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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#1
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330582/adipocyte-accumulation-in-the-bone-marrow-during-obesity-and-aging-impairs-stem-cell-based-hematopoietic-and-bone-regeneration
#2
Thomas H Ambrosi, Antonio Scialdone, Antonia Graja, Sabrina Gohlke, Anne-Marie Jank, Carla Bocian, Lena Woelk, Hua Fan, Darren W Logan, Annette Schürmann, Luis R Saraiva, Tim J Schulz
Aging and obesity induce ectopic adipocyte accumulation in bone marrow cavities. This process is thought to impair osteogenic and hematopoietic regeneration. Here we specify the cellular identities of the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of the bone. While aging impairs the osteogenic lineage, high-fat diet feeding activates expansion of the adipogenic lineage, an effect that is significantly enhanced in aged animals. We further describe a mesenchymal sub-population with stem cell-like characteristics that gives rise to both lineages and, at the same time, acts as a principal component of the hematopoietic niche by promoting competitive repopulation following lethal irradiation...
March 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326295/role-of-the-cytokine-like-hormone-leptin-in-muscle-bone-crosstalk-with-aging
#3
REVIEW
Mark W Hamrick
The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324211/comparison-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-potential-of-iliac-crest-and-degenerative-facet-joint-bone-autografts-for-intervertebral-fusion-in-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#4
Jeroen Geurts, Daniela Ramp, Stefan Schären, Cordula Netzer
PURPOSE: The promotion of spinal fusion using bone autografts is largely mediated by the osteoinductive potential of progenitors/mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that reside in the marrow spaces of cancellous bone. Iliac crest is the common autograft donor site, but its use presents an increased risk for donor site pain, morbidity and infection. Degenerative bone samples harvested during facetectomy might provide an alternative viable source of osteoinductive autografts. In this study, we conducted an intra-individual comparison of the osteogenic potential of isolated low passage MSC from both sources...
March 21, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320453/dysregulated-systemic-lymphocytes-affect-the-balance-of-osteogenic-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-local-irradiation
#5
Xiaoya Xu, Ruixia Li, Yi Zhou, Qiong Zou, Qiaoling Ding, Jinfeng Wang, Weifang Jin, Guoqiang Hua, Jianjun Gao
BACKGROUND: While it is known that irradiation can induce local and systemic bone loss over time, how focal irradiation induces systemic bone complications remains unclear. Immune cells are thought to be crucial to bone homeostasis, and abnormal immune cells lead to serious disruption of bone homeostasis, such as in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This disruption primarily occurs due to inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). METHODS: In this study, we detected local and systemic bone loss in trabecular bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and measurement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression in BMSCs using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319137/the-h3k27-demethylase-utx-regulates-adipogenesis-in-a-differentiation-stage-dependent-manner
#6
Kazushige Ota, Kit I Tong, Kouichiro Goto, Shuta Tomida, Akiyoshi Komuro, Zhong Wang, Kazuto Nishio, Hitoshi Okada
Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive adipogenesis is important in developing new treatments for obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic regulations determine the capacity of adipogenesis. In this study, we examined the role of a histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein on the X chromosome (Utx), in the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to adipocytes. Using gene trapping, we examined Utx-deficient male mESCs to determine whether loss of Utx would enhance or inhibit the differentiation of mESCs to adipocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316169/-advances-in-the-research-of-basic-study-and-clinical-application-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
S J Cao, L F Wang, T Ba, Z D Rong, G L Hu, B Zhou, Q Li
Since the discovery of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) in more than ten years, a great progress has been made from its basic research to clinical application. Compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs are more abundant in reserve, easier to obtain with fewer injuries and less complications. These cells have multiple differentiation potential and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts with the influence of different inducing factors. Early studies of ADSCs mainly focused on the ability of multi-directional differentiation, espe-cially on the regeneration of bone defects and cartilage tissue...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314693/wnk4-is-an-adipogenic-factor-and-its-deletion-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#8
