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Calcium channels

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636748/e-cadherin-mediates-uvr-and-calcium-induced-melanin-transfer-in-human-skin-cells
#1
Suman K Singh, Richard Baker, Stephen K Sikkink, Carine Nizard, Sylvianne Schnebert, Robin Kurfurst, Desmond J Tobin
Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal-melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer, that this can be enhanced by filopodial and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can up-regulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca(2+) -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca(2+) , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca(2+) via calcium selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632329/postictal-hypoperfusion-hypoxia-provides-the-foundation-for-a-unified-theory-of-seizure-induced-brain-abnormalities-and-behavioral-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Jordan S Farrell, Roberto Colangeli, Marshal D Wolff, Alexandra K Wall, Thomas J Phillips, Antis George, Paolo Federico, G Campbell Teskey
A recent article by Farrell et al. characterizes the phenomenon, mechanisms, and treatment of a local and severe hypoperfusion/hypoxia event that occurs in brain regions following a focal seizure. Given the well-established role of cerebral ischemia/hypoxia in brain damage and behavioral dysfunction in other clinical settings (e.g., stroke, cerebral vasospasm), we put forward a new theory: postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia is responsible for the negative consequences associated with seizures. Fortunately, inhibition of two separate molecular targets, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and l-type calcium channels, can prevent the expression of postictal hypoperfusion/hypoxia...
June 20, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632001/vasodilator-responsiveness-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-identifying-a-distinct-phenotype-with-distinct-physiology-and-distinct-prognosis
#3
David Langleben, Stylianos Orfanos
Within the cohort of patients suffering from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a group that responds dramatically (VR-PAH) to an acute vasodilator challenge and that has excellent long-term hemodynamic improvement and prognosis on high dose calcium channel blockers compared with vasodilator non-responders (VN-PAH). For the purposes of diagnosing VR-PAH, there is to date no test to replace the acute vasodilator challenge. However, recent studies have identified markers that may aid in the identification of VR-PAH, including peripheral blood lymphocyte RNA expression levels of desmogelin-2 and Ras homolog gene family member Q, and plasma levels of provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus...
June 20, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631947/predominant-contribution-of-l-type-cav1-2-channel-stimulation-to-impaired-intracellular-calcium-and-cerebral-artery-vasoconstriction-in-diabetic-hyperglycemia
#4
Stefano Morotti, Madeline Nieves-Cintrón, Matthew A Nystoriak, Manuel F Navedo, Eleonora Grandi
Enhanced L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) activity in arterial myocytes contributes to vascular dysfunction during diabetes. Modulation of LTCC activity under hyperglycemic conditions could result from membrane potential-dependent and independent mechanisms. We have demonstrated that elevations in extracellular glucose (HG), similar to hyperglycemic conditions during diabetes, stimulate LTCC activity through phosphorylation of CaV1.2 at serine 1928. Prior studies have also shown that HG can suppress the activity of K(+) channels in arterial myocytes, which may contribute to vasoconstriction via membrane depolarization...
February 10, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631094/post-translational-remodeling-of-ryanodine-receptor-induces-calcium-leak-leading-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits
#5
Alain Lacampagne, Xiaoping Liu, Steven Reiken, Renaud Bussiere, Albano C Meli, Inger Lauritzen, Andrew F Teich, Ran Zalk, Nathalie Saint, Ottavio Arancio, Charlotte Bauer, Fabrice Duprat, Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann, Michael L Shelanski, Frederic Checler, Mounia Chami, Andrew R Marks
The mechanisms underlying ryanodine receptor (RyR) dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) are still not well understood. Here, we show that neuronal RyR2 channels undergo post-translational remodeling (PKA phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation) in brains of AD patients, and in two murine models of AD (3 × Tg-AD, APP (+/-) /PS1 (+/-)). RyR2 is depleted of calstabin2 (KFBP12.6) in the channel complex, resulting in endoplasmic reticular (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) leak. RyR-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak activates Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways, contributing to AD pathogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630432/down-regulation-of-kca2-3-channels-causes-erectile-dysfunction-in-mice
#6
Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Attila Kun, Elise R Hedegaard, Susie Mogensen, Christian Aalkjaer, Ralf Köhler, Birgitte Mønster Christensen, Ulf Simonsen
Modulation of endothelial calcium-activated K(+) channels has been proposed as an approach to restore arterial endothelial cell function in disease. We hypothesized that small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels (KCa2.3 or SK3) contributes to erectile function. The research was performed in transgenic mice with overexpression (KCa2.3 (T/T(-Dox))) or down-regulation (KCa2.3 (T/T(+Dox))) of the KCa2.3 channels and wild-type C57BL/6-mice (WT). QPCR revealed that KCa2.3 and KCa1.1 channels were the most abundant in mouse corpus cavernosum...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629764/oral-versus-topical-calcium-channel-blockers-for-chronic-anal-fissure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
