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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106629/heat-shock-protein-70-overexpression-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhances-fat-graft-survival
#1
Hao Feng, Lihong Qiu, Teng Zhang, Houyou Yu, Xianjie Ma, Yingjun Su, Hui Zheng, Yong Wang, Chenggang Yi
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting is a prevalent technique used for soft-tissue augmentation; however, the poor survival rate of the grafted tissue remains a drawback of this method. Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive candidate for enhancing graft retention, the poor posttransplantation viability of these cells limits their application. Here we investigated whether overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could enhance ASCs' therapeutic potential for fat transplant survival...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105130/biological-characterization-of-sheep-kidney-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Meng Ji, Chunyu Bai, Lu Li, Ya'Nan Fan, Caiyun Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
The aim of the present study was to isolate, culture and characterize sheep metanephric mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs). The MMSCs were isolated from the kidney tissue of six-week-old sheep fetus. This study investigated whether primary MMSCs could be grown for 26 passages and expressed Oct-4, which is involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. The MMSCs also expressed the renal lineage marker gene PAX2, and mesenchymal cell marker genes CD44, FN1 and VIM. Expression of these genes was detected using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105093/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-promotes-osteoblastic-mineralization-and-suppresses-osteoclastogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-mouse-bone-marrow-cultures-in-vitro
#3
Masayoshi Yamaguchi, Robert M Levy
Osteoporosis is induced by the reduction in bone mass through decreased osteoblastic osteogenesis and increased osteoclastic bone resorption, and it is associated with obesity and diabetes. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health concern in aging populations. β-caryophyllene, a component of various essential oils, is a selective agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and exerts cannabimimetic anti-inflammatory effects in animals...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103990/-effects-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-on-healing-of-wound-with-full-thickness-skin-defect-in-rats
#4
B Zhao, G F Wu, Y J Zhang, W Zhang, F F Yang, D Xiao, K X Zeng, J H Shi, L L Su, D H Hu
Objective: To investigate the effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells-derived exosomes on healing of wound with full-thickness skin defect in rats. Methods: (1) Human amniotic epithelial stem cells were isolated from the amnion tissue of 5 full-term pregnant women in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital by the method of trypsin digestion, and their morphology was observed. The third passage of cells were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin for cytoskeleton observation. The third passage of cells were identified with flow cytometry through the detection of expressions of cell surface markers CD29, CD31, CD34, CD90, CD105, SSEA3, SSEA4 and immunity-related marker human leukocyte antigen-D related site (HLA-DR)...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102844/human-adipose-stem-cell-differentiation-is-highly-affected-by-cancer-cells-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-for-autologous-fat-grafting
#5
Francesca Paino, Marcella La Noce, Diego Di Nucci, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti, Rosa Salzillo, Alfredo De Rosa, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Vincenzo Desiderio, Virginia Tirino
Recent studies showed that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue can promote tumour progression, raising some concerns regarding their use in regenerative medicine. In this context, we co-cultured either SAOS2 osteosarcoma or MCF7 breast cancer cells with human adipose stem cells (hASCs), in order to evaluate potential effects of cancer cells on hASCs differentiation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study we observed that both SAOS2 and MCF7 cell lines induced an increase in hASCs proliferation, compared to hASCs alone, but, surprisingly, neither changes in the expression of CD90, CD29, CD324 and vimentin, nor variations in the Twist and Slug mRNAs were detectable...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#6
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 13, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073315/metabolically-active-3-dimensional-brown-adipose-tissue-engineered-from-white-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Jessica P Yang, Amy Elizabeth Anderson, Annemarie McCartney, Xavier Ory, Garret Ma, Elisa Pappalardo, Joel Bader, Jennifer Elisseeff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068868/mir-26a-mediates-adipogenesis-of-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-via-pten-cyclin-e1-and-cdk6
