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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509880/analysis-of-different-approaches-for-the-selection-of-reference-genes-in-rt-qpcr-experiments-a-case-study-in-skeletal-muscle-of-growing-mice
#1
Verónica G Piazza, Andrzej Bartke, Johanna G Miquet, Ana I Sotelo
The reliability of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results in gene expression studies depends on the approaches used to account for non-biological variations. In order to find a proper normalization strategy for the study of genes related to growth hormone signaling in skeletal muscle of growing mice, nine unrelated genes were evaluated as internal controls. According to the most used algorithms-geNorm, the Comparative ΔCq method, NormFinder and BestKeeper-GSK3B, YWHAZ, RPL13A and RN18S were found as the most stable...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484241/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-protects-human-islets-from-nutrient-deprivation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-apoptosis
#2
Shadab Abadpour, Sven O Göpel, Simen W Schive, Olle Korsgren, Aksel Foss, Hanne Scholz
One of the key limitations to successful human islet transplantation is loss of islets due to stress responses pre- and post-transplantation. Nutrient deprivation and ER stress have been identified as important mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Glial Cell-line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) has recently been found to promote islet survival after isolation. However, whether GDNF could rescue human islets from nutrient deprivation and ER stress-mediated apoptosis is unknown. Herein, by mimicking those conditions in vitro, we have shown that GDNF significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion, reduced apoptosis and proinsulin:insulin ratio in nutrient deprived human islets...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483784/thyroid-states-regulate-subcellular-glucose-phosphorylation-activity-in-male-mice
#3
Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos, Wagner Seixas da-Silva
The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are very important in organism metabolism and regulate glucose utilization. Hexokinase (HK) is responsible for the first step of glycolysis, catalyzing the conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate. HK has been found in different cellular compartments, and new functions have been attributed to this enzyme. The effects of hyperthyroidism on subcellular glucose phosphorylation in mouse tissues were examined. Tissues were removed, subcellular fractions isolated from eu- and hyperthyroid (T3, 0...
May 8, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483667/effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-on-hepatocyte-metabolism
#4
Yoni Genzer, Nava Chapnik, Oren Froy
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, plasticity and homeostasis of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbing BDNF signaling in mouse brain results in hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Currently, little is known whether BDNF affects liver tissue directly. Our aim was to determine the metabolic signaling pathways activated after BDNF treatment in hepatocytes. Unlike its effect in the brain, BDNF did not lead to activation of the liver AKT pathway...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451058/specific-phospholipid-scramblases-are-involved-in-exposure-of-phosphatidylserine-an-eat-me-signal-for-phagocytes-on-degenerating-axons
#5
Shuji Wakatsuki, Toshiyuki Araki
Axonal degeneration is a key pathological feature of several neurological disorders. Emerging evidence has suggested a pathological connection between axonal degeneration and autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway. We recently reported that GSK3B-mediated phosphorylation of MCL1 regulates axonal autophagy to promote axonal degeneration. GSK3B-MCL1 pathway affects ATP production locally in degenerating axons and the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), an "eat-me" signal for phagocytes, on degenerating axons, resulting in the failed engulfment of axonal debris in vivo...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427240/ube2t-knockdown-inhibits-gastric-cancer-progression
#6
Changjiang Luo, Yunyi Yao, Zeyuan Yu, Huinian Zhou, Lingyun Guo, Junqiang Zhang, Hongtai Cao, Genyuan Zhang, Yumin Li, Zuoyi Jiao
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2 enzymes) such as UBE2T target proteins for degradation via the proteasome. Here, we examined the effects of UBE2T on the progression of gastric cancer. UBE2T was highly expressed in gastric tumors and gastric cancer cells. siRNA-mediated suppression of UBE2T inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and colony formation by promoting cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and increasing apoptosis. Suppression of UBE2T also attenuated the invasive and metastatic abilities of gastric cancer cells by altering expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427047/co-activation-of-tgf%C3%AE-and-wnt-signalling-pathways-abrogates-emt-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#7
Tulika Mitra, Sib Sankar Roy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aggressive property of ovarian cancer (OC) in terms of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), proliferation and metastasis are of major concern. Different growth factors including TGFβ are associated with regulating these molecular events but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this report is to decipher the regulation of EMT by co-activation of TGFβ and Wnt signalling cascades in gaining malignancy. METHODS: The expression of the different components of signalling events were analyzed by QPCR, Western blot, Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381600/increased-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-promotes-airway-remodelling-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Yujie Wang, Man Jia, Xiaoyi Yan, Limin Cao, Peter J Barnes, Ian M Adcock, Mao Huang, Xin Yao
