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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#1
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#2
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425843/the-dual-role-of-bmp4-in-adipogenesis-and-metabolism
#3
Salvatore Modica, Christian Wolfrum
BMP4 has a well-established role in triggering commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic and adipogenic linage. We recently described an additional dual function in adipogenesis: after promoting the formation of both white and brown pre-adipocytes, Bmp4 drives terminal differentiation into mature white rather than brown fat cells. Besides this, Bmp4 seems to have a dual role in metabolism either promoting or repressing oxidative metabolism in a cell context dependent manner.
February 6, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424337/physical-and-chemical-gradients-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-regulate-tumor-cell-invasion-migration-and-metastasis
#4
Madeleine J Oudin, Valerie M Weaver
Cancer metastasis requires the invasion of tumor cells into the stroma and the directed migration of tumor cells through the stroma toward the vasculature and lymphatics where they can disseminate and colonize secondary organs. Physical and biochemical gradients that form within the primary tumor tissue promote tumor cell invasion and drive persistent migration toward blood vessels and the lymphatics to facilitate tumor cell dissemination. These microenvironment cues include hypoxia and pH gradients, gradients of soluble cues that induce chemotaxis, and ions that facilitate galvanotaxis, as well as modifications to the concentration, organization, and stiffness of the extracellular matrix that produce haptotactic, alignotactic, and durotactic gradients...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424094/electrical-control-of-calcium-oscillations-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-microsecond-pulsed-electric-fields
#5
Hanna Hanna, Franck M Andre, Lluis M Mir
BACKGROUND: Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These oscillations regulate many basic functions in the cell such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the possibility to mimic or regulate these oscillations might be useful to regulate mesenchymal stem cells biological functions...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417059/susceptibility-of-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc-h103-and-h376-cell-lines-to-retroviral-oskm-mediated-reprogramming
#6
Nalini Devi Verusingam, Swee Keong Yeap, Huynh Ky, Ian C Paterson, Suan Phaik Khoo, Soon Keng Cheong, Alan H K Ong, Tunku Kamarul
Although numbers of cancer cell lines have been shown to be successfully reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), reprogramming Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to pluripotency in relation to its cancer cell type and the expression pattern of pluripotent genes under later passage remain unexplored. In our study, we reprogrammed and characterised H103 and H376 oral squamous carcinoma cells using retroviral OSKM mediated method. Reprogrammed cells were characterized for their embryonic stem cells (ESCs) like morphology, pluripotent gene expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence staining, embryoid bodies (EB) formation and directed differentiation capacity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414326/mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-obesity-insights-for-translational-applications
#7
Kenichi Matsushita, Victor J Dzau
Obesity is now a major public health problem worldwide. Lifestyle modification to reduce the characteristic excess body adiposity is important in the treatment of obesity, but effective therapeutic intervention is still needed to control what has become an obesity epidemic. Unfortunately, many anti-obesity drugs have been withdrawn from market due to adverse side effects. Bariatric surgery therefore remains the most effective therapy for severe cases, although such surgery is invasive and researchers continue to seek new control strategies for obesity...
April 17, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414093/imbalance-in-leptin-adiponectin-levels-and-leptin-receptor-expression-as-chief-contributors-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer-progression-in-northeast-india
#8
Rizwana Sultana, Amal Ch Kataki, Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur, Tarun K Basumatary, Sujoy Bose
BACKGROUND: Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented...
