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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931518/biofunctionalized-self-assembly-of-peptide-amphiphile-induces-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neural-cells
#1
Hong Ruan, Renshun Xiao, Xinghai Jiang, Biao Zhao, Kai Wu, Zongzuan Shao, Zhongjie Zhang, Huyang Duan, Yulin Song
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotential differentiation cells which can differentiate into different cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells. Such multipotential differentiation makes them attractive for stem cell-based therapy aimed at treating previously incurable disorders. In the present work, we encapsulated BMSCs into a hydrogel with a three-dimensional (3D) network of nanofibers, formed from self-assembling of peptide amphiphile...
June 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928592/complex-toxicity-as-disruption-of-adipocyte-or-osteoblast-differentiation-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-the-mixed-condition-of-tbbpa-and-tcdd
#2
Hideki Kakutani, Tomohiro Yuzuriha, Ema Akiyama, Teruyuki Nakao, Souichi Ohta
People are frequently and unintentionally exposed to many chemical compounds, such as environmental pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in food and from the atmosphere. In particular, endocrine-disrupting TBBPA and dioxins are found in human breast milk and in the body. Conventional studies evaluate toxicity by administering a single substance to cells or animals, but evaluation of the toxicity of mixtures of these ingested compounds is essential for "true" toxicological assessment...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928084/autologous-emulsified-fat-injection-for-rejuvenation-of-scars-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Lekshmi S Bhooshan, M Geetha Devi, R Aniraj, P Binod, M Lekshmi
Background: The skin rejuvenation potential of the autologous emulsified nanofat was studied by Tonnard et al . in 2013. This property is due to the viable adipose-derived stem cells present in the nanofat; although, there are no viable adipocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the aesthetic outcome of autologous emulsified nanofat injection in scars using a standardised and validated Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and photographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 patients with scars of varied aetiologies were included in the study as per inclusion criteria...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925944/a-stromal-cell-population-that-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-mammalian-fat-depots
#4
Petra C Schwalie, Hua Dong, Magda Zachara, Julie Russeil, Daniel Alpern, Nassila Akchiche, Christian Caprara, Wenfei Sun, Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff, Gianni Soldati, Christian Wolfrum, Bart Deplancke
Adipocyte development and differentiation have an important role in the aetiology of obesity and its co-morbidities1,2 . Although multiple studies have investigated the adipogenic stem and precursor cells that give rise to mature adipocytes3-14 , our understanding of their in vivo origin and properties is incomplete2,15,16 . This is partially due to the highly heterogeneous and unstructured nature of adipose tissue depots 17 , which has proven difficult to molecularly dissect using classical approaches such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting and Cre-lox lines based on candidate marker genes16,18 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923343/inhibin-%C3%AE-subunit-inhibits-bmp9-induced-osteogenic-differentiation-through-blocking-bmp-smad-signal-and-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Min Huang, Ya-Lin Cheng, Ji-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Ya Su, Hong Liu
Inhibin-α, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) superfamily, has been involved in bone turnover during the menopausal transition via endocrine effects, and it was previously reported that inhibins may antagonize the function of BMPs. Certainly, one of the most important functions of BMPs is to induce osteogenic differentiation. BMP9 as one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteogenic differentiation has gotten more and more attentions. Nonetheless, the effects of inhibin-α on osteogenesis remain unknown...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921325/inhibition-of-the-rhogtpase-cdc42-by-ml141-enhances-hepatocyte-differentiation-from-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-the-wnt5a-pi3k-mir-122-pathway-impact-of-the-age-of-the-donor
#6
Diana Chaker, Charbel Mouawad, Albert Azar, Didier Quilliot, Ibrahim Achkar, Ziad Fajloun, Nehman Makdissy
BACKGROUND: Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) are promising cells that may promote hepatocyte differentiation (Hep-Dif) and improve liver function, but the involvement of Cdc42, a key small RhoGTPase which plays a crucial role in aging, is still not well established. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Cdc42 may rescue the hepatogenic potential of hADSCs derived from aged donors. METHODS: hADSCs isolated from 61 women of different ages were cultured for evaluation of the proliferation of cells, adherence, apoptosis, immunomodulation, immunophenotyping, multipotency, gene expression, and cell function during Hep-Dif...