Airway remodelling is an important component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) from neutrophils may drive COPD epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). NGAL expression was quantified in the lungs of COPD patients and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of ozone-treated mice. Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness and E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression were determined in mice airways. Effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and inflammatory factors on NGAL expression in human neutrophils as well as the effects of NGAL on airway structural cells was assessed...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296937/effects-of-circadian-clock-genes-and-health-related-behavior-on-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-taiwanese-population-evidence-from-association-and-interaction-analysis
#9
Eugene Lin, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Yu-Li Liu, Albert C Yang, Chung-Feng Kao, Shih-Jen Tsai
Increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with the circadian clock genes. In this study, we assessed whether 29 circadian clock-related genes (including ADCYAP1, ARNTL, ARNTL2, BHLHE40, CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1D, CSNK1E, GSK3B, HCRTR2, KLF10, NFIL3, NPAS2, NR1D1, NR1D2, PER1, PER2, PER3, REV1, RORA, RORB, RORC, SENP3, SERPINE1, TIMELESS, TIPIN, VIP, and VIPR2) are associated with MetS and its individual components independently and/or through complex interactions in a Taiwanese population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260076/gene-expression-profiles-reveal-key-pathways-and-genes-associated-with-neuropathic-pain-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Xijing He, Liying Fan, Zhongheng Wu, Jiaxuan He, Bin Cheng
Previous gene expression profiling studies of neuropathic pain (NP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) have predominantly been performed in animal models. The present study aimed to investigate gene alterations in patients with spinal cord injury and to further examine the mechanisms underlying NP following SCI. The GSE69901 gene expression profile was downloaded from the public Gene Expression Omnibus database. Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 12 patients with intractable NP and 13 control patients without pain were analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), followed by functional enrichment analysis and protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network construction...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242499/the-interaction-of-gsk3b-and-fxr1-genotypes-may-influence-the-mania-and-depression-dimensions-in-mood-disorders
#11
Alexandre Bureau, Jean Martin Beaulieu, Thomas Paccalet, Yvon C Chagnon, Michel Maziade
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence in healthy subjects suggested that functional polymorphisms GSK3B rs12630592 and FXR1 rs496250 interact in regulating mood and emotional processing. We attempted to replicate this interaction primarily on manic and depressive dimensions in mood disorder patients, and secondarily on schizophrenia patients, diagnosis itself and age of onset. METHODS: Symptom dimensions were derived from the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History 82 items rated lifetime in acute episodes and stabilized interepisode intervals in 384 patients from the Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Eastern Quebec Kindred Study...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165492/enhanced-development-of-skeletal-myotubes-from-porcine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Nicholas J Genovese, Timothy L Domeier, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, R Michael Roberts
The pig is recognized as a valuable model in biomedical research in addition to its agricultural importance. Here we describe a means for generating skeletal muscle efficiently from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSC) in vitro thereby providing a versatile platform for applications ranging from regenerative biology to the ex vivo cultivation of meat. The GSK3B inhibitor, CHIR99021 was employed to suppress apoptosis, elicit WNT signaling events and drive naïve-type piPSC along the mesoderm lineage, and, in combination with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-cytidine, to activate an early skeletal muscle transcription program...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117839/the-genetic-overlap-between-mood-disorders-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-and-candidate-gene-studies
#13
REVIEW
A T Amare, K O Schubert, M Klingler-Hoffmann, S Cohen-Woods, B T Baune
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) and candidate gene studies have identified genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and mood disorders. Although previous efforts were successful for individual disease conditions (single disease), limited information exists on shared genetic risk between these disorders. This article presents a detailed review and analysis of cardiometabolic diseases risk (CMD-R) genes that are also associated with mood disorders...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096467/mir-21-mediated-radioresistance-occurs-via-promoting-repair-of-dna-double-strand-breaks
#14
Baocheng Hu, Xiang Wang, Shuofeng Hu, Xiaomin Ying, Ping Wang, Xiangming Zhang, Jian Wang, Hongyan Wang, Ya Wang
miR-21, as an oncogene that overexpresses in most human tumors, is involved in radioresistance; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-21-mediated radioresistance occurs through promoting repair of DNA double strand breaks, which includes facilitating both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR). The miR-21-promoted NHEJ occurs through targeting GSK3B (a novel target of miR-21), which affects the CRY2/PP5 pathway and in turn increases DNA-PKcs activity...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056994/hexokinase-2-drives-glycogen-accumulation-in-equine-endometrium-at-day-12-of-diestrus-and-pregnancy
#15
Sarah A Bramer, Alysson Macedo, Claudia Klein
BACKGROUND: Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. METHODS: mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy...