April 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413478/icariin-improves-osteoporosis-inhibits-the-expression-of-ppar%C3%AE-c-ebp%C3%AE-fabp4-mrna-n1icd-and-jagged1-proteins-and-increases-notch2-mrna-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Hengrui Liu, Yingquan Xiong, Xiaofeng Zhu, Han Gao, Sujuan Yin, Jiefang Wang, Guangming Chen, Chaopeng Wang, Lu Xiang, Panpan Wang, Ji Fang, Ronghua Zhang, Li Yang
Icariin (ICA) is a pharmacologically active flavonoid glycoside that shows promise in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OP). However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-osteoporotic effects of ICA remain largely unclear. The present study used quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot and immunohistochemical analysis to examine the effects of ICA on several key targets in the Notch signaling pathway in bone tissue in ovariectomized rats. It was observed that ICA has a pronounced beneficial effect on OP rats and inhibits the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) mRNA...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409620/surface-atomic-structure-directs-the-fate-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Lingqing Dong, Kui Cheng, Ying Zhou, Mengfei Yu, Jiaxing Gong, Yihan Lin, Qi Luo, Qi Wang, Wen-Jian Weng, Huiming Wang
Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their surface features, integrate extracellular matrix (ECM) protein cues via signal transduction pathway and ultimately direct cell fate decisions. However, discovering the interdisciplinary mechanisms of how stem cells response to inherent material surface features still remains a challenge due to the complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in ECM environment. Here, we demonstrate that the fate of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be regulated by inherent physical cue of material surface down to atomic-scale features...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407241/leptin-accelerates-the-pathogenesis-of-heterotopic-ossification-in-rat-tendon-tissues-via-mtorc1-signaling
#11
Huaji Jiang, Yuhui Chen, Guorong Chen, Xinggui Tian, Jiajun Tang, Lei Luo, Minjun Huang, Bin Yan, Xiang Ao, Wen Zhou, Liping Wang, Xiaochun Bai, Zhongmin Zhang, Liang Wang, Cory J Xian
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine associated with bone metabolism, is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification (HO). The effect and underlying action mechanism of leptin were investigated on osteogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) in vitro and the HO formation in rat tendons. Isolated rat TDSCs were treated with various concentrations of leptin in the presence or absence of mTORC1 signaling specific inhibitor rapamycin in vitro. A rat model with Achilles tenotomy was employed to evaluate the effect of leptin on HO formation together with or without rapamycin treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406706/nanofat-2-0-experimental-evidence-for-a-fat-grafting-rich-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
D Lo Furno, S Tamburino, G Mannino, E Gili, G Lombardo, M S Tarico, C Vancheri, R Giuffrida, R E Perrotta
Different strategies have been developed in the last decade to obtain fat grafts as rich as possible of mesenchymal stem cells, so exploiting their regenerative potential. Recently, a new kind of fat grafting, called "nanofat", has been obtained after several steps of fat emulsification and filtration. The final liquid suspension, virtually devoid of mature adipocytes, would improve tissue repair because of the presence of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). However, since it is probable that many ASCs may be lost in the numerous phases of this procedure, we describe here a novel version of fat grafting, which we call "nanofat 2...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402337/bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-deficiency-increases-disuse-induced-bone-loss-in-male-mice
#13
Jessica A Keune, Carmen P Wong, Adam J Branscum, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner
Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is negatively associated with bone mass. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same precursor cells, adipocyte differentiation may occur at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. We used MAT-deficient Kit(W/W-v) (MAT-) mice to determine if absence of MAT reduced bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) mice. Male MAT- and wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned to a baseline, control or HU group (n = 10 mice/group) within each genotype and HU groups unloaded for 2 weeks...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396508/adipocyte-metabolic-pathways-regulated-by-diet-control-the-female-germline-stem-cell-lineage-in-drosophila
#14
Shinya Matsuoka, Alissa Armstrong, Leesa L Sampson, Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Nutrients affect adult stem cells through complex mechanisms involving multiple organs. Adipocytes are highly sensitive to diet and have key metabolic roles, and obesity increases the risk for many cancers. How diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways influence normal stem cell lineages, however, remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster has highly conserved adipocyte metabolism and a well-characterized female germline stem cell (GSC) lineage response to diet. Here, we conducted an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to identify diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways that control the female GSC lineage...