June 19, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916546/characteristics-and-multi%C3%A2-lineage-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-the-tibetan-mastiff
#7
Shuang Zhang, Chenqiong Zhao, Shi Liu, Yufeng Wang, Yuhua Zhao, Weijun Guan, Zhiqiang Zhu
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM‑MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells that are regarded as ideal resources for the reconstruction of tissues and organs. The Tibetan mastiff is a breed of domesticated Chinese native dog that is well‑adjusted to the high‑altitude environments of Tibet. To the best of our knowledge, the biological characterization and multi‑lineage differentiation of Tibetan mastiff BM‑MSCs have not been reported previously. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the biological characteristics and therapeutic potential of Tibetan mastiff BM‑MSCs...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912360/expression-levels-of-brown-beige-adipocyte-related-genes-in-fat-depots-of-vitamin-a-restricted-fattening-cattle
#8
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908367/cell-proliferation-and-anti-apoptosis-essential-processes-for-recruitment-of-the-full-thermogenic-capacity-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#9
REVIEW
Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908226/visfatin-alters-the-cytokine-and-matrix-degrading-enzyme-profile-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-msc-differentiation
#10
Lali Tsiklauri, Janina Werner, Marian Kampschulte, Klaus W Frommer, Lucija Berninger, Martina Irrgang, Kristina Glenske, Dirk Hose, Thaqif El Khassawna, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Stefan Rehart, Sabine Wenisch, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
OBJECTIVES: Age-related bone loss is associated with bone marrow adiposity. Adipokines (e.g. visfatin, resistin, leptin) are adipocyte-derived factors with immunomodulatory properties and might influence differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. Thus, the presence of adipokines and MMPs in bone marrow and their effects on MSC differentiation were analyzed. METHODS: MSC and RNA were isolated from femoral heads after hip replacement surgery of OA or osteoporotic femoral neck fracture (FF) patients...
June 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901210/completely-defined-co-culture-of-adipogenic-differentiated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#11
Ann-Cathrin Volz, Larissa Hack, Franziska B Atzinger, Petra J Kluger
Vascularized adipose tissue models are highly demanded as alternative to existing animal models to elucidate the mechanisms of widespread diseases, screen for new drugs or asses corresponding safety levels. Standardly used animal-derived sera therein, are associated to ethical concerns, the risk of contaminations and many uncertainties in their composition and impact on cells. Therefore their use should be completely omitted. In this study we developed a serum-free, defined co-culture medium and implemented it to set up an adipocyte-endothelial cell (EC) co-culture model...
June 13, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898623/depletion-of-sirt3-leads-to-the-impairment-of-adipogenic-differentiation-and-insulin-resistance-via-interfering-mitochondrial-function-of-adipose-derived-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Yu-Ting Wu, Kun-Ting Chi, Yueh-Wen Lan, Jui-Chi Chan, Yi-Shing Ma, Yau-Huei Wei
Upregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism is a hallmark in the differentiation of stem cells. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic reprogramming and upregulation of mitochondrial function during the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is largely unclear. Sirt3 has emerged as a sensor in regulating mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense system in cellular response to energy demand or environmental stimuli, but its roles in stem cell differentiation has not been fully understood...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891910/anti-inflammatory-role-of-15-lipoxygenase-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-skin-integrity-in-mice
#13
Sang-Nam Kim, Seun Akindehin, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Yeon-Ho Son, Abhirup Saha, Young-Suk Jung, Je-Kyung Seong, Kyung-Min Lim, Jong-Hyuk Sung, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Yun-Hee Lee
15-lipoxygenase is involved in the generation of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators that play essential roles in resolution and inflammatory responses. Here, we investigated anti-inflammatory role of Alox15 in skin homeostasis. We demonstrated that knockout (KO) of Alox15 led to hair loss and disrupted the structural integrity of the dorsal skin. Alox15 KO resulted in loss of hair follicle stem cells and abnormal transition of dermal adipocytes into fibroblasts. Alox15 deficiency increased infiltration of proinflammatory macrophages and upregulated proinflammatory and necroptotic signaling in dermal adipose tissue in the dorsal skin...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886240/s1p-promotes-migration-differentiation-and-immune-regulatory-activity-in-amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells
#14
Rita Romani, Giorgia Manni, Chiara Donati, Irene Pirisinu, Caterina Bernacchioni, Marco Gargaro, Matteo Pirro, Mario Calvitti, Giorgia Manni, Francesco Bagaglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Graziano Clerici, Davide Matino, Giovanni Pomili, Gian Carlo Di Renzo, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa, Paolo Puccetti, Francesca Fallarino
