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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038672/safety-analysis-of-autologous-stem-cell-therapy-in-a-variety-of-degenerative-diseases-and-injuries-using-the-stromal-vascular-fraction
#1
Kristin Comella, Michelle Parlo, Rosemary Daly, Vincent Depasquale, Eric Edgerton, Patrick Mallory, Roy Schmidt, Walter P Drake
BACKGROUND: Stem cells from adipose tissue offer a novel therapy for patients with damaged tissue. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) injected into patients may reduce inflammation, promote healing, and repair damaged/scarred tissue. SVF can be isolated from fat (adipose) tissue in an outpatient procedure. The SVF population includes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), pericytes, endothelial/progenitor cells, fibroblasts and growth factors where the adipocyte (fat cell) population has been removed...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#2
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036224/immortalized-porcine-mesenchymal-cells-derived-from-nasal-mucosa-lungs-lymph-nodes-spleen-and-bone-marrow-retain-their-stemness-properties-and-trigger-the-expression-of-siglec-1-in-co-cultured-blood-monocytic-cells
#3
Abubakar Garba, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Delphine D Acar, Bert Devriendt, Hans J Nauwynck
Mesenchymal stromal cells have been isolated from different sources. They are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into many different cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. They possess a therapeutic potential in the management of immune disorders and the repair of damaged tissues. Previous work in our laboratory showed an increase of the percentages of CD172a+, CD14+, CD163+, Siglec-1+, CD4+ and CD8+ hematopoietic cells, when co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells derived from bone marrow...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035359/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-disrupts-endogenous-myelo-erythropoiesis-by-compromising-the-adipocyte-bone-marrow-niche
#4
Allison L Boyd, Jennifer C Reid, Kyle R Salci, Lili Aslostovar, Yannick D Benoit, Zoya Shapovalova, Mio Nakanishi, Deanna P Porras, Mohammed Almakadi, Clinton J V Campbell, Michael F Jackson, Catherine A Ross, Ronan Foley, Brian Leber, David S Allan, Mitchell Sabloff, Anargyros Xenocostas, Tony J Collins, Mickie Bhatia
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is distinguished by the generation of dysfunctional leukaemic blasts, and patients characteristically suffer from fatal infections and anaemia due to insufficient normal myelo-erythropoiesis. Direct physical crowding of bone marrow (BM) by accumulating leukaemic cells does not fully account for this haematopoietic failure. Here, analyses from AML patients were applied to both in vitro co-culture platforms and in vivo xenograft modelling, revealing that human AML disease specifically disrupts the adipocytic niche in BM...
October 16, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034841/ppar-%C3%AE-and-wnt-regulate-the-differentiation-of-mscs-into-adipocytes-and-osteoblasts-respectively
#5
Yue Li, Daxiang Jin, Weixing Xie, Longfei Wen, Weijian Chen, Jixi Xu, Jinyong Ding, Dongcheng Ren
Under the transcriptional control of numerous factors and intracellular signals, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, the precise cellular signaling factors that determine the cell fate of MSCs in bone marrow remain largely unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is well established as a prime inducer of adipogenesis, while the Wnt pathway is regarded as the master moderator of osteogenesis. A theoretical inverse relationship exists between adipogenic and osteogenic lineage commitment and differentiation: the differentiation toward an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocyte phenotype...
October 12, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033835/farnesol-has-an-anti-obesity-effect-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-induces-the-development-of-beige-adipocytes-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Hye-Lin Kim, Yunu Jung, Jinbong Park, Dong-Hyun Youn, JongWook Kang, Seona Lim, Beom Su Lee, Mi-Young Jeong, Seong-Kyu Choe, Raekil Park, Kwang Seok Ahn, Jae-Young Um
Brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat and hence have an important therapeutic capacity for obesity. Development of brown-like adipocytes (also called beige) is also another attractive target for obesity treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of farnesol, an isoprenoid, on adipogenesis in adipocytes and on the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) as well as on the weight gain of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Farnesol inhibited adipogenesis and the related key regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α through the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027120/elucidating-the-preadipocyte-and-its-role-in-adipocyte-formation-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Christos N Sarantopoulos, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Beatrice Sun, Ashkaun Shaterian, Alan D Widgerow
Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022912/tenomodulin-is-essential-for-prevention-of-adipocyte-accumulation-and-fibrovascular-scar-formation-during-early-tendon-healing
#8
Dasheng Lin, Paolo Alberton, Manuel Delgado Caceres, Elias Volkmer, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is the best-known mature marker for tendon and ligament lineage cells. It is important for tendon maturation, running performance and has key implications for the resident tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). However, its exact functions during the tendon repair process still remain elusive. Here, we established an Achilles tendon injury model in a Tnmd knockout (Tnmd(-/-)) mouse line. Detailed analyses showed not only a very different scar organization with a clearly reduced cell proliferation and expression of certain tendon-related genes, but also increased cell apoptosis, adipocyte and blood vessel accumulation in the early phase of tendon healing compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019419/prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-and-reprogramming-of-adipogenesis-an-early-life-risk-factor-for-childhood-obesity
#9
Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Enas Samir Nabih, Kirolos Atalla Shehata, Emad Sherif Mohamed Abd Elfatah, Abou Bakr Ahmed Sanad, Mohamed Yehia Marey, Abd Alla Mohamed Ahmed Hammouda, Mounir Mostafa Moussa Mohammed, Randa Mostafa, Mahmoud A Ali
Obesity is a global health problem. It is characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from either increase in the number of adipocytes or increase in adipocytes size. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of several transcription factors culminating in the removal of adipocytes from the cell cycle and induction of highly specific proteins. Several other factors, including hormones, genes, and epigenetics, are among the most important triggers of the differentiation process...
