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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197924/sumoylation-as-an-integral-mechanism-in-bacterial-infection-and-disease-progression
#1
Chittur V Srikanth, Smriti Verma
Post translational modification pathways regulate fundamental processes of cells and thus govern vital functions. Among these, particularly the modification with Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) is being recognized as a pathway crucial for cell homeostasis and health. Understandably, bacterial pathogens intervene with the SUMO pathway of the host for ensuring successful infection. Among the bacterial pathogens known to target host sumoylation varied points of intervention are utilized. Majority of them including Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes target the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195188/sumo-regulates-the-activity-of-smoothened-and-costal-2-in-drosophila-hedgehog-signaling
#2
Jie Zhang, Yajuan Liu, Kai Jiang, Jianhang Jia
In Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, the GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo) acts as a signal transducer that is regulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitination, which ultimately change the cell surface accumulation of Smo. However, it is not clear whether Smo is regulated by other post-translational modifications, such as sumoylation. Here, we demonstrate that knockdown of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway components Ubc9 (a SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2), PIAS (a SUMO-protein ligase E3), and Smt3 (the SUMO isoform in Drosophila) by RNAi prevents Smo accumulation and alters Smo activity in the wing...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150190/estrogen-modulates-ubc9-expression-and-synaptic-redistribution-in-the-brain-of-app-ps1-mice-and-cortical-neurons
#3
Yu-Jie Lai, Lu Liu, Xiao-Tong Hu, Ling He, Guo-Jun Chen
Estrogen exerts multiple actions in the brain and is an important neuroprotective factor in a number of neuronal disorders. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies demonstrate that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (ubc9) has an integral role in synaptic plasticity and may contribute to the pathology of neuronal disorders. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on ubc9 and in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Ubc9 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice with enhanced SUMOylation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143738/manipulating-pml-sumoylation-via-silencing-ubc9-and-rnf4-regulates-cardiac-fibrosis
#4
Yu Liu, Dan Zhao, Fang Qiu, Ling-Ling Zhang, Shang-Kun Liu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Mei-Tong Liu, Di Wu, Jia-Xin Wang, Xiao-Qing Ding, Yan-Xin Liu, Chang-Jiang Dong, Xiao-Qi Shao, Bao-Feng Yang, Wen-Feng Chu
The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is essential in the assembly of dynamic subnuclear structures called PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), which are involved in regulating diverse cellular functions. However, the possibility of PML being involved in cardiac disease has not been examined. In mice undergoing transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) injection, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was upregulated along with dynamic alteration of PML SUMOylation. In cultured neonatal mouse cardiac fibroblasts (NMCFs), ATO, angiotensin II (Ang II), and fetal bovine serum (FBS) significantly triggered PML SUMOylation and the assembly of PML-NBs...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132806/rifampicin-pre-treatment-inhibits-the-toxicity-of-rotenone-induced-pc12-cells-by-enhancing-sumoylation-modification-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#5
D Lin, X Jing, Y Chen, Y Liang, M Lei, S Peng, T Zhou, D Zheng, Z Zeng, X Wu, L Yang, S Xiao, J Liu, E Tao
Our previous research revealed that rifampicin could protect PC12 (pheochromocytoma 12) cells from rotenone-induced cytotoxicity by reversing the aggregation of α-synuclein. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicated that the misfolded α-synuclein with SUMOylation, an important protein posttranslational modification, was easier to solubilize and was less toxic. Here, we investigated whether rifampicin could stabilize α-synuclein and prevent rotenone-induced PC12 cells from undergoing apoptosis by enhancing SUMOylation of α-synuclein...
January 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078755/modulation-of-host-cell-sumoylation-facilitates-efficient-development-of-plasmodium-berghei-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
Mulaka Maruthi, Dipti Singh, Segireddy Rameswara Reddy, Babu S Mastan, Satish Mishra, Kota Arun Kumar
SUMOylation is a reversible post translational modification of proteins that regulates protein stabilization, nucleocytoplasmic transport, and protein-protein interactions. Several viruses and bacteria modulate host SUMOylation machinery for efficient infection. Plasmodium sporozoites are infective forms of malaria parasite that invade mammalian hepatocytes and transforms into exoerythrocytic forms (EEFs). Here, we show that during EEF development, the distribution of SUMOylated proteins in host cell nuclei was significantly reduced and expression of the SUMOylation enzymes was downregulated...
