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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456886/heterogenic-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-derived-rhesus-macaque-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-mouse
#1
Xufeng Fu, Bin Jiang, Bingrong Zheng, Yaping Yan, Junfeng Wang, Yanchao Duan, Shanshan Li, Li Yan, Hong Wang, Bingbing Chen, Xiongbo Sang, Weizhi Ji, Ren-He Xu, Wei Si
Liver fibrosis is a disease that causes high morbidity and has become a major health problem. Liver fibrosis can lead to the end stage of liver diseases (livercirrhosisand hepatocellularcarcinoma). Currently, liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, the shortage of organ donors, high cost of medical surgery, immunological rejection and transplantation complications severely hamper liver transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been regarded as promising cells for clinical applications in stem cell therapy in the treatment of liver diseases due to their unique multipotent differentiation capacity, immunoregulation and paracrine effects...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455245/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-induced-mir-27b-is-linked-to-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-by-targeting-insulin-receptor
#2
Ankita Srivastava, Kripa Shankar, Muheeb Beg, Sujith Rajan, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Durgesh Kumar, Sanchita Gupta, Raj Kumar Mishra, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Defect in insulin signaling leads to the development of insulin resistance followed by type 2 diabetes. Exploiting our previously developed physiological chronic hyperinsulinemia (CI)-mediated insulin resistance (IR) model, we wanted to understand how miRNAs contribute to the development of IR. Amongst the identified and validate miRNAs, the expression of miR-27b was found to be highly upregulated during CI-induced IR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also validated the expression of miR-27b in CI-induced IR in human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived adipocytes and in vivo high fat diet (HFD)-induced IR mice model...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453764/comparative-analysis-of-human-ucb-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-their-differentiation-potential-into-brown-and-white-adipocytes
#3
Afrooz Rashnonejad, Gulinnaz Ercan, Cumhur Gunduz, Ali Akdemir, Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu
The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447191/euglena-extract-suppresses-adipocyte-differentiation-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#4
Ryota Sugimoto, Naoko Ishibashi-Ohgo, Kohei Atsuji, Yuko Miwa, Osamu Iwata, Ayaka Nakashima, Kengo Suzuki
Euglena gracilis Z (Euglena) is a unicellular, photosynthesizing, microscopic green alga. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, to verify the potential role of Euglena consumption on human health and obesity, we evaluated the effect of Euglena on human adipose-derived stem cells. We prepared a Euglena extract and evaluated its effect on cell growth and lipid accumulation, and found that cell growth was promoted by the addition of the Euglena extract...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444566/chemical-characterization-of-novel-natural-products-from-the-roots-of-asian-rice-oryza-sativa-that-control-adipocyte-and-osteoblast-differentiation
#5
Hee Rae Kang, Hyung Sik Yun, Tae Kyoung Lee, Seulah Lee, Seon-Hee Kim, Eunjung Moon, Ki-Moon Park, Ki Hyun Kim
Oryza sativa L. is consumed globally as a staple food and its roots have been used as a Korean and Chinese medical supplement for protection of the stomach and lungs and for amelioration of vomiting and fever. In our continuing search for biologically effective metabolites from Korean natural materials, we found that an EtOH extract of O. sativa root reciprocally regulated adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Chemical analysis of the EtOH extract using a bioassay-guided fractionation protocol led to the isolation and determination of two novel lignans, oryzativols A and B, responsible for these regulatory activities...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444341/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-promotes-expansion-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-and-impairs-skeletal-stem-cell-functions-in-mice
#6
Michaela Tencerova, Florence Figeac, Nicholas Ditzel, Hanna Taipaleenmäki, Tina Kamilla Nielsen, Moustapha Kassem
Obesity represents a risk factor for development of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. In addition, it has been associated with increased adipocyte formation in the bone marrow (BM) along with increased risk for bone fragility fractures. However, little is known on the cellular mechanisms that link obesity, BM adiposity and bone fragility. Thus, in an obesity intervention study in C57BL/6J mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, we investigated the molecular and cellular phenotype of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), BM progenitor cells and BM microenvironment in comparison to peripheral adipose tissue (AT)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442325/zic-family-proteins-in-emerging-biomedical-studies
#7
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436792/wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolation-and-characterization
#8
Hossein Ranjbaran, Saeid Abediankenari, Masoud Mohammadi, Narjes Jafari, Alireza Khalilian, Zahra Rahmani, Marzei Momeninezhad Amiri, Pirooz Ebrahimi