October 11, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992793/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-propionate-inhibits-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-chorion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2
#10
Judit Iván, Evelin Major, Adrienn Sipos, Katalin Kovács, Dániel Horváth, István Tamás, Péter Bay, Viktor Dombrádi, Beata Lontay
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also known as GPR43) is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids that are produced by gut microbiota through fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates. FFAR2 functions as a metabolic sensor and is expressed in metabolically active tissues, such as adipose tissue. Earlier studies proved the connection between FFAR2 and adipocyte differentiation in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the implication of FFAR2 receptor in adipogenesis in human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs)...
October 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989976/hematopoietic-stem-cell-derived-adipocytes-promote-tumor-growth-and-cancer-cell-migration
#11
Y Xiong, D L Russell, L T McDonald, L A Cowart, A C LaRue
Adipocytes, apart from their critical role as the energy storage depots, contribute to the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Our previous studies based on a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation model, have revealed a novel source of adipocytes from HSCs via monocyte/macrophage progenitors. Herein, we extend these studies to examine the role of HSC-derived adipocytes (HSC-Ad) in tumor progression. When cultured under adipogenic conditions, bone marrow-derived monocytic progenitors differentiated into adipocytes that accumulated oil droplets containing triglyceride...
2017: International Journal of Cancer Research and Molecular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983600/cd146-skeletal-stem-cells-from-growth-plate-exhibit-specific-chondrogenic-differentiation-capacity-in%C3%A2-vitro
#12
Ying-Xing Wu, Xing-Zhi Jing, Yue Sun, Ya-Ping Ye, Jia-Chao Guo, Jun-Ming Huang, Wei Xiang, Jia-Ming Zhang, Feng-Jing Guo
Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) are a population of progenitor cells which give rise to postnatal skeletal tissues including bone, cartilage and bone marrow stroma, however not to adipose, haematopoietic or muscle tissue. Growth plate chondrocytes exhibit the ability of continuous proliferation and differentiation, which contributes to the continuous physiological growth. The growth plate has been hypothesized to contain SSCs which exhibit a desirable differentiation capacity to generate bone and cartilage. Due to the heterogeneity of the growth plate chondrocytes, SSCs in the growth plate are not well studied...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982679/evaluation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-directly-reprogrammed-to-adipocyte-like-cells-as-a-metabolic-disease-model
#13
Jian-Hua Chen, Kim Jee Goh, Nuno Rocha, Matthijs P Groeneveld, Marina Minic, Timothy G Barrett, David Savage, Robert K Semple
Adipose tissue is the primary tissue affected in most single gene forms of severe insulin resistance, and growing evidence has implicated it as a site where many risk alleles for insulin resistance identified in population-wide studies may exert their effect. There is thus increasing need for human adipocyte models in which to interrogate the function of known and emerging genetic risk variants, yet primary adipocyte cultures, existing immortalised cell lines, and stem-cell based models all have significant biological or practical limitations...
October 5, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981171/construction-of-tissue-engineered-lymphatic-vessel-using-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-lymphatic-endothelial-like-cells-and-decellularized-arterial-scaffold-a-preliminary-study
#14
Yi Yang, Jian-Tao Yang, Xiao-Hu Chen, Ben-Gang Qin, Fu-Gui Li, Yun-Xian Chen, Li-Qiang Gu, Jia-Kai Zhu, Ping Li
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) can be differentiated into lymphatic endothelial-like cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the induced lymphatic endothelial-like cells and decellularized arterial scaffold to construct the tissue-engineered lymphatic vessel. METHODS: The hADSCs were isolated from adipose tissue in healthy adults and were characterized the multilineage differentiation potential...