January 12, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993970/identification-of-a-multifunctional-docking-site-on-the-catalytic-unit-of-phosphodiesterase-4-pde4-that-is-utilised-by-multiple-interaction-partners
#7
Kirsty F Houslay, Frank Christian, Ruth MacLeod, David R Adams, Miles D Houslay, George S Baillie
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-specific phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) enzymes underpin compartmentalised cAMP signalling by localising to distinct signalling complexes. PDE4 long isoforms can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which attenuates activation of such enzymes through their phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Here we show that MK2 interacts directly with PDE4 long isoforms and define the sites of interaction. One is a unique site that locates within the regulatory upstream conserved region 1 (UCR1) domain and contains a core Phe141, Leu142 and Tyr143 (FLY) cluster (PDE4A5 numbering)...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889610/cacul1-cac1-attenuates-p53-activity-through-pml-post-translational-modification
#8
Tomomi Fukuda, Yu Kigoshi-Tansho, Takao Naganuma, Akira Kazaana, Tomomi Okajima, Fuminori Tsuruta, Tomoki Chiba
Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) is a tumor suppressor protein covalently conjugated with SUMO family proteins, leading to the formation of PML nuclear bodies (NBs). PML-NBs provide a platform for efficient posttranslational modification of targets and protein-protein interaction, contributing to the adjustment of gene expression and chromatin integrity. Although PML SUMOylation is thought to play important roles in diverse cellular functions, the control mechanisms of adequate modification levels have remained unsolved...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878232/involvement-of-bleomycin-hydrolase-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-in-ubc9-mediated-resistance-to-chemotherapy-agents
#9
Yang Chen, Huixian Zhang, Qiyang He
Ubiquitin-conjugating protein 9 (Ubc9), the sole enzyme for sumoylation, plays critical roles in many physiological functions, such as DNA damage repair and genome integrity. Its overexpression led to poor prognosis and drug resistance in tumor chemotherapy. However, the underlying mechanism by which Ubc9 promotes tumor progress and influences the susceptibility to antitumor agents remains elusive. In this study, we used nine antitumor agents with distinct actions to explore Ubc9-mediated resistance in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806335/orthoreovirus-outer-fiber-proteins-are-substrates-for-sumo-conjugating-enzyme-ubc9
#10
Fei Yu, Hao Wang, Longlong Wang, Liqun Lu
Reoviruses are potential anticancer agents due to their ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the best characterized models on reovirus pathogenesis in vitro. However, there is little known about how SUMOylation affects reovirus pathogenesis. The SUMO conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9) determines the targets of SUMOylation. Here, the protein interactions between reovirus outer fiber proteins, specifically GCRV-104 VP55, and Ubc9 were probed using a yeast two-hybrid system...
October 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758866/mitochondrial-activity-in-human-white-adipocytes-is-regulated-by-the-ubiquitin-carrier-protein-9-microrna-30a-axis
#11
Eun Hee Koh, Yong Chen, David A Bader, Mark P Hamilton, Bin He, Brian York, Shingo Kajimura, Sean E McGuire, Sean M Hartig
The acquisition of beige adipocyte features by white fat cells corresponds to protection against obesity-induced metabolic diseases in humans and animal models of type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, expression of the E2 small ubiquitin-like modifier ligase ubiquitin carrier protein 9 (Ubc9) is positively correlated with markers of insulin resistance and corresponds with impaired browning of human white adipocytes. However, the molecular regulation of Ubc9 expression in adipocytes and other cells remains unclear...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658615/sumoylation-of-ikb-attenuates-nf-kb-induced-nitrosative-stress-at-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-and-cardiovascular-depression-in-experimental-brain-death
#12
Ching-Yi Tsai, Faith C H Li, Carol H Y Wu, Alice Y W Chang, Samuel H H Chan
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins that participates in post-translational modifications. One known SUMO target is the transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) that plays a pivotal role in many disease processes; sumoylation inactivates NF-kB by conjugation with inhibitors of NF-kB (IkB). Our laboratory demonstrated previously that transcriptional upregulation of nitric oxide synthase II (NOS II) by NF-kB, leading to nitrosative stress by the formation of peroxynitrite in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), underpins the defunct brain stem cardiovascular regulation that precedes brain death...
2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631796/reconstitution-of-the-recombinant-ranbp2-sumo-e3-ligase-complex
#13
Tobias Ritterhoff, Hrishikesh Das, Yuqing Hao, Volkan Sakin, Annette Flotho, Andreas Werner, Frauke Melchior
One of the few proteins that have SUMO E3 ligase activity is the 358 kDa nucleoporin RanBP2 (Nup358). While small fragments of RanBP2 can stimulate SUMOylation in vitro, the physiologically relevant E3 ligase is a stable multi-subunit complex comprised of RanBP2, SUMOylated RanGAP1, and Ubc9. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to in vitro reconstitute the RanBP2 SUMO E3 ligase complex. With the exception of RanBP2, reconstitution involves untagged full-length proteins. We describe the bacterial expression and purification of all complex components, namely an 86 kDa His-tagged RanBP2 fragment, the SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, RanGAP1, and SUMO1, and we provide a protocol for quantitative SUMOylation of RanGAP1...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604867/sumoylation-regulates-the-intracellular-fate-of-zo-2
#14
Franziska Wetzel, Sonnhild Mittag, Misael Cano-Cortina, Tobias Wagner, Oliver H Krämer, Rainer Niedenthal, Lorenza Gonzalez-Mariscal, Otmar Huber
The zonula occludens (ZO)-2 protein links tight junctional transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton and associates with splicing and transcription factors in the nucleus. Multiple posttranslational modifications control the intracellular distribution of ZO-2. Here, we report that ZO-2 is a target of the SUMOylation machinery and provide evidence on how this modification may affect its cellular distribution and function. We show that ZO-2 associates with the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and with SUMO-deconjugating proteases SENP1 and SENP3...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573291/making-the-connections-autophagy-and-post-translational-modifications-in-cardiomyocytes
#15
Manish K Gupta, Jeffrey Robbins
Cardiac proteins are subject to continuous stress and these intrinsic and extrinsic factors, both physiological and pathological can lead to protein misfolding. If the protein quality control (PQC) pathways are in any way compromised or their activities diminished, intracellular aggregates can form and a proteotoxic environment is generated, which contributes to cardiac disease and heart failure. We studied the role that SUMO post-translational modification plays in a proteotoxic cardiac environment. SUMOylation can have an integral role in controlling flux through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and expression of the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) E2 enzyme UBE2I/UBC9 improves cardiac PQC...