#8
Ourania Trohatou, Dimitra Zagoura, Nikos Orfanos, Kalliopi I Pappa, Evangelos Marinos, Nicholas Anagnou, Maria G Roubelakis
Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the regulatory network of adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Fetal MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) represent a population of multipotent stem cells characterized by a wide range of differentiation properties that can be applied in cell-based therapies. In this study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to assess miRNA expression in terminal differentiated AF-MSCs into adipocyte-like cells (AL cells). MiR-26a was identified in high expression levels in AL cells indicating a critical role in the process of adipogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040084/do-skeletal-muscle-mscs-in-humans-contribute-to-bone-repair-a-systematic-review
#9
Heather Owston, Peter V Giannoudis, Elena Jones
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow and periosteum are known to be heavily involved in fracture repair and bone regeneration is thought to be impaired when the surrounding skeletal muscle is damaged. Recent literature from mouse in vivo models suggest that cells originating from skeletal muscle can occupy a fracture callus during open fracture repair when periosteum is compromised. This systematic review set out to ascertain whether there are MSCs residing in human skeletal muscle and whether cells from human skeletal muscle are capable of forming bone in vitro and in vivo...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027219/cancer-risk-after-fat-transfer-a-multicenter-case-cohort-study
#10
Terence M Myckatyn, I Janelle Wagner, Babak J Mehrara, Melissa A Crosby, Julie E Park, Bahjat F Qaqish, Dominic T Moore, Evan L Busch, Amanda K Silva, Surinder Kaur, David W Ollila, Clara N Lee
BACKGROUND: Fat transfer is an increasingly popular method for refining postmastectomy breast reconstructions. However, concern persists that fat transfer may promote disease recurrence. Adipocytes are derived from adipose-derived stem cells and express adipocytokines that can facilitate active breast cancer cells in laboratory models. The authors sought to evaluate the association between fat transfer to the reconstructed breast and cancer recurrence in patients diagnosed with local or regional invasive breast cancers...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025449/metformin-enhances-osteogenesis-and-suppresses-adipogenesis-of-human-chorionic-villous-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#11
Qiaoli Gu, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi
Metformin is the first-line anti-hyperglycemic drugs commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that metformin can enhance bone formation through induction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Human chorionic villous mesenchymal stem cells (CV-MSCs) are promising candidates for regenerative medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of metformin on the osteogenic and adipocytic differentiation of human CV-MSCs, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. CV-MSCs, prepared from human term placentae, were cultured with different concentrations of metformin...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024508/-reconstruction-of-humanized-bone-marrow-niche-in-immunodeficiency-mouse
#12
Huan Chen, Zheng Tian, Bin Li, Hai-Yan Xing, Huan Li, Ke-Jing Tang, Min Wang, Qing Rao
OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct a human bone marrow niche in immunodeficiency mouse (NOD/SCID) so as to provide a model for observing the effect of abnormal BM niche on the occurence and development of leukemia. METHODS: Human platelet lysate(HPL) was obtained by repeated freezing and thawing of concentrated platelet. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) containing 10% HPL or 10% FBS. The morphology, cell phenotype, multilineage differentiation potential in vitro and proliferation capacity between the mesenchymal stem cells cultured with HPL or FBS were compared...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012060/adipocyte-microenvironment-promotes-bclxl-expression-and-confers-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#13
Carlos Cardenas, Michele K Montagna, Mary Pitruzzello, Eydis Lima, Gil Mor, Ayesha B Alvero
Resistance to mitochondria-initiated apoptosis is a hallmark of chemoresistant cancer stem cells including CD44+/MyD88+ epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) stem cells. This is controlled by members of the Bcl2 family of proteins, which function as rheostats of mitochondrial stability. We observed a differential expression profile of Bcl2 family members comparing the chemoresistant EOC stem cells and the chemosensitive CD44-/MyD88- EOC cells. Chemoresistant EOC stem cells surprisingly express higher levels of the pro-apoptotic members Bak and Bax compared to the chemosensitive EOC cells...
