuizhen Zhang, Chenxi Bao, Hong Sun, Hanmei Chen, Zhenghui Yi, Weimin Cai, Yiru Fang
BACKGROUND: The serotonin receptor 1A and 1B (HTR1A/1B) gene have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and the antidepressant treatment response. Gene expression differences were partly mediated by genetic polymorphism and DNA methylation which might be affected by environmental factors. In the present study, we attempt to identify whether HTR1A/1B DNA methylation and genetic polymorphism could predict antidepressant treatment response. METHODS: 85 Chinese Han MDD patients were clinically assessed 8 weeks after of initiating escitalopram treatment for the first time...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251832/a-role-for-activity-dependent-epigenetics-in-the-development-and-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#15
REVIEW
C Nagy, K Vaillancourt, G Turecki
Chronic stressors, during developmental sensitive periods and beyond, contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and histone modifications, at key stress response and neurotrophin genes, are increasingly implicated in mediating this risk. Although the exact mechanisms through which stressful environmental stimuli alter the epigenome are still unclear, research from the learning and memory fields indicates that epigenomic marks can be altered, at least in part, through calcium-dependent signaling cascades in direct response to neuronal activity...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243873/a-comprehensive-review-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-regulate-bdnf-expression-and-function-with-relevance-to-major-depressive-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin Hing, Leela Sathyaputri, James B Potash
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD...
March 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229502/sodium-butyrate-abolishes-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-microglial-activation-in-mice
#17
Yosuke Yamawaki, Norika Yoshioka, Kanako Nozaki, Hikaru Ito, Keisuke Oda, Kana Harada, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Hidenori Aizawa, Shigeto Yamawaki, Takashi Kanematsu, Hiroyuki Akagi
Patients with major depressive disorder have elevated peripheral inflammation; the degree of this increase correlates with the severity of the disorder. Chronic psychological stress increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes microglial activation, leading to stress vulnerability. Epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, are also related to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, exerts an antidepressant effect by altering gene expression in the hippocampus...
February 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182159/epigenetic-changes-of-fkbp5-as-a-link-connecting-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors-with-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-in-major-depression
#18
Leonardo Tozzi, Chloe Farrell, Linda Booij, Kelly Doolin, Zsofia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Florence B Pomares, Julian Chiarella, Veronica O'Keane, Thomas Frodl
The gene for the glucocorticoid receptor regulator FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) plays a role for risk, response to treatment, and changes in brain areas in major depressive disorder (MDD). Chronic stress is associated with lower methylation of FKBP5. Our aim was to investigate whether methylation of FKBP5 reflected exposure to childhood adversity in MDD and controls and whether it was associated with structure and function of emotional processing regions. FKBP5 intron 7 GR response element region methylation and rs1360780 allelic status were assessed from whole blood in 56 MDD adults and 50 controls...
April 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162169/stress-exposure-and-psychopathology-alter-methylation-of-the-serotonin-receptor-2a-htr2a-gene-in-preschoolers
#19
Stephanie H Parade, Andrew M Novick, Justin Parent, Ronald Seifer, Samantha J Klaver, Carmen J Marsit, Asi Polly Gobin, Bao-Zhu Yang, Audrey R Tyrka
Serotonin signaling pathways play a key role in brain development, stress reactivity, and mental health. Epigenetic alterations in the serotonin system may underlie the effect of early life stress on psychopathology. The current study examined methylation of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) gene in a sample of 228 children including 119 with child welfare documentation of moderate to severe maltreatment within the last 6 months. Child protection records, semistructured interviews in the home, and parent reports were used to assess child stress exposure, psychiatric symptoms, and behavior...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154458/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-major-depression-targeting-neuronal-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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