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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918280/lateral-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-punishment-and-aversive-instrumental-learning
#1
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Gavan P McNally
Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral agranular insular (RAIC), prelimbic (PL), and infralimbic (IL) cortex in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused mild punishment (punished lever) but continued pressing the other lever that did not cause punishment (unpunished lever)...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917928/renal-denervation-improves-the-baroreflex-and-gaba-system-in-chronic-kidney-disease-induced-hypertension
#2
Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Wen-Yu Ho, Pei-Jung Lu, Chi-Cheng Lai, Yang-Ming Tseng, Hua-Chang Fang, Gwo-Ching Sun, Michael Hsiao, Chun-Peng Liu, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
Hypertensive rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit enhanced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor function and regulation within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). For CKD with hypertension, renal denervation (RD) interrupts the afferent renal sympathetic nerves, which are connecting to the NTS. The objective of the present study was to investigate how RD improves CKD-induced hypertension. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy for 8 weeks, which induced CKD and hypertension. RD was induced by applying phenol to surround the renal artery in CKD...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903018/intrathecal-baclofen-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-spasticity-in-lithuania
#3
Robertas Kvascevicius, Ona Lapteva, Jurate Kesiene, Alfredas Vaitkus, Laima Mikulenaite, Ramunas Raugalas, Jurate Sipylaite, Saulius Rocka, Alvydas Juocevicius
Spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin severely impairs an individual's functional ability and quality of life. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy via an implantable pump is indicated for use in patients unresponsive to oral antispasmodics. ITB therapy improves the daily caring for and relief of painful spasms. In Lithuania, ITB therapy was introduced in clinical practice just recently. We share our experience of spasticity management with the ITB pump system in five patients at Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885944/letter-to-the-editor-ascenda-catheter-versus-silicone-catheter-in-intrathecal-baclofen-therapy
#4
Nathalie Draulans, Tom Theys, Bart Nuttin, Carlotte Kiekens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879195/the-pharmacokinetic-comparison-and-bioequivalence-evaluation-of-two-10-mg-baclofen-formulations-in-healthy-male-subjects%C3%A2
#5
Sumin Yoon, SeungHwan Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, Sung-Vin Yim, Bo-Hyung Kim
BACKGROUNDS: Baclofen is used as a skeletal muscle relaxant for multiple sclerosis patients. It depresses the transmission of monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex by stimulating GABAβ (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two 10-mg baclofen formulations and to assess bioequivalence. METHODS: A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876620/the-gabab-positive-allosteric-modulators-cgp7930-and-gs39783-stimulate-erk1-2-signalling-in-cells-lacking-functional-gabab-receptors
#6
Maria C Olianas, Simona Dedoni, Pierluigi Onali
The present study shows that the GABAB positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) CGP7930 and GS39783 stimulate extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signalling in cells that do not express functional GABAB receptors. In human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, CGP7930 and GS39783 induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation with potencies similar to those displayed as GABAB PAMs. Conversely, γ-aminobutyric acid and the GABAB receptor agonists (-)baclofen and SKF97541 were completely inactive...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874495/evolution-of-multiple-sclerosis-spasticity-associated-symptoms-latest-data
#7
Peter Flachenecker
In addition to muscle stiffness and increasing mobility restrictions, symptoms commonly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity are spasms, sleep disturbances, pain, fatigue and bladder dysfunction. Treatment options include trigger factor avoidance, physiotherapy and antispasticity medication. Oral antispasticity agents commonly used in Germany are baclofen, tizanidine and gabapentin, but physician and patient satisfaction with their effectiveness is low. Over the past few years, randomized controlled trials, observational studies and registry data have demonstrated the positive risk:benefit profile of add-on 9-delta-tetra-hydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray for moderate-to-severe resistant MS spasticity...
December 2016: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867572/the-efficacy-of-specific-neuromodulators-on-human-refractory-chronic-cough-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Weili Wei, Ruilin Liu, Yangzi ZhangTong, Zhongmin Qiu
BACKGROUND: There have been several published reports on the use of orally administered, specific centrally acting medicines for the treatment of idiopathic cough; however, there is no extant systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated their efficacy and safety for the treatment of idiopathic cough in human beings. METHODS: We conducted a series of definitive systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs. Claims data from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wan Fang, and Cochrane Library databases were used...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867349/baclofen-protects-primary-rat-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-chemical-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-through-the-akt-and-perk-pathways
#9
Pingping Fu, Qiang Wu, Jianyan Hu, Tingting Li, Fengjuan Gao
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) consume large quantities of energy to convert light information into a neuronal signal, which makes them highly susceptible to hypoxic injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection by baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist of RGCs against hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was applied to mimic hypoxia. Primary rat RGCs were subjected to CoCl2 with or without baclofen treatment, and RNA interference techniques were used to knock down the GABAB2 gene in the primary RGCs...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867020/a-randomized-dose-escalation-study-of-intravenous-baclofen-in-healthy-volunteers-clinical-tolerance-and-pharmacokinetics
#10
Natalie S Schmitz, Linda E Krach, Lisa D Coles, Usha Mishra, Suresh K Agarwal, James C Cloyd, Robert L Kriel
BACKGROUND: Abrupt discontinuation of baclofen can result in a potentially severe withdrawal syndrome. The current treatment for baclofen withdrawal is inadequate, resulting in a critical need to develop an alternative method to prevent or treat this withdrawal syndrome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of oral (PO) and investigational intravenous (IV) baclofen formulations at clinically relevant doses. DESIGN: Randomized, open-label, dose escalation, crossover study SETTING: Contract Research Organization (CRO) METHODS: Three cohorts of 12 healthy adults received single doses of PO baclofen (10mg, 15 mg or 20 mg) and 10-minute infusions of IV baclofen (7...
