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Asim Shuja, Amie Deutch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Justin Ralph Abbatemarco, Mary Alissa Willis, Robert G Wilson, Sean J Nagel, Andre G Machado, Francois A Bethoux
OBJECTIVES: Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is associated with axial rigidity superimposed on sustained muscle spasms. These symptoms commonly interfere with the performance of activities of daily living including ambulation. This retrospective case series evaluates the outcomes of screening tests and chronic infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in patients diagnosed with SPS treated in our spasticity clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from an institutional review board-approved clinical registry of ITB therapy...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Sylvia A Duraski, Anjum Sayyad
This article details an unreported potential cause of withdrawal symptoms in a patient with cerebral palsy who experienced intrathecal baclofen withdrawal shortly after placement of a baclofen pump with subsequent refill with Gablofen. Initial implantation of the baclofen pump with Lioresal occurred after a successful hospital trial of intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture. However, later, the patient did experience signs and symptoms of baclofen withdrawal after a pump refill was performed with Gablofen...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Fiona J Rowe, Kerry Hanna, Jennifer R Evans, Carmel P Noonan, Marta Garcia-Finana, Caroline S Dodridge, Claire Howard, Kathryn A Jarvis, Sonia L MacDiarmid, Tallat Maan, Lorraine North, Helen Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury can cause eye movement disorders which may include: strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus, causing visual symptoms of double, blurred or 'juddery' vision and reading difficulties. A wide range of interventions exist that have potential to alleviate or ameliorate these symptoms. There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions and the timing of their implementation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of any intervention and determine the effect of timing of intervention in the treatment of strabismus, gaze deficits and nystagmus due to acquired brain injury...
March 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
David E Moody, Yueqiao Fu, Wenfang B Fang
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle relaxants could inhibit the in vitro metabolism of common co-medications opioids buprenorphine, methadone and oxycodone. The compounds (solubility-limited concentration (μM) studied) were: baclofen (1000), carisoprodol (200), its metabolite meprobamate (1000), chlorzoxazone (200), cyclobenzaprine (1000), metaxalone (50), methocarbamol (1000), orphenadrine (1000) and tizanidine (1000). Compounds were first incubated with human liver microsomes (HLM) ± pre-incubation, screened with pathway-specific cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s (rCYP), and then IC50 values determined using either 8-concentration tests for those where the rCYP screen suggested an IC50 was achievable, or a 3-concentration test with downward extrapolation if screen suggested 50% inhibition was not achievable...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yian Huang, Yuwen Zhang, Shuzhen Kong, Kai Zang, Shize Jiang, Li Wan, Lulan Chen, Guoxiang Wang, Min Jiang, Xin Wang, Jie Hu, Yun Wang
G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are important inhibitory regulators of neuronal excitability in central nervous system, and the impairment of GIRK channel function has been reported to be associated with the susceptibility of epilepsy. However, the dynamics of GIRK channels in the pathogenesis of epilepsy are still unclear. In this study, our results showed that cyclothiazide, a potent convulsant, dose dependently increased the epileptiform bursting activities and suppressed the baclofen induced GIRK currents...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nurul H M Yusoff, Sharif M Mansor, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Mitragynine is the major alkaloid found in the leaves of M. speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae), a plant that is native to Southeast Asia. This compound has been used, either traditionally or recreationally, due to its psychostimulant and opioid-like effects. Recently, mitragynine has been shown to exert conditioned place preference (CPP), indicating the rewarding and motivational properties of M. speciosa. Here, the involvement of GABAB receptors in mediating mitragynine reward is studied using a CPP paradigm in rats...
February 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ravi Naik, Heather Valentine, Robert F Dannals, Dean F Wong, Andrew G Horti
New GABAB agonists, fluoropyridyl ether analogues of baclofen, have been synthesized as potential PET radiotracers. The compound with highest inhibition binding affinity as well as greatest agonist response, (R)-4-amino-3-(4-chloro-3-((2-fluoropyridin-4-yl)methoxy)phenyl)butanoic acid (1b), was radiolabeled with18 F with good radiochemical yield, high radiochemical purity, and high molar radioactivity. The regional brain distribution of the radiolabeled (R)-4-amino-3-(4-chloro-3-((2-[18 F]fluoropyridin-4-yl)methoxy)phenyl)butanoic acid, [18 F]1b, was studied in CD-1 male mice...
March 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Hossein Sadeghi, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Melatonin is an effective treatment in MS patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Melatonin secretion peaks at 2 AM, concomitant with the time at which the muscles are resting and the body is exerting its antioxidant activity. The current study was designed to investigate combination treatment of baclofen, a muscle relaxant drug, and melatonin in EAE mice...
March 1, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Silvia Duong, Daniela Bravo, Keith J Todd, Roderick J Finlayson, De Q Tran
PURPOSE: Although multiple treatments have been advocated for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the levels of supportive evidence are variable and sometimes limited. The purpose of this updated review is to provide a critical analysis of the evidence pertaining to the treatment of CRPS derived from recent randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). SOURCE: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and CINAHL databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs conducted on human subjects and published in English between 1 May 2009 and 24 August 2017...
