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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626214/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-is-produced-by-adipocytes-and-regulates-lipolysis-through-growth-hormone-receptor
#1
F Rodríguez-Pacheco, C Gutierrez-Repiso, S García-Serrano, A Ho-Plagaro, J M Gómez-Zumaquero, S Valdes, M Gonzalo, J Rivas-Becerra, C Montiel-Casado, G Rojo-Martínez, E García-Escobar, E Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To determine if GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analize the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. METHODS: GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612522/-the-mechanisms-of-trimetazidine-alleviating-the-oxidative-stress-in-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Mao-Han Tang, Yan-Jie Zhang, Yin Liu, Zhi-Guang Su
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the oxidative stress injury in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). METHODS: ADSCs derived from adipose tissue of SD rats were characterized by flow cytometry and multiline age differentiation. ADSCs apoptosis was induced by H2O2 in vitro , Dirrerent concentration of TMZ (250 μmol/L, 500 μmol/L) was used to protect ADSCs from apoptosis. The morphological features of apoptotic ADSCs were analyzed by Hoechst 33342, mitochondrial potential and structure was analyzed by JC-1 staining and electron microscope, respectively...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612196/cell-source-differentiation-functional-stimulation-and-potential-application-of-human-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-vitro
#3
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Le Hoang Son, Duc-Hau Le
Recent investigations have showed that the functional thermogenic adipocytes are present in both infants and adult humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that the coexistence of classical and inducible brown (brite) adipocytes in humans at adulthood and these adipocytes function to generate heat from energy resulting in reducing body fat and improving glucose metabolism. Human thermogenic adipocytes can be differentiated in vitro from stem cells, cell lines, or adipose stromal vascular fraction. Pre-activated human brite adipocytes in vitro can maintain their thermogenic function in normal or obese immunodeficient mice; therefore, they improve glucose homeostasis and reduce fat mass in obese animals...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#4
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600981/pharmacologic-concentrations-of-linezolid-modify-oxidative-phosphorylation-function-and-adipocyte-secretome
#5
Laura Llobet, M Pilar Bayona-Bafaluy, David Pacheu-Grau, Elena Torres-Pérez, José M Arbones-Mainar, M Ángeles Navarro, Covadonga Gómez-Díaz, Julio Montoya, Ester López-Gallardo, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
The oxidative phosphorylation system is important for adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, xenobiotics inhibitors of the oxidative phosphorylation system could affect adipocyte differentiation and adipokine secretion. As adipokines impact the overall health status, these xenobiotics may have wide effects on human health. Some of these xenobiotics are widely used therapeutic drugs, such as ribosomal antibiotics. Because of its similarity to the bacterial one, mitochondrial translation system is an off-target for these compounds...
May 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598385/the-roles-of-long-non-protein-coding-rnas-in-osteo-adipogenic-lineage-commitment
#6
REVIEW
Hirotaka Yoshioka, Yuji Yoshiko
Osteoblasts and adipocytes share a common mesenchymal progenitor in the bone marrow. This implies that a reciprocal relationship exists between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Further, cells of osteoblast lineage transdifferentiate into adipocytes under some circumstances. Dysregulation of osteo-adipogenic fate-determination leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis, accompanied by an increase in bone marrow adipose tissue. Thus, the fine-tuning of osteo-adipogenesis is necessary for bone homeostasis...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598038/biphasic-effect-of-atp-on-in-vitro-mineralization-of-dental-pulp-cells
#7
Oranuch Techatharatip, Nunthawan Nowwarote, Suthisa Taebunpakul, Prasit Pavasant
Dental pulp cells release adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in response to intrapulpal pressure and the amount released depends on the magnitude of the pressure. ATP regulates the differentiation of stem cells into adipocytes and osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether extracellular ATP influences the stemness and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of extracellular ATP at a low (0.1 µM) and high (10 µM) concentration on the stemness and osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587848/mir-148a-3p-regulates-adipocyte-and-osteoblast-differentiation-by-targeting-lysine-specific-demethylase-6b
#8
Lijie Tian, Fang Zheng, Zhijia Li, Haixiao Wang, Hairui Yuan, Xin Zhang, Zhongshu Ma, Xiaoxia Li, Xiumei Gao, Baoli Wang
Recent emerging studies of miRNAs in mesenchymal stem cell commitment toward adipocyte and osteoblast provide new insights for the understanding of the molecular basis of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. The current study revealed that miR-148a-3p was altered in primary cultured marrow stromal cells and established stromal ST2 line after adipogenic and/or osteogenic treatment. Supplementing miR-148a-3p activity inhibited cell growth and induced ST2 to differentiate into mature adipocytes. Conversely, inactivation of the endogenous miR-148a-3p suppressed ST2 to fully differentiate...