November 17, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862283/footshock-induced-plasticity-of-gabab-signalling-in-the-lateral-habenula-requires-dopamine-and-glucocorticoid-receptors
#11
Salvatore Lecca, Massimo Trusel, Manuel Mameli
The activity of lateral habenula (LHb) represents a substrate for the encoding of negative-valenced events. The exposure to aversive stimuli in naïve mice is sufficient to trigger a reduction in GABAB -mediated signaling in the LHb. This is ultimately instrumental for the hyperactivity of LHb neurons and for the establishment of depressive-like phenotypes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the induction of this aversion-driven plasticity are missing. Using ex-vivo patch-clamp recordings in slices, here we show that exposing mice to a series of inescapable footshocks (FsE) rapidly reduces baclofen-mediated GABAB currents in the LHb...
November 10, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851494/1859-administration-of-intrathecal-baclofen-via-lumbar-drain-to-prevent-withdrawal
#12
Elizabeth Leung, Christopher Leong, Deepika Pereira, Kasey Greathouse, Gavin Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851443/1808-intrathecal-baclofen-via-external-temporary-catheter-and-syringe-pump-a-case-series
#13
Sarah Adriance, Kristin Brower, Albert Clairmont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845243/in-vitro-detection-of-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced-neurodegeneration-and-pharmacological-neuroprotection-based-on-hippocampal-stratum-pyramidale-width
#14
Pınar Öz, Hale Saybaşılı
Ischemia is one of the most prominent risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The effects of oxygen and glucose depletion in hippocampal tissue due to ischemia can be mimicked in vitro using the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In this study, we applied OGD on acute rat hippocampal slices in order to design an elementary yet quantitative histological technique that compares the neuroprotective effects of (l)-carnitine to known neuroprotectors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842939/efficacy-and-safety-of-high-dose-baclofen-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#15
Esther M Beraha, Elske Salemink, Anna E Goudriaan, Abraham Bakker, David de Jong, Natasha Smits, Jan Willem Zwart, Dick van Geest, Pieter Bodewits, Tom Schiphof, Harma Defourny, Mirjam van Tricht, Wim van den Brink, Reinout W Wiers
Previous randomised placebo-controlled trials with low-to-medium doses of baclofen (30-60mg) showed inconsistent results, but case studies suggested a dose-response effect and positive outcomes in patients on high doses of baclofen (up to 270mg). Its prescription was temporary permitted for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) in France, and baclofen is now widely prescribed. Recently, a small RCT found a strong effect of a mean dose of 180mg baclofen. In the present study the efficacy and safety of high doses of baclofen was examined in a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
December 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833235/an-unusual-case-of-baclofen-abuse
#16
Soumitra Das, Dhanya Sasidharan Palappalllil, Sumesh Thoppil Purushothaman, Varun Rajan
Baclofen was initially used for the treatment of spastic conditions. Last decade has seen its emergence as a treatment of profound interest in alcohol dependence, opiates and cocaine abuse, and tobacco addiction. However, the published literature on baclofen abuse is sparse. Here, we report a patient with baclofen abuse.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822602/interhemispheric-regulation-of-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortical-glutamate-stress-response-role-of-local-gaba-and-dopamine-sensitive-mechanisms
#17
Derek Lupinsky, Luc Moquin, Alain Gratton
RATIONALE: We previously reported that stressors increase medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate (GLU) levels as a result of activating callosal neurons located in the opposite hemisphere and that this PFC GLU stress response is regulated by GLU-, dopamine- (DA-), and GABA-sensitive mechanisms (Lupinsky et al. 2010). OBJECTIVES: Here, we examine the possibility that PFC DA regulates the stress responsivity of callosal neurons indirectly by acting at D1 and D2 receptors located on GABA interneurons...
November 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808555/randomized-open-label-trial-of-baclofen-for-relapse-prevention-in-alcohol-dependence
#18
Manushree Gupta, Pankaj Verma, Rajesh Rastogi, Sheetal Arora, Deeksha Elwadhi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by narrowing of the drinking repertoire, salience of drinking, tolerance and withdrawal phenomenon, compulsion to drink, and frequent relapses. Baclofen has been shown to promote abstinence, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol-dependent individuals, and it promises to be a useful agent, although clinical data are limited at present. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to test the utility of baclofen, a GABA agonist, in improving the relapse rates in alcohol-dependent subjects...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789113/baclofen-toxicity-in-a-patient-with-hemodialysis-dependent-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
Lauren M Porter, Stephanie S Merrick, Kenneth D Katz
BACKGROUND: Oral baclofen toxicity is extremely rare, but can affect patients with renal disease due to the drug's predominant renal clearance of approximately 69-85%. Patients with severely impaired renal function typically develop symptoms soon after initiating baclofen therapy, even at relatively low doses. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old woman with a history of hemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease presented to the Emergency Department with encephalopathy, ataxia, and dystonia after the addition of a recent baclofen prescription for back pain (10 mg twice daily)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767242/solubility-and-stability-of-baclofen-3-mg-ml-intrathecal-formulation-and-its-compatibility-with-implantable-programmable-intrathecal-infusion-systems
#20
Baohua Yue, Ron Brendel, Amelia Lukitsch, Thomas Prentice, Brian Doty
BACKGROUND: Commercial baclofen formulations used with infusion pumps are available at therapeutic concentrations of 0.5-2.0 mg/mL. However, patients who receive higher daily doses of baclofen may benefit from products with greater baclofen concentrations since their refill frequency would be reduced (up to a maximum of 180 days). We evaluated baclofen solubility, baclofen 3 mg/mL intrathecal (IT) formulation stability, and chemical and physical compatibility with Medtronic SynchroMed(®) II and Codman Medstream(®) programmable IT infusion pumps...
October 21, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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