Shaheel M Sahebally, Khalid Ahmed, Raminta Cerneveciute, Asif Iqbal, Stewart R Walsh, Myles R Joyce
BACKGROUND: Chemical sphincterotomy with pharmacological agents is recommended as first line therapy for chronic anal fissures (CAF). Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are associated with similar efficacy but fewer side effects compared to nitrates. However, the optimal formulation (oral versus topical) is unknown. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of oral and topical CCB in the treatment of CAF. METHODS: PubMed and Embase online databases were searched for relevant articles...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629730/synergistic-antinociceptive-effect-of-a-calcium-channel-blocker-and-a-trpv1-blocker-in-an-acute-pain-model-in-mice
#8
Manuella R Palhares, Juliana F Silva, Marcio Junior S Rezende, Duana C Santos, Cláudio A Silva-Junior, Márcia H Borges, Juliano Ferreira, Marcus V Gomez, Célio J Castro Junior
AIMS: Extensive evidence supports a role for voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and TRPV1 receptors in pain transmission and modulation. We investigated the profile of analgesic interaction between Phα1β toxin (a VGCC blocker) and SB366791 (selective TRPV1 antagonist) in a model of acute pain induced by capsaicin. Changes in body temperature induced by combination regimens were also evaluated. MAIN METHODS: Isobolographic approach with a fixed dose-ratio of combined drugs was used to determine whether antinociceptive interaction of Phα1β and SB366791 are subadditive, additive or synergic...
June 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629579/role-of-soce-architects-stim-and-orai-proteins-in-cell-death
#9
REVIEW
Jyoti Tanwar, Rajender K Motiani
Calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling plays a critical role in regulating plethora of cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation and migration. The perturbations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis can lead to cell death either by activating autophagic pathways or through induction of apoptosis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major storehouse of Ca(2+) within cells and a number of physiological agonists mediate ER Ca(2+) release by activating IP3 receptors (IP3R). This decrease in ER Ca(2+) levels is sensed by STIM, which physically interacts and activates plasma membrane Ca(2+) selective Orai channels...
June 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627017/functional-expression-of-calcium-permeable-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-4-containing-channels-promotes-migration-of-medulloblastoma-cells
#10
Wei-Chun Wei, Wan-Chen Huang, Yu-Ping Lin, Esther B E Becker, Olaf Ansorge, Veit Flockerzi, Daniele Conti, Giovanna Cenacchi, Maike D Glitsch
Aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) signalling contributes to the formation and progression of a range of distinct pathologies including cancers. Rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration occur in response to Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which can be mobilised in response to activation of cell surface receptors. OGR1 (Ovarian cancer G protein coupled Receptor 1, aka GPR68) is a proton-sensing Gq -coupled receptor that is most highly expressed in cerebellum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625505/bioequivalence-study-of-a-new-fixed-dose-combination-tablet-containing-s-amlodipine-nicotinate-and-olmesartan-medoxomil-in-healthy-korean-male-subjects
#11
Mi Jin Oh, Hyun Hwan Hwang, Hyun Gyu Kim, Geun Hyeog Lee, Yun-Seok Cho, Sun Young Lee, Soo Yeon Kang, Kyung Hee Cho, Yun Young Lee, Yun Jeong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Seok-Yong Lee
PURPOSE: A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625263/-bacterial-endotoxin-induced-endothelial-cell-injury-and-calcium-overload-associated-with-toll-like-receptor-and-calcium-signal
#12
Jianguo Xiao, Qing Song, Tanshi Li, Rongju Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD2), and stromal interaction molecular 1 (STIM1) for regulating human vascular endothelial calcium overload injury and inflammatory reaction induced by bacterial endotoxin (LPS). METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM). (1) The levels of TLR4, MD2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by reverse transcriotion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) before and 0...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623807/hiv-tat-excites-d1-receptor-like-expressing-neurons-from-rat-nucleus-accumbens
#13
G Cristina Brailoiu, Elena Deliu, Jeffrey L Barr, Linda M Console-Bram, Alexandra M Ciuciu, Mary E Abood, Ellen M Unterwald, Eugen Brailoiu
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection and drug abuse are frequently co-morbid and their association greatly increases the severity of HIV-1-induced neuropathology. While nucleus accumbens (NAcc) function is severely perturbed by drugs of abuse, little is known about how HIV-1 infection affects NAcc. METHODS: We used calcium and voltage imaging to investigate the effect of HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) on rat NAcc. Based on previous neuronal studies, we hypothesized that Tat modulates intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis of NAcc neurons...