Wharton`s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs), have a high proliferation valency and they do not produce teratogen or carcinogen after subsequent transplantation. They are known as regenerative medicine. Thus more research is needed on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. In this experimental study, we obtained Wharton's jelly tissues from mothers during normal vaginal delivery, after obtaining their informed consent. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from cultured Wharton`s jelly, cultured, and were then examined for their proliferation, immunophenotypes, and differentiation capacities...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435977/characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-with-lymphoid-tissue-organizer-cell-potential-in-tonsils-from-children
#9
Alejandro Prados, Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Pablo Fernandez-Rubio, Enrique G Olivares
Lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells, identified in mouse and human embryos, are thought to be precursors of stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Whether LTo cells are present in human adults, however remains unknown. We obtained 15 stromal cell lines from tonsils from children who underwent tonsillectomy, and studied the antigen phenotype of these tonsil stromal cell (TSC) lines by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Cell lines met the minimal criteria proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy to define human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs): plastic-adherent capacity; expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, lack of CD45, CD19 and HLA-DR; and capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434243/isolation-and-expansion-of-multipotent-progenitors-from-human-trabecular-meshwork
#10
Yuan Zhang, Subo Cai, Scheffer C G Tseng, Ying-Ting Zhu
To expand multi-potent progenitors from human trabecular meshwork (TM), we have created a new optimized method on two-dimensional (2D) followed by three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel in modified embryonic stem cell medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (MESCM + 5% FBS). The expanded TM cells were small cuboidal cells expressing TM markers such as AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, and AnkG, embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ABCG2, and neural crest (NC) markers such as p75NTR, FOXD3, Sox9, Sox10, and MSX1...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428734/co-transplantation-of-exosomes-derived-from-hypoxia-preconditioned-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-neovascularization-and-graft-survival-in-fat-grafting
#11
Yu-di Han, Yun Bai, Xin-Long Yan, Jing Ren, Quan Zeng, Xiao-Dong Li, Xue-Tao Pei, Yan Han
BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs)-derived exosomes (ADSC-Exos) account for the proangiogenic potential of stem cell. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ADSC-derived exosomes (ADSC-Exos) on the survival in fat grafting. METHODS: A nude mouse model of subcutaneous fat grafting was adopted. Hypoxic preconditioned ADSC-Exos and ADSC-Exos were injected around the grafted tissue. The fat graft sample was weighed and examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423270/atf6-safeguards-organelle-homeostasis-and-cellular-aging-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Si Wang, Boqiang Hu, Zhichao Ding, Yujiao Dang, Jun Wu, Di Li, Xiaoling Liu, Bailong Xiao, Weiqi Zhang, Ruotong Ren, Jinghui Lei, Huifang Hu, Chang Chen, Piu Chan, Dong Li, Jing Qu, Fuchou Tang, Guang-Hui Liu
Loss of organelle homeostasis is a hallmark of aging. However, it remains elusive how this occurs at gene expression level. Here, we report that human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) aging is associated with dysfunction of double-membrane organelles and downregulation of transcription factor ATF6. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated inactivation of ATF6 in hMSCs, not in human embryonic stem cells and human adipocytes, results in premature cellular aging, characteristic of loss of endomembrane homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses uncover cell type-specific constitutive and stress-induced ATF6-regulated genes implicated in various layers of organelles' homeostasis regulation...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416798/runx2-promotes-epithelial-differentiation-of-adscs-and-burn-wound-healing-via-targeting-e-cadherin
#13
Qiang Li, Han Zhao, Sizhan Xia, Hanxiao Wei, Feifei Chen, Peisheng Jin
Epithelial differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is mediated by sophisticated interactions of various molecular functions and biological processes, including transcriptional regulation. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) increases osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of ADSCs. However, the role of RUNX2 in epithelial differentiation of ADSCs is unknown. We first showed that ADSCs possess the potential to differentiate into epithelial lineage. Then, we employed the effect of RUNX2 on epithelial differentiation of ADSCs...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416732/gene-amplification-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-during-differentiation-towards-adipocytes-or-osteoblasts
#14
Nora Corinna Altmayer, Valentina Galata, Nadine Warschburger, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese, Ulrike Fisher
Gene amplifications are an attribute of tumor cells and have for long time been overlooked in normal cells. A growing number of investigations describe gene amplifications in normal mammalian cells during development and differentiation. Possibly, tumor cells have rescued the gene amplification mechanism as a physiological attribute of stem cells. Here, we investigated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for gene amplification using array-CGH, single cell fluorescence in situ hybridization and qPCR. Gene amplifications were detected in mesenchymal stem cells and in mesenchymal stem cells during differentiation towards adipocytes and osteoblasts...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416046/ginkgolic-acid-a-sumoylation-inhibitor-promotes-adipocyte-commitment-but-suppresses-adipocyte-terminal-differentiation-of-mouse-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#15