February 28, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Susan Mayor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Abigail K Rose, Andrew Jones
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are a limited number of pharmacotherapies licensed for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Baclofen is a GABA-B agonist which is increasingly used as an off label treatment. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to determine the efficacy of baclofen in reducing drinking behaviour, craving, depression, and anxiety, compared with placebo. METHODS: Random effects meta-analyses were computed on outcome data from 12 RCTs comparing baclofen with placebo...
February 26, 2018: Addiction
J Sorrieul, J Robert, V Gibory, M Collet, M Boutet, H Kieffer, C Folliard, D Dupoiron, C Devys
Intrathecal analgesia has increased over the past two decades in various indications: chronic refractory pain from cancerous or non-cancerous origins, spasticity. These different indications involve the use of different molecules alone or in combination such as morphine, ropivacaine, bupivacaine, fentanyl, sufentanil, clonidine, baclofen and ziconotide. Pump refills are prepared at the pharmacy under a laminar flow hood. An analytical control should be carried out before release of the preparation. A new method of analytical control by chromatography has been developed and validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guideline in order to secure the production process...
February 22, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Andrew King, Mirjana Dimovska, Luke Bisoski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute drug-induced hypertension, sympathomimetic toxicity, and other hyperadrenergic states can be caused by both xenobiotic toxicity and withdrawal. This manuscript is a selective review of the recent literature regarding pharmacologic causes of hypertensive emergencies and other hyperadrenergic states. RECENT FINDINGS: We will discuss designer stimulants, alpha2 and baclofen agonist withdrawal, and the clinical entity known as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
February 24, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Z Kotmanova, M Simera, M Veternik, L Martvon, J Misek, J Jakus, T Y Shen, M N Musselwhite, T Pitts, D C Bolser, I Poliacek
GABA, muscimol, and baclofen were microinjected into the rostral (rNTS) and caudal solitary tract nucleus (cNTS) in 24 anesthetized cats. Electromyograms (EMGs) of diaphragm (DIA) and abdominal muscles (ABD), blood pressure and esophageal pressure (EP) were recorded and analysed. Bilateral microinjections of 1 mM GABA (total 66 ± 4 nl), 1 mM baclofen (64 ± 4 nl) and unilateral microinjections of 0.5 mM muscimol (33 ± 1 nl) in the rNTS significantly reduced cough number (CN), amplitudes of ABD EMGs, expiratory EP, and prolonged the duration of the cough inspiratory phase...
February 20, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Zhiqiang Huang, Ning Zhao, Zhaoyuan Su, Jiafu Su, Qiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: Based on rehabilitation training, to observe the clinical effect difference between pricking combined with cupping and western medication for elbow flexion spasticity of upper limb of stroke patients. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly assigned by SPSS software random number generator into a comprehension group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each one. Rehabilitation was used in the two groups. Pricking and cupping were applied at the affected abdominal center of biceps brachii muscle on Tuesday and Friday continuously for 4 weeks in the comprehensive group...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Leah B Gerrard, Malinda L S Tantirigama, John M Bekkers
The piriform cortex (PC), like other cortical regions, normally operates in a state of dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition. Here we examined the roles played by pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in maintaining this equilibrium in the PC. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices from the anterior PC of mice, we found that synaptic activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors hyperpolarized the two major classes of layer 2 principal neurons and reduced the intrinsic electrical excitability of these neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Joanna M Zakrzewska, Ning Wu, John Y K Lee, Brian Werneburg, Deborah Hoffman, Ying Liu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare orofacial disorder characterized by severe unilateral paroxysmal pain in the region of the fifth cranial nerve. Clinical guidelines recommend carbamazepine (only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for TN) and oxcarbazepine as first-line therapies. We utilized the US Truven Health MarketScan database to examine treatment patterns among patients with TN. METHODS: Included patients were aged ≥18 years, newly diagnosed with TN (≥2 TN diagnoses ≥14 days apart; no diagnosis in the prior year), continuously enrolled 1 year pre-index, with ≥3 years' follow-up post-index...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Lisandra B De Oliveira, Carina A F Andrade, Laurival A De Luca, Débora S A Colombari, José V Menani
The activation of GABA, opioid or α 2 adrenergic mechanisms in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) facilitates hypertonic NaCl intake in rats. In the present study, we combined opioid or α 2 adrenergic antagonists with GABA agonists into the LPBN in order to investigate if NaCl intake caused by GABAergic activation in normohydrated rats depends on opioid or α 2 -adrenergic mechanisms in this area. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of muscimol or baclofen (GABA A and GABA B agonists, respectively, 0...
February 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Steen Nedergaard, Mogens Andreasen
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted diet, is used as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant epileptic patients. Evidence suggests that compromised glucose metabolism has a significant role in the anticonvulsant action of the KD, however, it is unclear what part of the glucose metabolism that is important. The present study investigates how selective alterations in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation influence epileptiform activity induced by blocking K+ currents, GABAA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampal slice preparation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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