January 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053206/gsk3b-mediated-phosphorylation-of-mcl1-regulates-axonal-autophagy-to-promote-wallerian-degeneration
#16
Shuji Wakatsuki, Shinji Tokunaga, Megumi Shibata, Toshiyuki Araki
Macroautophagy is a catabolic process, in which portions of cytoplasm or organelles are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Emerging evidence has indicated a pathological connection between axonal degeneration and autophagy. However, the physiological function and induction mechanism of autophagy in axons remain elusive. We herein show that, through activation of BECLIN1, glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B)-mediated phosphorylation of BCL2 family member MCL1 induces axonal autophagy and axonal degeneration...
February 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997540/il-7-receptor-mutations-and-steroid-resistance-in-pediatric-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-genome-sequencing-study
#17
Yunlei Li, Jessica G C A M Buijs-Gladdines, Kirsten Canté-Barrett, Andrew P Stubbs, Eric M Vroegindeweij, Willem K Smits, Ronald van Marion, Winand N M Dinjens, Martin Horstmann, Roland P Kuiper, Rogier C Buijsman, Guido J R Zaman, Peter J van der Spek, Rob Pieters, Jules P P Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in children. T cell ALL (T-ALL) represents about 15% of pediatric ALL cases and is considered a high-risk disease. T-ALL is often associated with resistance to treatment, including steroids, which are currently the cornerstone for treating ALL; moreover, initial steroid response strongly predicts survival and cure. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying steroid resistance in T-ALL patients are poorly understood...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983596/estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-influencing-nrf1-regulated-gene-networks-in-the-development-of-complex-human-brain-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Mark Preciados, Changwon Yoo, Deodutta Roy
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978877/-detection-and-screen-of-pulmonary-metastasis-related-signature-genes-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
C Xu, H W Xiao, L H Zhang, P Wu, Y Fang, D W Li, W F Li, Z S Liao
Objective: To establish an animal model of pulmonary metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and to investigate differential genes associated with pulmonary metastasis. Methods: CNE cell line was used to construct the stable metastasis CNE/Luc cell line which steadily expresses the fluorescent enzyme genes. The CNE/Luc cells were injected into immunodeficiency mice through tail vein, and with the in vivo imaging technology, the mice with pulmonary metastasis were filtered out. The pulmonary metastasis cells, were separated and injected into the tail vein of other nude mice to obtain the tissue-specificity metastasis cells confirmed by fluorescent imaging system...
December 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922623/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-positive-role-of-treadmill-training-in-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Q Liu, B Zhang, C Liu, D Zhao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive role of treadmill training (TMT) in locomotor recovery. METHODS: GSE52763 microarray data were downloaded from GEO database, which was collected from the lumbar spinal cord samples of three groups of mice: mice subjected to contusive injury and killed 1 week after injury (I1), mice subjected to injury and killed 3 weeks after injury (I3), and mice subjected to injury and TMT beginning at week 1 and lasting until week 3 (T3)...
May 2017: Spinal Cord
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