Daiei Takahashi, Takayasu Mori, Eisei Sohara, Miyako Tanaka, Motoko Chiga, Yuichi Inoue, Naohiro Nomura, Moko Zeniya, Hiroki Ochi, Shu Takeda, Takayoshi Suganami, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) 4 gene is a causative gene in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Although WNKs are widely expressed in the body, neither their metabolic functions nor their extrarenal role is clear. In this study, we found that WNK4 was expressed in mouse adipose tissue and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mouse primary preadipocytes and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, WNK4 was markedly induced in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation. WNK4 expression preceded the expression of key transcriptional factors PPARγ and C/EBPα...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303927/efficient-generation-of-chemically-induced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#9
Pei-Lun Lai, Hsuan Lin, Shang-Fu Chen, Shang-Chih Yang, Kuo-Hsuan Hung, Ching-Fang Chang, Hsiang-Yi Chang, Frank Leigh Lu, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Yu-Chuan Liu, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Jean Lu
Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent and currently undergoing hundreds of clinical trials for disease treatments. To date, no studies have generated induced MSCs from skin fibroblasts with chemicals or growth factors. Here, we established the first chemical method to convert primary human dermal fibroblasts into multipotent, induced MSC-like cells (iMSCs). The conversion method uses a defined cocktail of small molecules and growth factors, and it can achieve efficient conversion with an average rate of 38% in 6 days...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295953/three-dimensional-carbon-nanotube-scaffolds-for-long-term-maintenance-and-expansion-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Gaurav Lalwani, Michael D'Agati, Anu Gopalan, Sunny C Patel, Yahfi Talukdar, Balaji Sitharaman
Expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and maintenance of their self-renewal capacity in vitro requires specialized robust cell culture systems. Conventional approaches using animal derived or artificial matrices and a cocktail of growth factors have limitations such as consistency, scalability, pathogenicity and loss of MSC phenotype. Herein, we report the use of all-carbon 3D single- and multiwalled carbon nanotube scaffolds (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) as artificial matrices for long-term maintenance and expansion of human MSCs...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285646/angiopoietin-like-protein-2-is-a-positive-regulator-of-osteoblast-differentiation
#11
Aiko Takano, Takao Fukuda, Takanori Shinjo, Misaki Iwashita, Etsuko Matsuzaki, Kensuke Yamamichi, Masaaki Takeshita, Terukazu Sanui, Fusanori Nishimura
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Several studies have reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (Angptl2) is expressed abundantly in adipocytes and is associated with adipose tissue inflammation. In the present study, we found that osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells also expressed Angptl2 at high levels. The aim of this study was to understand the role of Angptl2 in osteoblastic cell differentiation. METHODS: Angptl2 expression was examined during osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275008/pparg-is-central-to-the-initiation-and-propagation-of-human-angiomyolipoma-suggesting-its-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#12
Oren Pleniceanu, Racheli Shukrun, Dorit Omer, Einav Vax, Itamar Kanter, Klaudyna Dziedzic, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Michal Mark-Daniei, Sara Pri-Chen, Yehudit Gnatek, Hadas Alfandary, Nira Varda-Bloom, Dekel D Bar-Lev, Naomi Bollag, Rachel Shtainfeld, Leah Armon, Achia Urbach, Tomer Kalisky, Arnon Nagler, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Jack L Arbiser, Benjamin Dekel
Angiomyolipoma (AML), the most common benign renal tumor, can result in severe morbidity from hemorrhage and renal failure. While mTORC1 activation is involved in its growth, mTORC1 inhibitors fail to eradicate AML, highlighting the need for new therapies. Moreover, the identity of the AML cell of origin is obscure. AML research, however, is hampered by the lack of in vivo models. Here, we establish a human AML-xenograft (Xn) model in mice, recapitulating AML at the histological and molecular levels. Microarray analysis demonstrated tumor growth in vivo to involve robust PPARG-pathway activation...
March 8, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273634/dynamic-changes-of-epigenetic-signatures-during-chondrogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
REVIEW
Navid Saidi, Majdedin Ghalavand, Mohammad Sadegh Hashemzadeh, Ruhollah Dorostkar, Hamed Mohammadi, Ahmad Mahdian-Shakib
Extensive studies have been performed to clarify the processes during which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into their lineage fates. In vitro differentiation of MSCs into distinct lineages have attracted the focus of a large number of clinical investigations. Although the gene expression profiling during differentiation of MSC toward bone, cartilage, and adipocytes is well established, the master regulators by which MSC fate can be controlled are not entirely determined. During differentiation of MSCs into a special cell fate, epigenetic mechanisms considered as the primary mediators that suppress the irrelevant genes and activate the genes required for a specific cell lineage...
