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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417059/susceptibility-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc-h103-and-h376-cell-lines-to-retroviral-oskm-mediated-reprogramming
#1
Nalini Devi Verusingam, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Ian C Paterson, Suan Phaik Khoo, Soon Keng Cheong, Alan H K Ong, Tunku Kamarul
Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388559/enhanced-tumor-growth-inhibition-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-ipscs-with-targeted-integration-of-interleukin24-into-rdna-loci
#2
Bo Liu, Fei Chen, Yong Wu, Xiaolin Wang, Mai Feng, Zhuo Li, Miaojin Zhou, Yanchi Wang, Lingqian Wu, Xionghao Liu, Desheng Liang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for clinical applications. In this study, we transformed human iPSCs using a non-viral vector carrying the IL24 transgene pHrn-IL24. PCR and southern blotting confirmed IL24 integration into the rDNA loci in four of 68 iPSC clones. We then differentiated a high expressing IL24-iPSC clone into MSCs (IL24-iMSCs) that showed higher expression of IL24 in culture supernatants and in cell lysates than control iMSCs. IL24-iMSCs efficiently differentiated into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388431/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-enables-functional-validation-of-gwas-variants-in-metabolic-disease
#3
Curtis R Warren, John F O'Sullivan, Max Friesen, Caroline E Becker, Xiaoling Zhang, Poching Liu, Yoshiyuki Wakabayashi, Jordan E Morningstar, Xu Shi, Jihoon Choi, Fang Xia, Derek T Peters, Mary H C Florido, Alexander M Tsankov, Eilene Duberow, Lauren Comisar, Jennifer Shay, Xin Jiang, Alexander Meissner, Kiran Musunuru, Sekar Kathiresan, Laurence Daheron, Jun Zhu, Robert E Gerszten, Rahul C Deo, Ramachandran S Vasan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Chad A Cowan
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have highlighted a large number of genetic variants with potential disease association, but functional analysis remains a challenge. Here we describe an approach to functionally validate identified variants through differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to study cellular pathophysiology. We collected peripheral blood cells from Framingham Heart Study participants and reprogrammed them to iPSCs. We then differentiated 68 iPSC lines into hepatocytes and adipocytes to investigate the effect of the 1p13 rs12740374 variant on cardiometabolic disease phenotypes via transcriptomics and metabolomic signatures...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356547/mechanisms-of-ips-cell-generation-and-beyond
#4
Keisuke Kaji
The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, transformed our classical views of the cellular epigenetic landscape and delivered a new concept for cell and tissue engineering. In addition to iPSCs, several other cell types have also been generated by master transcription factor (TF)-mediated transdifferentiation. However, the critical molecular mechanisms amongst diverse cellular identity changes are not well understood. Through the investigation of reprogramming mechanisms, we recently revealed that over-expression of constitutive active Smad3 boosted not only iPSC generation, but also 3 other master TF-mediated conversions, from B cells to macrophages, myoblasts to adipocytes, and human fibroblasts to neurons...
2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270145/selective-activation-of-mirnas-of-the-primate-specific-chromosome-19-mirna-cluster-c19mc-in-cancer-and-stem-cells-and-possible-contribution-to-regulation-of-apoptosis
#5
Phan Nguyen Nhi Nguyen, Chiu-Jung Huang, Shigeki Sugii, Soon Keng Cheong, Kong Bung Choo
BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) of 43 genes is a primate-specific miRNA cluster that may have biological significance in the genetic complexity of the primate. Despite previous reports on individual C19MC miRNA expression in cancer and stem cells, systematic studies on C19MC miRNA expression and biological functions are lacking. RESULTS: Cluster-wide C19MC miRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis showed wholesome C19MC activation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163724/kindlin-2-modulates-the-survival-differentiation-and-migration-of-induced-pluripotent-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#6
Mohsen Moslem, Reto Eggenschwiler, Christian Wichmann, Raymund Buhmann, Tobias Cantz, Reinhard Henschler
Kindlin-2 is a multidomain intracellular protein that can be recruited to β-integrin domains to activate signaling, initiate transcriptional programs, and bind to E-cadherin. To explore its involvement in cell fate decisions in mesenchymal cells, we studied the effects of Kindlin-2 modification (overexpression/knockdown) in induced pluripotent cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iPSC-MSCs). Kindlin-2 overexpression resulted in increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis of iPSC-MSCs, as well as inhibition of their differentiation towards osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117838/early-onset-of-inflammation-during-ontogeny-of-bipolar-disorder-the-nlrp2-inflammasome-gene-distinctly-differentiates-between-patients-and-healthy-controls-in-the-transition-between-ips-cell-and-neural-stem-cell-stages
#7
D Vizlin-Hodzic, Q Zhai, S Illes, K Södersten, K Truvé, T Z Parris, P K Sobhan, S Salmela, S T Kosalai, C Kanduri, J Strandberg, H Seth, T O Bontell, E Hanse, H Ågren, K Funa