June 3, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583105/characteristics-and-potentials-of-stem-cells-derived-from-human-degenerated-nucleus-pulposus-potential-for-regeneration-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#9
Xiao-Chuan Li, Yong Tang, Jian-Hong Wu, Pu-Shan Yang, De-Li Wang, Di-Ke Ruan
BACKGROUND: Eliminating the symptoms during treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is only a temporary solution that does not cure the underlying cause. A biological method to treat this disorder may be possible by the newly discovered nucleus pulposus derived stem cells (NPDCs). However, the uncertain characteristics and potential of NPDCs calls for a comprehensive study. METHODS: In the present study, nucleus pulposus samples were obtained from 5 patients with IVDD undergoing discectomy procedure and NPDCs were harvested using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) by the co-expression of GD2(+) and Tie2(+)...
June 5, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582499/dental-pulp-stem-cells-for-the-study-of-neurogenetic-disorders
#10
A Kaitlyn Victor, Lawrence T Reiter
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are a relatively new alternative stem cell source for the study of neurogenetic disorders. DPSC can be obtained non-invasively and collected from long-distances remaining viable during transportation. These highly proliferative cells express stem cell markers and retain the ability to differentiate down multiple cell lineages including chondrocytes, adipocytes, osteoblasts, and multiple neuronal cell types. The neural crest origin of DPSC makes them a useful source of primary cells for modeling neurological disorders at the molecular level...
June 5, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580390/glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-cis-repression-of-osteogenic-genes-requires-brm-swi-snf
#11
Michael J Pico, Sharareh Hashemi, Fuhua Xu, Kevin Hong Nguyen, Robert Donnelly, Elizabeth Moran, Stephen Flowers
Glucocorticoids are an effective therapy for a variety of severe inflammatory and autoimmune disorders; however, the therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is severely limited by their negative side effects, particularly on osteogenesis. Glucocorticoids regulate transcription by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then binds the promoters of target genes to induce either activation or repression. The gene activation effects of nuclear hormone receptors broadly require the cooperation of the chromatin remodeling complex known as SWI/SNF, which is powered by an ATPase core...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579880/expression-of-cd44-standard-form-and-variant-isoforms-in-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#12
Xiaofeng Wang, Zhenwu Du, Xiaojun Liu, Yang Song, Guizhen Zhang, Zhitao Wang, Qingyu Wang, Zhongli Gao, Yajun Wang, Wei Wang
Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSCs) can migrate from bone marrow to injured tissues, where they may differentiate into different types of new cells for replacement of dysfunctional cells. CD44 plays an important role in stem cell movement. The expression distribution of CD44 standard form (CD44S) and CD44 variants (CD44V) is closely related to cell movement and tissue migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expressions of CD44S and CD44V in hBMSCs. The hBMSCs from four human subjects were cultured in vitro...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578832/a-biophysical-approach-to-quantify-skeletal-stem-cells-trans-differentiation-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-osteoporosis
#13
L Petecchia, F Viti, F Sbrana, M Vassalli, P Gavazzo
The stroma of human bone marrow contains a population of skeletal stem cells (hBM-MSC) which are common ancestors, among the others, of osteoblasts and adipocytes. It has been proposed that the imbalance between hBM-MSC osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which naturally accompanies bone marrow senescence, may contribute to the development of bone-associated diseases, like osteoporosis. The possibility to reproduce this mechanism in vitro has been demonstrated, providing a good model to disclose the details of the complex bone-fat generation homeostasis...
