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SUMOylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212444/sumo-modification-of-a-heterochromatin-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-enables-viral-gene-transactivation-and-viral-replication
#1
Wan-Shan Yang, Mel Campbell, Pei-Ching Chang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205128/heat-shock-protein-70-protects-cardiomyocytes-through-suppressing-sumoylation-and-nucleus-translocation-of-phosphorylated-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-2-during-myocardial-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#2
Chao Zhang, Xiaojuan Liu, Jin Miao, Shengcun Wang, Liucheng Wu, Daliang Yan, Jingjing Li, Wanwan Guo, Xiang Wu, Aiguo Shen
Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MIR) results in cardiomyocyte apoptosis with severe outcomes, which blocks cardiac tissue recovering from myocardial ischemia diseases. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is one of protective molecule chaperones which could regulate the nucleus translocation of other proteins. In addition, eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which modulates protein translation process, is vital to the recovery of heart during MIR. However, the relationship between HSP70 and eEF2 and its effects on MIR are unclear...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204881/genetic-evidence-for-functional-interaction-of-smc5-6-complex-and-top1-with-spatial-frequency-of-replication-origins-required-for-maintenance-of-chromosome-stability
#3
Ragini Rai, Shikha Laloraya
Replication of linear chromosomes is facilitated by firing of multiple replication origins that ensures timely duplication of the entire chromosome. The Smc5/6 complex is thought to play an important role in replication by its involvement in the restart of collapsed replication forks. Here, we present genetic evidence for functional interaction between replication origin distribution and two subunits of the Smc5/6 complex, Smc6 and Mms21, as well as Top1. An artificial chromosome that has a long arm having low origin density (5ori∆YAC) is relatively unstable compared to the YAC having normal origin distribution in wild-type cells, but is partially stabilized in smc6-56 and top1∆ mutants...
February 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202068/the-dna-damage-response-promotes-polyomavirus-jc-infection-by-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-nf-kappab-activation
#4
Martyn K White, Anna Bellizzi, Gabriele Ibba, Valeria Pietropaolo, Anna T Palamara, Hassen S Wollebo
BACKGROUND: Infection of glial cells by human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV), the causative agent of the CNS demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), rapidly inflicts damage to cellular DNA. This activates DNA damage response (DDR) signaling including induction of expression of DNA repair factor Rad51. We previously reported that Rad51 co-operates with the transcription factor NF-κB p65 to activate JCV early transcription. Thus Rad51 induction by JCV infection may provide positive feedback for viral activation early in JCV infection...
February 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201649/a-ck2-rnf4-interplay-coordinates-non-canonical-sumoylation-and-degradation-of-nuclear-receptor-fxr
#5
Stéphanie Bilodeau, Véronique Caron, Jonathan Gagnon, Alexandre Kuftedjian, André Tremblay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198400/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase37-regulates-tcf7-dna-binding-for-the-activation-of-wnt-signalling
#6
Wonhee Han, Hyeyoon Lee, Jin-Kwan Han
The Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors mediates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including vertebrate embryogenesis and diverse pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, sumoylation and acetylation, are known to be important for the regulation of Tcf/Lef proteins. However, the importance of ubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms for Tcf/Lef activity are still unclear. Here, we newly show that ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (Uch37), a deubiquitinase, interacts with Tcf7 (formerly named Tcf1) to activate Wnt signalling...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197924/sumoylation-as-an-integral-mechanism-in-bacterial-infection-and-disease-progression
#7
Chittur V Srikanth, Smriti Verma
Post translational modification pathways regulate fundamental processes of cells and thus govern vital functions. Among these, particularly the modification with Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) is being recognized as a pathway crucial for cell homeostasis and health. Understandably, bacterial pathogens intervene with the SUMO pathway of the host for ensuring successful infection. Among the bacterial pathogens known to target host sumoylation varied points of intervention are utilized. Majority of them including Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes target the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197923/viral-interplay-with-the-host-sumoylation-system
#8
Van G Wilson
Viruses have evolved elaborate means to regulate diverse cellular pathways in order to create a cellular environment that facilitates viral survival and reproduction. This includes enhancing viral macromolecular synthesis and assembly, as well as preventing antiviral responses, including intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. There are numerous mechanisms by which viruses mediate their effects on the host cell, and this includes targeting various cellular post-translational modification systems, including sumoylation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197922/coordination-of-cellular-localization-dependent-effects-of-sumoylation-in-regulating-cardiovascular-and-neurological-diseases
#9
Jun-Ichi Abe, Uday G Sandhu, Nguyet Minh Hoang, Manoj Thangam, Raymundo A Quintana-Quezada, Keigi Fujiwara, Nhat Tu Le
Sumoylation, a reversible post-transcriptional modification process, of proteins are involved in cellular differentiation, growth, and even motility by regulating various protein functions. Sumoylation is not limited to cytosolic proteins as recent evidence shows that nuclear proteins, those associated with membranes, and mitochondrial proteins are also sumoylated. Moreover, it is now known that sumoylation plays an important role in the process of major human ailments such as malignant, cardiovascular and neurological diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197921/sumoylation-in-craniofacial-disorders
#10
Erwin Pauws, Philip Stanier
Craniofacial development requires a complex series of coordinated and finely tuned events to take place, during a relatively short time frame. These events are set in motion by switching on and off transcriptional cascades that involve the use of numerous signalling pathways and a multitude of factors that act at the site of gene transcription. It is now well known that amidst the subtlety of this process lies the intricate world of protein modification, and the posttranslational addition of the small ubiquitin -like modifier, SUMO, is an example that has been implicated in this process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197920/sumoylation-modulates-the-susceptibility-to-type-1-diabetes
#11
Jing Zhang, Zhishui Chen, Zhiguang Zhou, Ping Yang, Cong-Yi Wang
Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by interactions of multiple genes with environmental triggers. Thus far, more than 50 T1D susceptibility regions have been suggested from genetic studies by employing either genome-wide or candidate gene approaches. Because the lack of a linear correlation between the presence of risk genes and the onset of disease, the exact susceptible genes encoded in these regions remain largely elusive. In 2004, we first reported the cloning of a novel small ubiquitin -like modifier (SUMO) gene, SUMO4, in the IDDM5 region on chromosome 6q25, and presented strong genetic and functional evidence suggesting that SUMO4 could be a novel T1D susceptibility gene...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197919/sumoylation-and-its-contribution-to-cancer
#12
Jason S Lee, Hee June Choi, Sung Hee Baek
Post-translational modifications play an important role in regulating protein activity by altering their functions. Sumoylation is a highly dynamic process which is tightly regulated by a fine balance between conjugating and deconjugating enzyme activities. It affects intracellular localization and their interaction with their binding partners, thereby changing gene expression. Consequently, these changes in turn affect signaling mechanisms that regulate many cellular functions, such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis , DNA repair , and cell survival...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197918/sumoylation-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Dina B Anderson, Camila A Zanella, Jeremy M Henley, Helena Cimarosti
The covalent posttranslational modifications of proteins are critical events in signaling cascades that enable cells to efficiently, rapidly and reversibly respond to extracellular stimuli. This is especially important in the CNS where the processes affecting synaptic communication between neurons are highly complex and very tightly regulated. Sumoylation regulates the function and fate of a diverse array of proteins and participates in the complex cell signaling pathways required for cell survival. One of the most complex signaling pathways is synaptic transmission...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197916/regulation-of-plant-cellular-and-organismal-development-by-sumo
#14
Nabil Elrouby
This chapter clearly demonstrates the breadth and spectrum of the processes that SUMO regulates during plant development. The gross phenotypes observed in mutants of the SUMO conjugation and deconjugation enzymes reflect these essential roles, and detailed analyses of these mutants under different growth conditions revealed roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses, phosphate starvation, nitrate and sulphur metabolism, freezing and drought tolerance and response to excess copper. SUMO functions also intersect with those regulated by several hormones such as salicylic acid , abscisic acid , gibberellins and auxin, and detailed studies provide mechanistic clues of how sumoylation may regulate these processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197915/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-senescence
#15
Lyndee L Scurr, Sebastian Haferkamp, Helen Rizos
Cellular senescence is a program initiated by many stress signals including aberrant activation of oncogenes, DNA damage, oxidative lesions and telomere attrition. Once engaged senescence irreversibly limits cellular proliferation and potently prevents tumor formation in vivo. The precise mechanisms driving the onset of senescence are still not completely defined, although the pRb and p53 tumor suppressor pathways converge with the SUMO cascade to regulate cellular senescence. Sumoylation translocates p53 to PML nuclear bodies where it can co-operate with many sumoylated co-factors in a program that activates pRb and favors senescence...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197914/sumoylation-in-development-and-differentiation
#16
Adeline F Deyrieux, Van G Wilson
Tissue morphogenesis is a fascinating aspect of both developmental biology and regeneration of certain adult organs, and timely control of cellular differentiation is a key to these processes. During development, events interrupting cellular differentiation and leading to organ failure are embryonic lethal; likewise, perturbation of differentiation in regenerating tissues leads to dysfunction and disease. At the molecular level, cellular differentiation is orchestrated by a well-coordinated cascade of transcription factors (TFs) and chromatin remodeling complexes that drive gene expression...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197913/wrestling-with-chromosomes-the-roles-of-sumo-during-meiosis
#17
Amanda C Nottke, Hyun-Min Kim, Monica P Colaiácovo
Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division required for the formation of haploid gametes and therefore is essential for successful sexual reproduction. Various steps are exquisitely coordinated to ensure accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, thereby promoting the formation of haploid gametes from diploid cells. Recent studies are demonstrating that an important form of regulation during meiosis is exerted by the post-translational protein modification known as sumoylation. Here, we review and discuss the various critical steps of meiosis in which SUMO-mediated regulation has been implicated thus far...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197912/the-sumo-pathway-in-mitosis
#18
Debaditya Mukhopadhyay, Mary Dasso
Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which replicated chromosomes must be precisely divided to allow the formation of two daughter cells possessing equal genetic material. Much of the careful spatial and temporal organization of mitosis is maintained through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, of key cellular proteins. Here, we will review evidence that sumoylation, conjugation to the SUMO family of small ubiquitin-like modifiers, also serves essential regulatory roles during mitosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197910/sumo-modification-of-ion-channels
#19
Mark Benson, Jorge A Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jeffrey Martens
Recently, a role for SUMO modification outside of the nucleus has emerged. Although the number of extranuclear proteins known to be sumoylated is comparatively small, ion channels represent one important new class of these proteins. Ion channels are responsible for the control of membrane excitability and therefore are critical for fundamental physiological processes such as muscle contraction, neuronal firing, and cellular homeostasis. As such, these ion-conducting proteins are subject to precise regulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197909/sumo-and-nucleocytoplasmic-transport
#20
Christopher Ptak, Richard W Wozniak
The transport of proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through nuclear pore complexes and is facilitated by numerous transport factors. These transport processes are often regulated by post-translational modification or, reciprocally, transport can function to control post-translational modifications through regulated transport of key modifying enzymes. This interplay extends to relationships between nucleocytoplasmic transport and SUMO-dependent pathways. Examples of protein sumoylation inhibiting or stimulating nucleocytoplasmic transport have been documented, both through its effects on the physical properties of cargo molecules and by directly regulating the functions of components of the nuclear transport machinery...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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