June 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623463/hypotonicity-induced-cell-swelling-activates-trpa1
#14
Fumitaka Fujita, Kunitoshi Uchida, Yasunori Takayama, Yoshiro Suzuki, Masayuki Takaishi, Makoto Tominaga
Hypotonic solutions can cause painful sensations in nasal and ocular mucosa through molecular mechanisms that are not entirely understood. We clarified the ability of human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) to respond to physical stimulus, and evaluated the response of hTRPA1 to cell swelling under hypotonic conditions. Using a Ca(2+)-imaging method, we found that modulation of AITC-induced hTRPA1 activity occurred under hypotonic conditions. Moreover, cell swelling in hypotonic conditions evoked single-channel activation of hTRPA1 in a cell-attached mode when the patch pipette was attached after cell swelling under hypotonic conditions, but not before swelling...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622547/co-morbidity-and-clinically-significant-interactions-between-antiepileptic-drugs-and-other-drugs-in-elderly-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy
#15
Emmi Bruun, Lauri J Virta, Reetta Kälviäinen, Tapani Keränen
PURPOSE: A study was conducted to investigate the frequency of potential pharmacokinetic drug-to-drug interactions in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We also investigated co-morbid conditions associated with epilepsy. METHOD: From the register of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH) we identified community-dwelling patients aged 65 or above with newly diagnosed epilepsy and in whom use of the first individual antiepileptic drug (AED) began in 2000-2013 (n=529)...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622523/intracellular-ca-2-sensing-its-role-in-calcium-homeostasis-and-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Rafaela Bagur, György Hajnóczky
Ca(2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that controls diverse cellular functions but can become toxic and cause cell death. Selective control of specific targets depends on spatiotemporal patterning of the calcium signal and decoding it by multiple, tunable, and often strategically positioned Ca(2+)-sensing elements. Ca(2+) is detected by specialized motifs on proteins that have been biochemically characterized decades ago. However, the field of Ca(2+) sensing has been reenergized by recent progress in fluorescent technology, genetics, and cryo-EM...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622417/the-antimigraine-butterbur-ingredient-isopetasin-desensitises-peptidergic-nociceptors-via-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel
#17
Silvia Benemei, Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Filippo Ugolini, Wolfgang Liedtke, Pollastro Federica, Giovanni Appendino, Pierangelo Geppetti, Serena Materazzi, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanism of the antimigraine action of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major butterbur constituent, to specifically target the transient receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in isolated rat/mouse urinary bladder, release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from mouse spinal cord in vitro, and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rat were examined...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#18
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621590/cystoscopic-diagnosis-of-polypoid-cystitis-in-two-pet-rabbits
#19
Nicola Di Girolamo, Laura Bongiovanni, Silvia Ferro, Raffaele Melidone, Annalisa Nicoletti, Valeria Del Duca, Thomas M Donnelly, Paolo Selleri
CASE DESCRIPTION AS-year-old male Dwarf rabbit and 4-year-old female Mini-Rex rabbit were evaluated because of anorexia and urine scalding of the perineum. CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal radiography revealed a diffuse increase in the opacity of the urinary bladder attributable to urinary sludge. In 1 rabbit, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several mass-like lesions protruding from the mucosal surface into the lumen of the urinary bladder. Rabbits were anesthetized, and cystoscopy was performed with a rigid 2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620305/comparative-effects-of-chloride-channel-inhibitors-on-lrrc8-vrac-mediated-chloride-conductance
#20
Jonas Friard, Michel Tauc, Marc Cougnon, Vincent Compan, Christophe Duranton, Isabelle Rubera
Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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