May 26, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576462/platelet-rich-plasma-enriched-autologous-fat-graft-in-regenerative-and-aesthetic-facial-surgery-technical-note
#14
F Picard, B Hersant, S La Padula, J-P Meningaud
The goal of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to autologous fat graft is to increase the survival rate of the graft. After their activation, platelets release some important growth factors. As a result, PRP may increase the proliferation and differentiation of Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into adipocytes, improve fat graft vascularisation, and may block the apoptosis of grafted adipocytes. The other benefit expected from the addition of PRP to fat graft is the improvement of cutaneous trophicity above the grafted areas...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575686/adipocytes-at-the-core-of-bone-function
#15
Gerald Grandl, Christian Wolfrum
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a specialized adipose tissue with endocrine function found in bone marrow. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ambrosi et al. (2017) identify a stem cell population in the bone marrow that can give rise to both osteogenic and adipogenic MAT precursors and is regulated by diet and aging and affects bone functionality.
June 1, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574591/bone-marrow-adipocytes-support-haematopoietic-stem-cell-survival
#16
Domenico Mattiucci, Giulia Maurizi, Valerio Izzi, Lorenzo Cenci, Marco Ciarlantini, Stefania Mancini, Emanuela Mensà, Raffaele Pascarella, Marco Vivarelli, Attilio Olivieri, Pietro Leoni, Antonella Poloni
In bone marrow (BM), haematopoietic elements are mingled with adipocytes (BM-A), which are the most abundant stromal component in the niche. BM-A progressively increase with ageing, eventually occupying up to 50% of BM cavities. In this work, the role played by BM-A was explored by studying primary human BM-A isolated from hip surgery patients at the molecular level, through microarray analysis, and at the functional level, by assessing their relationship with primary human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) by the long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571817/development-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-studying-the-formation-of-baggy-lower-eyelids
#17
Xi Chen, Guangpeng Liu
In old population, there is often a protrusion of the orbital fat pad underlying the skin in the lower eyelids, giving an aspect of palpable pouches. It is generally thought that orbital fat hyperplasia is the main contributing factor to the formation of baggy lower eyelids, and resection of excessive orbital fat pad is routinely performed during the eyelid cosmetic surgery. In our clinical study, however, it was revealed that the adipocytes in orbital fat tissue from older people became smaller compared to those from the young individuals...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#18
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570033/quantitative-mri-and-spectroscopy-of-bone-marrow
#19
REVIEW
Dimitrios C Karampinos, Stefan Ruschke, Michael Dieckmeyer, Maximilian Diefenbach, Daniela Franz, Alexandra S Gersing, Roland Krug, Thomas Baum
Bone marrow is one of the largest organs in the human body, enclosing adipocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, which are responsible for blood cell production, and mesenchymal stem cells, which are responsible for the production of adipocytes and bone cells. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the ideal imaging modality to monitor bone marrow changes in healthy and pathological states, thanks to its inherent rich soft-tissue contrast. Quantitative bone marrow MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques have been also developed in order to quantify changes in bone marrow water-fat composition, cellularity and perfusion in different pathologies, and to assist in understanding the role of bone marrow in the pathophysiology of systemic diseases (e...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565767/hair-follicle-derived-mesenchymal-cells-support-undifferentiated-growth-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Vanessa Carvalho Coelho de Oliveira, Danúbia Silva Dos Santos, Leandro Vairo, Tais Hanae Kasai Brunswick, Luiz Alberto Soares Pimentel, Adriana Bastos Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeder layers composed of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hHFDCs) are able to support human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). hHFDCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F-12 and low-glucose DMEM, respectively. hHFDCs were passaged three times and subsequently characterized. hHFDCs and MEFs were mitotically inactivated with mitomycin C for 3 h prior to co-culture with H9-hESCs...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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