March 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270520/functional-human-beige-adipocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Anne-Claire Guénantin, Nolwenn Briand, Emilie Capel, Florent Dumont, Romain Morichon, Claire Provost, Francesca Stillitano, Dorota Jeziorowska, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, Roger J Hajjar, Bruno Fève, Jean-Sébastien Hulot, Philippe Collas, Jacqueline Capeau, Corinne Vigouroux
Activation of thermogenic beige adipocytes has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in obesity and diabetes. Relevant human models for beige adipocyte differentiation are essential to implement such therapeutic strategies. We report a straightforward and efficient protocol to generate functional human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Without overexpression of exogenous adipogenic genes, our method recapitulates an adipogenic developmental pathway through successive mesodermal and adipogenic progenitor stages...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270145/selective-activation-of-mirnas-of-the-primate-specific-chromosome-19-mirna-cluster-c19mc-in-cancer-and-stem-cells-and-possible-contribution-to-regulation-of-apoptosis
#15
Phan Nguyen Nhi Nguyen, Chiu-Jung Huang, Shigeki Sugii, Soon Keng Cheong, Kong Bung Choo
BACKGROUND: The human chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) of 43 genes is a primate-specific miRNA cluster that may have biological significance in the genetic complexity of the primate. Despite previous reports on individual C19MC miRNA expression in cancer and stem cells, systematic studies on C19MC miRNA expression and biological functions are lacking. RESULTS: Cluster-wide C19MC miRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis showed wholesome C19MC activation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260060/bioinformatics-analysis-on-the-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-osteoblasts-and-adipocytes
#16
Xiaoyuan Xu, He Jiang, Xingnuan Li, Ping Wu, Jianyun Liu, Tao Wang, Xiaoou Zhou, Jianjun Xiong, Weidong Li
The present study aimed to screen several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) for two types of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP‑6) and dexamethasone were used to induce MSCs towards osteoblastic differentiation or adipocytic differentiation. The t‑test in the Bioconductor bioinformatics software tool was used to screen DEGs and differentially expressed miRNAs in the two samples. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses on the DEGs were performed using the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively; potential target genes for the screened miRNAs were predicted using the TargetScan database...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256115/serum-preadipocyte-factor-1-levels-are-not-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-among-healthy-postmenopausal-korean-women
#17
Hoon Sung Choi, Sang Wook Kim, Eun Hee Cho
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes or osteoblasts through closely regulated lineage-control processes. However, adipocyte precursor cells release preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), which inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes and osteoblasts. Previous studies have also reported an inverse association between Pref-1 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examined the correlations between Pref-1 levels and BMD among 124 healthy postmenopausal women (>50 years old)...
February 28, 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255772/isolation-culture-and-biological-characteristics-of-multipotent-porcine-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells
#18
Jinjuan Yang, Hao Liu, Kunfu Wang, Lu Li, Hongyi Yuan, Xueting Liu, Yingjie Liu, Weijun Guan
Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts...
March 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252222/irradiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-low-and-high-doses-of-alpha-particles-induces-senescence-and-or-apoptosis
#19
Nicola Alessio, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Galano, Roberto De Rosa, Pasquale Anello, Gianfranco Peluso, Maria Antonella Tabocchini, Umberto Galderisi
The use of high-linear energy transfer charged particles is gaining attention as a medical tool because of the emission of radiations with an efficient cell-killing ability. Considerable interest has developed in the use of targeted alpha-particle therapy for the treatment of micrometastases. Moreover, the use of helium beams is gaining momentum, especially for treating pediatric tumors. We analyzed the effects of alpha particles on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have a subpopulation of stem cells capable of generating adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244037/flow-cytometry-assisted-isolation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#20
Umesh D Wankhade, Sushil G Rane
Adipose tissue dysfunction is typically seen in metabolic diseases, particularly obesity and diabetes. White adipocytes store fat while brown adipocyte dissipates it via thermogenesis. In addition, beige adipocytes develop in white fat depots in response to stimulation of β-adrenergic pathways. It appears that the three types of adipocytes-white, brown, and beige-can be formed de novo from stem/precursor cells or via transdifferentiation. Identifying the presumptive progenitors that harbor capacity to differentiate to these distinct adipocyte cell types will enable their functional characterization...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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