Huadie Liu, Jianshuang Li, Di Lu, Jie Li, Minmin Liu, Yuanzheng He, Bart O Williams, Jiada Li, Tao Yang
Sumoylation is a post-translational modification process having an important influence in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Thus, sumoylation-modulating chemicals might be used to control MSC differentiation for skeletal tissue engineering. In this work, we studied how the differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) is affected by ginkgolic acid (GA), a potent sumoylation inhibitor also reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT). Our results show that GA promoted the differentiation of mBMSCs into adipocytes when cultured in osteogenic medium...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413760/multifaceted-roles-of-interleukin-6-in-adipocyte-breast-cancer-cell-interaction
#16
REVIEW
Jones Gyamfi, Minseob Eom, Ja-Seung Koo, Junjeong Choi
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, with a developmental process spanning decades. The malignant cells recruit a variety of cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, creating the tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment has emerged as active participants in breast cancer progression and response to treatment through autocrine and paracrine interaction with the malignant cells. Adipose tissue is abundant in the breast cancer microenvironment; interactions with cancer cells create cancer-associated adipocytes which produce a variety of adipokines that influence breast cancer initiation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and cachexia...
January 30, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401606/cysteine-rich-protein-61-regulates-adipocyte-differentiation-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-canonical-wnt-signaling
#17
Yongxu Yang, Qi Qi, Yi Wang, Yaru Shi, Weili Yang, Yunzhu Cen, Endong Zhu, Xiaoxia Li, Di Chen, Baoli Wang
Emerging evidence suggests that cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) plays a role in the differentiation and development of chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts; however, little is known about its role in adipogenesis. The current study indicates that the expression level of Cyr61 was altered in primary cultured marrow stromal cells and the established mesenchymal cell line, C3H10T1/2, after adipogenic treatment. Overexpressing Cyr61 repressed C3H10T1/2 and primary marrow stromal cells to differentiate into mature adipocytes...
January 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399988/uncoupling-protein-1-expression-in-adipocytes-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-fibro-adipogenic-progenitors-is-under-genetic-and-hormonal-control
#18
Tatiane Gorski, Sebastian Mathes, Jan Krützfeldt
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fatty infiltration is generally associated with the accumulation of white adipocytes in skeletal muscle and unfavourable metabolic outcomes. It is, however, still unclear whether intramuscular adipocytes could also acquire a brown-like phenotype. Here, we detected intramuscular expression of brown adipocyte markers during fatty infiltration in an obesity-resistant mouse strain and extensively compared the potential of two different stem cell populations residing in skeletal muscle to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399186/detachment-from-the-primary-site-and-suspension-in-ascites-as-the-initial-step-in-metabolic-reprogramming-and-metastasis-to-the-omentum-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
Masakazu Sato, Kei Kawana, Katsuyuki Adachi, Asaha Fujimoto, Mitsuyo Yoshida, Hiroe Nakamura, Haruka Nishida, Tomoko Inoue, Ayumi Taguchi, Juri Ogishima, Satoko Eguchi, Aki Yamashita, Kensuke Tomio, Atsushi Komatsu, Osamu Wada-Hiraike, Katsutoshi Oda, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Yutaka Osuga, Tomoyuki Fujii
Cancer cell metabolism is currently considered to be context dependent, and metabolic reprogramming is being widely investigated. It is known that ovarian cancer often metastasizes to the omentum. Given that the omentum itself contains a high concentration of adipocytes, ovarian cancer is thought to be a good model for research into metabolic reprogramming (particularly the shift to lipid metabolism). The present study investigated the switch to lipid metabolism in the metabolic reprogramming of ovarian cancer cells...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399087/simultaneous-harvesting-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-human-umbilical-cord
#20
Hao Zhang, Yanling Tao, Saisai Ren, Haihui Liu, Hui Zhou, Jiangwei Hu, Yongyong Tang, Bin Zhang, Hu Chen
The human umbilical cord (UC) is usually discarded as biological waste. However, it has attracted interest as a source of cells including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have demonstrated enormous potential in regenerative medicine. The present study describes a convenient protocol that has been developed to sequentially extract these two cell types from a single UC. EPCs which had properties of progenitor cells were successfully isolated from the UC vein. These cells had cobble-shaped morphology and expressed Flt-1, KDR, VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor and CD31 mRNA, in addition to CD73, CD105 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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