Neuro-inflammation and neuronal communication are considered as mis-regulated processes in the aetiology and pathology of bipolar disorder (BD). Which and when specific signal pathways become abnormal during the ontogeny of bipolar disorder patients is unknown. To address this question, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology followed by cortical neural differentiation on adipocyte-derived cells from BD type I patients (with psychotic episodes in psychiatric history) and healthy volunteers (controls)...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992514/induction-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Yoriko Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Tsutomu Fujimura, Shigeru Moriwaki
The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904680/enhancement-of-early-cardiac-differentiation-of-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-by-dimethyloxalylglycine-via-notch-signaling-pathway
#9
Fuhai Li, Zongzhuang Li, Zhi Jiang, Ye Tian, Zhi Wang, Wei Yi, Chenyun Zhang
Background: Hypoxia has been reported to possess the ability to induce mature lipid-filled adipocytes to differentiate into fibroblast-like multipotent dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells and stem cells such as iPSCs (interstitial pluripotent stem cells) and ESCs (embryonic stem cells) and then to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. However, the effect of hypoxia on cardiac differentiation of DFAT cells and its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be investigated. Objective: To investigate the role of hypoxia in early cardiac differentiation of DFAT cells and the underlying molecular mechanism...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864696/generation-and-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveal-ankylosing-spondylitis-risk-gene-expression-in-bone-progenitors
#10
Gerlinde Layh-Schmitt, Shajia Lu, Fatemeh Navid, Stephen R Brooks, Emily Lazowick, Kathryn M Davis, Cristina Montagna, Massimo Gadina, Robert A Colbert
Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), which encompasses ankylosing spondylitis, is a complex genetic disease. Aberrant bone formation is a key feature of pathogenesis that can lead to ankylosis of the spine. Our objective is to determine, whether genes whose variants confer susceptibility to AS are expressed in bone progenitors like mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since MSCs from bone marrow is difficult to obtain, we first examined, whether MSCs can be derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Dermal fibroblasts of two axSpA patients and one healthy control were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus vector encoding pluripotency genes...
January 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240827/multipotent-differentiation-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-a-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
N Nuti, C Corallo, B M F Chan, M Ferrari, B Gerami-Naini
The advent of regenerative medicine has brought us the opportunity to regenerate, modify and restore human organs function. Stem cells, a key resource in regenerative medicine, are defined as clonogenic, self-renewing, progenitor cells that can generate into one or more specialized cell types. Stem cells have been classified into three main groups: embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult/postnatal stem cells (ASCs). The present review focused the attention on ASCs, which have been identified in many perioral tissues such as dental pulp, periodontal ligament, follicle, gingival, alveolar bone and papilla...
October 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206577/generation-of-neural-crest-like-cells-from-human-periodontal-ligament-cell-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Atsushi Tomokiyo, Kim Hynes, Jia Ng, Danijela Menicanin, Esther Camp, Agnes Arthur, Stan Gronthos, P Mark Bartold
Neural crest cells (NCC) hold great promise for tissue engineering, however the inability to easily obtain large numbers of NCC is a major factor limiting their use in studies of regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are emerging as a novel candidate that could provide an unlimited source of NCC. In the present study, we examined the potential of neural crest tissue-derived periodontal ligament (PDL) iPSC to differentiate into neural crest-like cells (NCLC) relative to iPSC generated from a non-neural crest derived tissue, foreskin fibroblasts (FF)...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27130501/a-bioluminescent-assay-for-measuring-glucose-uptake
#13
Michael P Valley, Natasha Karassina, Natsuyo Aoyama, Coby Carlson, James J Cali, Jolanta Vidugiriene
Identifying activators and inhibitors of glucose uptake is critical for both diabetes management and anticancer therapy. To facilitate such studies, easy-to-use nonradioactive assays are desired. Here we describe a bioluminescent glucose uptake assay for measuring glucose transport in cells. The assay is based on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and the enzymatic detection of the 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate that accumulates. Uptake can be measured from a variety of cell types, it can be inhibited by known glucose transporter inhibitors, and the bioluminescent assay yields similar results when compared with the radioactive method...