November 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561301/ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-9-phosphorylation-as-a-novel-mechanism-for-potentiation-of-the-inflammatory-response
#16
Maria Lauda Tomasi, Komal Ramani, Minjung Ryoo
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, induces inflammation in macrophages via activation of NF-κB signaling. Sumoylation is a post-translational modification mediated by the small ubiquitin-like modifier, SUMO. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) is the only known SUMO conjugating enzyme. LPS treatment lowers SUMO-1 and UBC9 mRNA levels in primary astrocytes. UBC9 can degrade NF-κB inhibitor α (Ikbα) via a SUMO2/3-ubiquitin pathway. However, UBC9 may also promote Ikbα stability by SUMO-1 conjugation that further regulates NF-κB signaling...
September 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524263/characterisation-and-expression-analysis-of-ubc9-and-ubs27-genes-in-developing-gonads-of-cicindelids-coleoptera-cicindelidae
#17
María Juliana Rodríguez-García, Andrés García-Reina, Vilmar Machado, José Galián
Ubiquitin and small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) are post-translational modifiers essential in a variety of cellular processes, including gametogenesis. SUMO-conjugating enzyme (UBC9) and the ubiquitin ribosomal fusion protein UBS27 have been characterised in several model species. However, their expression in coleopteran remains unstudied. In this study, UBC9 and UBS27 genes have been characterised in the tiger beetle Cicindela campestris for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the Cc-UBC9 gene encoded a 159 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 18...
December 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501389/is-transthyretin-a-regulator-of-ubc9-sumoylation
#18
Elżbieta Wieczorek, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Katarzyna Sołtys, Urszula Jankowska, Rafał Hołubowicz, Justyna Seliga, Andrzej Ożyhar
Ageing and mutations of transthyretin (TTR), the thyroid hormones and retinol transporting protein lead to amyloidosis by destabilizing the structure of TTR. Because protein structure is regulated through posttranslational modifications, we investigated the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)ylation of TTR. We chose the widely used Ubc9 fusion-directed SUMOylation system, which is based on a fusion of the SUMOylation substrate of interest with Ubc9, a sole SUMO conjugating enzyme. Surprisingly, despite our presumptions, we found that Ubc9 fused to TTR was SUMOylated at a unique set of lysine residues...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489081/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-attenuates-lysophosphatidylcholine-induced-il-8-expression-in-endothelial-cells-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-sumoylation
#19
Xukun Bi, Jiale Song, Jing Gao, Juanjuan Zhao, Meihui Wang, Corey A Scipione, Marlys L Koschinsky, Zhao V Wang, Shiming Xu, Guosheng Fu
The liver X receptor (LXR) is a cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptor that has an established function in lipid metabolism; however, its role in inflammation is elusive. In this study, we showed that the LXR agonist GW3965 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the firm adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. To further address the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, we evaluated the effects of LXR agonist on interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
December 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426629/the-methyltransferase-suv39h1-links-the-sumo-pathway-to-hp1%C3%AE-marking-at-pericentric-heterochromatin
#20
Christèle Maison, Delphine Bailly, Jean-Pierre Quivy, Geneviève Almouzni
The trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) - a mark recognized by HP1 that depends on the Suv39h lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) - has provided a basis for the reader/writer model to explain HP1 accumulation at pericentric heterochromatin in mammals. Here, we identify the Suv39h1 paralog, as a unique enhancer of HP1α sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. The region responsible for promoting HP1α sumoylation (aa1-167) is distinct from the KMT catalytic domain and mediates binding to Ubc9. Tethering the 1-167 domain of Suv39h1 to pericentric heterochromatin, but not mutants unable to bind Ubc9, accelerates the de novo targeting of HP1α to these domains...
2016: Nature Communications
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