Stem cells have high potential for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. We previously isolated stem cell types from human amniotic fluid, derived from prenatal amniocentesis. One type, characterized by a fast doubling time, was designated as fast human amniotic stem cells (fHASCs). These cells exhibited high differentiation potential and immunoregulatory properties. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that influences stem-cell pluripotency, differentiation, mobility, and regulates immune functions...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885003/ultrastructural-analysis-of-early-regenerating-lizard-tail-suggests-that-a-process-of-dedifferentiation-is-involved-in-the-formation-of-the-regenerative-blastema
#15
Lorenzo Alibardi
The formation of the regenerating tail blastema of lizards occurs by the multiplication of stem cells but also some dedifferentiation from adult cells may take place after tail loss by autotomy, as it is suggested in the present study. Using 5BrdU-immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy it is shown that part of the damaged tissues undergo progressive cytological de-differentiation (cell reprogramming). This occurs for muscle, fibrocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and cells derived from the spinal cord during the initial 3-8 days post-autotomy of the tail in the wall lizard Podarcis muralis...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884747/maintenance-of-proper-germline-stem-cell-number-requires-adipocyte-collagen-in-adult-drosophila-females
#16
Lesley N Weaver, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Stem cells reside in specialized niches and are regulated by a variety of physiological inputs. Adipocytes influence whole-body physiology and stem cell lineages; however, the molecular mechanisms linking adipocytes to stem cells are poorly understood. Here, we report that collagen IV produced in adipocytes is transported to the ovary to maintain proper germline stem cell (GSC) number in adult Drosophila females. Adipocyte-derived collagen IV acts through β-integrin signaling to maintain normal levels of E-cadherin at the niche, thereby ensuring proper adhesion to GSCs...
June 8, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882687/gender-and-age-related-cell-compositional-differences-in-c57bl-6-murine-adipose-tissue-stromal-vascular-fraction
#17
Trivia Frazier, Stephen Lee, Annie Bowles, Julie Semon, Bruce Bunnell, Xiying Wu, Jeffrey Gimble
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a functional organ that contains cellular heterogeneity and diversity within anatomical depots. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose contains endothelial progenitors, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, pericytes, pre-adipocytes, and stromal/stem cells, among others. In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the influence of age and gender in the field of stem cell biology. Yet few studies have evaluated the influence of biological age or sex on either SVF cell heterogeneity or immunophenotype...
June 8, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882209/comparison-of-hematopoietic-and-spermatogonial-stem-cell-niches-from-the-regenerative-medicine-aspect
#18
Sevil Köse, Nilgün Yersal, Selin Önen, Petek Korkusuz
Recent advances require a dual evaluation of germ and somatic stem cell niches with a regenerative medicine perspective. For a better point of view of the niche concept, it is needed to compare the microenvironments of those niches in respect to several components. The cellular environment of spermatogonial stem cells' niche consists of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, vascular endothelial cells, epididymal fat cells, peritubular myoid cells while hematopoietic stem cells have mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, megacaryocytes, macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and adipocytes in their microenvironment...
June 8, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878130/the-potential-of-brown-adipogenesis-and-browning-in-porcine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Ying-Chu Chen, Yu-Hsiang Yu
Brown adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation are under complex regulation. Brown adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Whether porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into brown adipocytes remains unclear. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of porcine BM-MSCs to differentiate into brown adipocytes and browning of differentiated adipocytes. We found that similar to rodent models, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was able to trigger the commitment of BM-MSCs to the brown adipocyte lineage by elevating expression of marker genes, nrf-1, tfam, zic1 and pgc-1α (P < 0...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876867/stem-cell-and-obesity-current-state-and-future-perspective
#20
Moloud Payab, Parisa Goodarzi, Najmeh Foroughi Heravani, Mahdieh Hadavandkhani, Zeinab Zarei, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Fakher Rahim, Babak Arjmand
Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Despite of gaining partially desirable results, the problem is remained unsolved. Therefore, finding a new approach that can overcome previous limitations is very attractive for both researchers and clinicians...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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