April 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396251/gene-expression-profiling-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-osteogenesis-imperfecta-patients-during-osteoblast-differentiation
#15
Carla Martins Kaneto, Patrícia S Pereira Lima, Karen Lima Prata, Jane Lima Dos Santos, João Monteiro de Pina Neto, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci, Houtan Noushmehr, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Francisco José Alburquerque de Paula, Wilson Araújo Silva
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are precursors present in adult bone marrow that are able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts that have gained great importance as a source for cell therapy. Recently, a number of studies involving the analysis of gene expression of undifferentiated MSCs and of MSCs in the differentiation into multiple lineage processes were observed but there is no information concerning the gene expression of MSCs from Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) patients. Osteogenesis Imperfecta is characterized as a genetic disorder in which a generalized osteopenia leads to excessive bone fragility and severe bone deformities...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388559/enhanced-tumor-growth-inhibition-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-ipscs-with-targeted-integration-of-interleukin24-into-rdna-loci
#16
Bo Liu, Fei Chen, Yong Wu, Xiaolin Wang, Mai Feng, Zhuo Li, Miaojin Zhou, Yanchi Wang, Lingqian Wu, Xionghao Liu, Desheng Liang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for clinical applications. In this study, we transformed human iPSCs using a non-viral vector carrying the IL24 transgene pHrn-IL24. PCR and southern blotting confirmed IL24 integration into the rDNA loci in four of 68 iPSC clones. We then differentiated a high expressing IL24-iPSC clone into MSCs (IL24-iMSCs) that showed higher expression of IL24 in culture supernatants and in cell lysates than control iMSCs. IL24-iMSCs efficiently differentiated into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388431/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-enables-functional-validation-of-gwas-variants-in-metabolic-disease
#17
Curtis R Warren, John F O'Sullivan, Max Friesen, Caroline E Becker, Xiaoling Zhang, Poching Liu, Yoshiyuki Wakabayashi, Jordan E Morningstar, Xu Shi, Jihoon Choi, Fang Xia, Derek T Peters, Mary H C Florido, Alexander M Tsankov, Eilene Duberow, Lauren Comisar, Jennifer Shay, Xin Jiang, Alexander Meissner, Kiran Musunuru, Sekar Kathiresan, Laurence Daheron, Jun Zhu, Robert E Gerszten, Rahul C Deo, Ramachandran S Vasan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Chad A Cowan
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have highlighted a large number of genetic variants with potential disease association, but functional analysis remains a challenge. Here we describe an approach to functionally validate identified variants through differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to study cellular pathophysiology. We collected peripheral blood cells from Framingham Heart Study participants and reprogrammed them to iPSCs. We then differentiated 68 iPSC lines into hepatocytes and adipocytes to investigate the effect of the 1p13 rs12740374 variant on cardiometabolic disease phenotypes via transcriptomics and metabolomic signatures...
April 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387755/transglutaminases-factor-xiii-a-and-tg2-regulate-resorption-adipogenesis-and-plasma-fibronectin-homeostasis-in-bone-and-bone-marrow
#18
Aisha Mousa, Cui Cui, Aimei Song, Vamsee D Myneni, Huifang Sun, Jin Jin Li, Monzur Murshed, Gerry Melino, Mari T Kaartinen
Appropriate bone mass is maintained by bone-forming osteoblast and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage cells control osteoclastogenesis via expression of RANKL and OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand and osteoprotegerin), which promote and inhibit bone resorption, respectively. Protein crosslinking enzymes transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIII-A (FXIII-A) have been linked to activity of myeloid and MSC lineage cells; however, in vivo evidence has been lacking to support their function...
April 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386845/sub-physiological-oxygen-levels-optimal-for-growth-and-survival-of-human-atrial-cardiac-stem-cells
#19
Deepthi Sreerengam RajendranNair, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Renuka R Nair
Cardiac stem cells reside in niches where the oxygen levels are close to 3%. For cytotherapy, cells are conventionally expanded in ambient oxygen (21% O2) which represents hyperoxia compared to the oxygen tension of niches. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are then transplanted to host tissue with lower-O2 levels. The high-O2 gradient can reduce the efficacy of cultured cells. Based on the assumption that minimizing injury due to O2 gradients will enhance the yield of functionally efficient cells, CDCs were cultured in 3% O2 and compared with cells maintained in ambient O2...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386120/from-skeletal-muscle-to-stem-cells-an-innovative-and-minimally-invasive-process-for-multiple-species
#20
J Ceusters, J-Ph Lejeune, C Sandersen, A Niesten, L Lagneaux, D Serteyn
Bone marrow and adipose tissue represent the two most commonly exploited sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for musculoskeletal applications. Unfortunately the sampling of bone marrow and fat tissue is invasive and does not always lead to a sufficient number of cells. The present study describes a novel sampling method based on microbiopsy of skeletal muscle in man, pigs, dogs and horses. The process includes explant of the sample, Percoll density gradient for isolation and subsequent culture of the cells...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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