July 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108524/establishment-and-adipocyte-differentiation-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Sheng Yang, Shufang Ding, Xianglong Jiang, Bolan Sun, Qianhua Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish a new biological cell model and approach to mimic abnormal lipid metabolism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epithelial cells from PCOS patients were reprogrammed to pluripotency by retroviral transduction using defined factors. Morphology, growth characteristics, karyotype, gene expression and differentiation in vitro and in vivo were detected by identification protocol of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
June 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981171/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-towards-therapeutic-development-for-the-treatment-of-lifestyle-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Miwako Nishio, Masako Nakahara, Akira Yuo, Kumiko Saeki
There are two types of human pluripotent stem cells: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), both of which launched themselves on clinical trials after having taken measures to overcome problems: Blocking rejections by immunosuppressants regarding ESCs and minimizing the risk of tumorigenicity by depleting exogenous gene components regarding iPSCs. It is generally assumed that clinical applications of human pluripotent stem cells should be limited to those cases where there are no alternative measures for treatments because of the risk in transplanting those cells to living bodies...
February 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884346/muse-cells-provide-the-pluripotency-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-direct-contribution-of-muse-cells-to-tissue-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Mari Dezawa
While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow and adipose tissue, they are heterogeneous, and their entire composition is not fully identified. MSCs are not only able to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, which belong to the same mesodermal lineage, but they are also able to cross boundaries between mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages, and differentiate into neuronal- and hepatocyte-like cells. However, the ratio of such differentiation is not very high, suggesting that only a subpopulation of the MSCs participates in this cross-lineage differentiation phenomenon...
2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365511/reprogrammed-functional-brown-adipocytes-ameliorate-insulin-resistance-and-dyslipidemia-in-diet-induced-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Tsunao Kishida, Akika Ejima, Kenta Yamamoto, Seiji Tanaka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Osam Mazda
Brown adipocytes (BAs) play important roles in body temperature regulation, energy balance, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Activities of BAs are remarkably diminished in obese and diabetic patients, providing possibilities of transplanting functional BAs resulting in therapeutic benefit. Here, we show generation of functional BAs by cellular reprogramming procedures. Transduction of the PRDM16 gene into iPSC-derived embryoid bodies induced BA phenotypes (iBAs). Moreover, normal human fibroblasts were directly converted into BAs (dBAs) by C/EBP-β and C-MYC gene transduction...
October 13, 2015: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26282538/mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-retain-adequate-osteogenicity-and-chondrogenicity-but-less-adipogenicity
#18
Ran Kang, Yan Zhou, Shuang Tan, Guangqian Zhou, Lars Aagaard, Lin Xie, Cody Bünger, Lars Bolund, Yonglun Luo
INTRODUCTION: Previously, we established a simple method for deriving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs). These iPSC-MSCs were capable of forming osteogenic structures in scaffolds and nanofibers. The objective of this study is to systematically characterize the mesenchymal characteristics of the iPSC-MSCs by comparing them to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). METHODS: Two iPSC-MSC lines (named as mRNA-iPSC-MSC-YL001 and lenti-iPSC-MSC-A001) and one BM-MSC line were used for the study...
2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25797907/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-current-trends-and-future-prospective
#19
REVIEW
Imran Ullah, Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao, Gyu Jin Rho
Stem cells are cells specialized cell, capable of renewing themselves through cell division and can differentiate into multi-lineage cells. These cells are categorized as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which can be isolated from human and animal sources. Human MSCs (hMSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineage such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes)...
2015: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404570/deciphering-the-heterogeneity-in-dna-methylation-patterns-during-stem-cell-differentiation-and-reprogramming
#20
Xiaojian Shao, Cuiyun Zhang, Ming-An Sun, Xuemei Lu, Hehuang Xie
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have a wide range of applications throughout the fields of basic research, disease modeling and drug screening. Epigenetic instable iPSCs with aberrant DNA methylation may divide and differentiate into cancer cells. Unfortunately, little effort has been taken to compare the epigenetic variation in iPSCs with that in differentiated cells. Here, we developed an analytical procedure to decipher the DNA methylation heterogeneity of mixed cells and further exploited it to quantitatively assess the DNA methylation variation in the methylomes of adipose-derived stem cells (ADS), mature adipocytes differentiated from ADS cells (ADS-adipose) and iPSCs reprogrammed from ADS cells (ADS-iPSCs)...
2014: BMC Genomics
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