October 5, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980049/effects-of-endogenous-hypercortisolism-on-bone-mrna-and-microrna-expression-in-humans
#15
Z E Belaya, T A Grebennikova, G A Melnichenko, A G Nikitin, A G Solodovnikov, O I Brovkina, A U Grigoriev, L Y Rozhinskaya, I I Dedov
Hypercortisolism in humans suppresses osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast function through the upregulation of Wnt-signaling antagonists (sclerostin, Dkk1) and changes in microRNAs levels (miR-125b-5p, miR-218-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-188-3p, miR-199a-5p) which are associated with mesenchymal stem-cell commitment to adipocytes or cartilage cells over the osteoblasts. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the responses of bone to chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess by measuring the levels of selected mRNA and microRNA (miR) in bone samples of patients with Cushing's disease (CD)...
October 4, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977425/multi-dimensional-histone-methylations-for-coordinated-regulation-of-gene-expression-under-hypoxia
#16
Seongyeol Lee, Jieon Lee, Sehyun Chae, Yunwon Moon, Ho-Youl Lee, Bongju Park, Eun Gyeong Yang, Daehee Hwang, Hyunsung Park
Hypoxia increases both active and repressive histone methylation levels via decreased activity of histone demethylases. However, how such increases coordinately regulate induction or repression of hypoxia-responsive genes is largely unknown. Here, we profiled active and repressive histone tri-methylations (H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3) and analyzed gene expression profiles in human adipocyte-derived stem cells under hypoxia. We identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) by hypoxia and clustered the DEGs and DMGs into four major groups...
August 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974563/fibromodulin-and-regulation-of-the-intricate-balance-between-myoblast-differentiation-to-myocytes-or-adipocyte-like-cells
#17
Eun Ju Lee, Arif Tasleem Jan, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Khurshid Ahmad, Adeel Malik, Gulam Rabbani, Taeyeon Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Yong Ho Lee, So-Young Park, Inho Choi
Interactions between myoblasts and the surrounding microenvironment led us to explore the role of fibromodulin (FMOD), an extracellular matrix protein, in the maintenance of myoblast stemness and function. Microarray analysis of FMODkd myoblasts and in silico studies were used to identify the top most differentially expressed genes in FMODkd, and helped establish that FMOD-based regulations of integral membrane protein 2a and clusterin are essential components of the myogenic program. Studies in knockout, obese, and diabetic mouse models helped characterize the operation of a novel FMOD-based regulatory circuit that controls myoblast switching from a myogenic to a lipid accumulation fate...
October 3, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967641/large-scale-expansion-and-characterization-of-human-adult-neural-crest-derived-multipotent-stem-cells-from-hair-follicle-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#18
R G Vasyliev, A E Rodnichenko, O S Gubar, A V Zlatska, I M Gordiienko, S N Novikova, D O Zubov
AIM: The purpose of this work was to obtain, multiply and characterize the adult neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells from human hair follicle for their further clinical use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells were obtained from human hair follicle by explant method and were expanded at large-scale up to a clinically significant number. The resulted cell cultures were examined by flow cytometry and immunocytochemical analysis...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966669/salvianolic-acid-b-and-danshensu-induce-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-by-upregulating-the-nitric-oxide-pathway
#19
Xinle Zhang, Liyi Zou, Jin Li, Bilian Xu, Tie Wu, Huanqiong Fan, Weiming Xu, Weimin Yao, Yajun Yang, Yuyu Liu, Liao Cui
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and danshensu (DSU) on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the mechanisms of the effects. The osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in culture was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) production, nitric oxide (NO) production and the mRNA expression levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligand by MSCs. MSCs were successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966553/adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-grown-as-spheroids
#20
Paul A Turner, Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy, Jennifer L Bailey, Carrie M Elks, Amol V Janorkar
Understanding the process of adipogenesis is critical if suitable therapeutics for obesity and related metabolic diseases are to be found. The current study presents proof of feasibility of creating a 3-D spheroid model using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and their subsequent adipogenic differentiation. hASC spheroids were formed atop an elastin-like polypeptide-polyethyleneimine (ELP-PEI) surface and differentiated using an adipogenic cocktail. Spheroids were matured in the presence of dietary fatty acids (linoleic or oleic acid) and evaluated based on functional markers including intracellular protein, CD36 expression, triglyceride accumulation, and PPAR-γ gene expression...
August 2017: Process Biochemistry
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