December 23, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011154/persistent-organic-pollutants-alter-dna-methylation-during-human-adipocyte-differentiation
#14
Myrthe W van den Dungen, Albertinka J Murk, Dieuwertje E Kok, Wilma T Steegenga
Ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can accumulate in humans where they might influence differentiation of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation is one of the underlying mechanisms by which POPs affect adipocyte differentiation, and to what extent DNA methylation can be related to gene transcription. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in two human cell models with continuous exposure to different POPs throughout differentiation. From the seven tested POPs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreased lipid accumulation, while tributyltin (TBT) increased lipid accumulation...
December 20, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000916/pathological-changes-of-adipose-tissue-in-secondary-lymphedema
#15
K Tashiro, J Feng, S-H Wu, T Mashiko, K Kanayama, M Narushima, H Uda, S Miyamoto, I Koshima, K Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of lymphedema is poorly understood. Current treatment options include compression therapy, resection, liposuction, and lymphatic microsurgery, but determining the optimal treatment approach for each patient remains challenging. OBJECTIVES: We characterized skin and adipose tissue alterations in the setting of secondary lymphedema. METHODS: Morphologic and histopathologic evaluations were conducted for 70 specimens collected from 26 female patients with lower extremity secondary lymphedema following surgical intervention for gynecologic cancers...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000114/evaluation-of-a-laminin-alginate-biomaterial-adipocytes-and-adipocyte-derived-stem-cells-interaction-in-animal-autologous-fat-grafting-model-using-7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Yo-Shen Chen, Yu-Sheng Hsueh, Yen-Yu Chen, Cheng-Yu Lo, Hao-Chih Tai, Feng-Huei Lin
Biomaterials are often added to autologous fat grafts both as supporting matrices for the grafted adipocytes and as cell carrier for adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). This in vivo study used an autologous fat graft model to test a lamininalginate biomaterial, adipocytes, and ADSCs in immune-competent rats. We transplanted different combinations of shredded autologous adipose tissue [designated "A" for adipose tissue]), laminin-alginate beads [designated "B" for bead], and ADSCs [designated "C" for cell]) into the backs of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998209/immunodepletion-and-hypoxia-preconditioning-of-mouse-compact-bone-cells-as-a-novel-protocol-to-isolate-highly-immunosuppressive-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Kisha Nandini Sivanathan, Stan Gronthos, Shane T Grey, Darling Rojas-Canales, Patrick T Coates
Compact bones (CB) are major reservoirs of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSC). Here, we established a protocol to isolate MSC from CB and tested their immunosuppressive potential. Collagenase type II digestion of BM-flushed CB from C57B/6 mice was performed to liberate mMSC precursors from bone surfaces to establish nondepleted mMSC. CB cells were also immunodepleted based on the expression of CD45 (leukocytes) and TER119 (erythroid cells) to eliminate hematopoietic cells. CD45-TER119- CB cells were subsequently used to generate depleted mMSC...
December 21, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995415/regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-cidec-expression-by-adenovirus-36-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#18
Yi Jiao, Yiliyasi Aisa, Xiaodi Liang, Nuerbiye Nuermaimaiti, Xian Gong, Zhaoxia Zhang, Yaqun Guan
This study is to investigate the role of adenovirus 36 (Ad36) in regulating expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC) in Ad36-induced adipocyte differentiation. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and cultured, and then infected with Ad36. Ad36-induced adipocytes were identified using quantitative real-time PCR and Oil red O staining. The expression levels of PPARγ and CIDEC in Ad36-induced adipocytes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis...
December 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992514/induction-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Yoriko Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Tsutomu Fujimura, Shigeru Moriwaki
The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992452/enhancement-of-adipocyte-browning-by-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blockade
#20
Kana Tsukuda, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Harumi Kanno, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Xiao-Li Wang, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Akinori Higaki, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Li-Juan Min, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named 'beige' or 'brite' adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R)...
2016: PloS One
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