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Adipocyte stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717408/sirt3-enhances-mesenchymal-stem-cell-longevity-and-differentiation
#1
Ryan A Denu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are currently being investigated in a wide variety of clinical trials for their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties as well as their osteogenic and chondrogenic capabilities. However, there are considerable interdonor variability and heterogeneity of MSC populations, making it challenging to compare different products. Furthermore, proliferation, differentiation, and immunomodulation of MSCs decrease with aging and ex vivo expansion. The sirtuins have emerged as a class of protein deacylases involved in aging, oxidative stress, and metabolism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714970/bone-marrow-adipocytes-promote-the-regeneration-of-stem-cells-and-haematopoiesis-by-secreting-scf
#2
Bo O Zhou, Hua Yu, Rui Yue, Zhiyu Zhao, Jonathan J Rios, Olaia Naveiras, Sean J Morrison
Endothelial cells and leptin receptor(+) (LepR(+)) stromal cells are critical sources of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), in bone marrow. After irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are depleted while adipocytes become abundant. We discovered that bone marrow adipocytes synthesize SCF. They arise from Adipoq-Cre/ER(+) progenitors, which represent ∼5% of LepR(+) cells, and proliferate after irradiation. Scf deletion using Adipoq-Cre/ER inhibited haematopoietic regeneration after irradiation or 5-fluorouracil treatment, depleting HSCs and reducing mouse survival...
July 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714548/role-of-the-protease-corin-in-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#3
Haibin Zhou, Jinsong Zhu, Meng Liu, Qingyu Wu, Ningzheng Dong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potency to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Corin is a cardiac protease that activates the natriuretic peptides, thereby regulating blood volume and pressure. In addition to the heart, corin gene up-regulation was reported in bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs that underwent osteogenic differentiation. To date, the biological significance of corin expression in MSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we isolated and cultured human bone marrow-derived MSCs that were capable of undergoing chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineage differentiation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713230/in-vivo-micro-ct-imaging-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-gold-poly-l-lysine-nanocomplexes
#4
Taeho Kim, Nohyun Lee, Dian R Arifin, Irina Shats, Miroslaw Janowski, Piotr Walczak, Taeghwan Hyeon, Jeff W M Bulte
Developing in vivo cell tracking is an important prerequisite for further development of cell-based therapy. So far, few computed tomography (CT) cell tracking studies have been described due to its notoriously low sensitivity and lack of efficient labeling protocols. We present a simple method to render human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) sufficiently radiopaque by complexing 40 nm citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC). AuNP-PLL-RITC labeling did not affect cellular viability, proliferation, or downstream cell differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708082/pathogenic-role-of-il-17-producing-immune-cells-in-obesity-and-related-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Marwa Chehimi, Hubert Vidal, Assia Eljaafari
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. Indeed, adipose tissues (AT) in obese individuals are the former site of progressive infiltration by pro-inflammatory immune cells, which together with increased inflammatory adipokine secretion induce adipocyte insulin resistance. IL-17-producing T (Th17) cells are part of obese AT infiltrating cells, and are likely to be promoted by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, as previously reported by our team. Whereas Th17 cell are physiologically implicated in the neutralization of fungal and bacterial pathogens through activation of neutrophils, they may also play a pivotal role in the onset and/or progression of chronic inflammatory diseases, or cancer, in which obesity is recognized as a risk factor...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702187/procedure-applications-and-outcomes-of-autologous-fat-grafting
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Simonacci, Nicolò Bertozzi, Michele Pio Grieco, Eugenio Grignaffini, Edoardo Raposio
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the procedure, applications, and outcomes of autologous fat grafting, a promising technique with various clinical applications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Literature review of publications concerning autologous fat grafting. RESULTS: Since its introduction, lipofilling has become increasingly popular; however, its results are variable and unpredictable. Several modifications have been made to the procedures of fat harvesting, processing, and injecting...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686962/forensic-aspects-of-homicides-by-insulin-overdose
#7
Fang Tong, Rongqi Wu, Wen Huang, Yi Yang, Lin Zhang, Biao Zhang, Xin Chen, Xiaohui Tang, Yiwu Zhou
Analysis of homicidal insulin overdose is a challenging task in forensic practice because of the difficulties in toxicological analysis as well as the elusive pathologic changes. We performed a detailed histopathologic examination on four autopsy cases involving insulin homicide, using H&E, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence assays. Severe reactive astrocyte proliferation was obvious in the white matter of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brain stem, especially in subcortical regions...
June 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685122/nano-engineered-skin-mesenchymal-stem-cells-potential-vehicles-for-tumour-targeted-quantum-dot-delivery
#8
Liga Saulite, Dominyka Dapkute, Karlis Pleiko, Ineta Popena, Simona Steponkiene, Ricardas Rotomskis, Una Riekstina
Nanotechnology-based drug design offers new possibilities for the use of nanoparticles in imaging and targeted therapy of tumours. Due to their tumour-homing ability, nano-engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be utilized as vectors to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles into a tumour. In the present study, uptake and functional effects of carboxyl-coated quantum dots QD655 were studied in human skin MSCs. The effect of QD on MSCs was examined using a cell viability assay, Ki67 expression analysis, and tri-lineage differentiation assay...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681373/the-role-of-tumor-associated-macrophage-in-breast-cancer-biology
#9
REVIEW
Junjeong Choi, Jones Gyamfi, Haerin Jang, Ja Seung Koo
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor in women worldwide and contributes significantly as the primary cause of female cancer related mortality. Hence, research is focused on discovering new and effective treatment targets. The breast tumor microenvironment (TME) comprising of recruited host stromal cells and tumor cells, has recently emerged as an important player in tumor progression, with the potential for future treatment. The TME comprises immune system elements (such as macrophages and lymphocytes), cells composing blood vessel, fibroblast, myofibroblast, mesenchymal stem cells, adipocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM)...
July 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672891/osteogenic-potency-of-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-isolated-from-elderly-people-with-osteoporosis
#10
Wei Hao, Chuanqiang Jiang, Ming Jiang, Tian Wang, Xin Wang
Mature adipocytes are the major cell type in adipose tissue. This study aimed to explore the osteogenic potency of dedifferentiated fat cells obtained from osteoporotic patients (opDFATs) in vitro and in vivo. Mature adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells (opASCs) were harvested from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Mature adipocytes were dedifferentiated to produce opDFATs by the ceiling culture method. OpDFATs were osteogenically induced in vitro with opASCs as a control. Cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity and cell mineralization were determined, and expression levels of osteogenesis-specific genes (collagen I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669640/oxysterols-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-biology
#11
REVIEW
Débora Levy, Thatiana Correa de Melo, Jorge L M Ruiz, Sérgio P Bydlowski
Oxysterols are oxidized products of cholesterol that play several roles in various pathophysiological processes, including the control of lipid metabolism, immunological processes, and cytotoxicity. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells with properties of self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into other cell types, including osteoblasts and adipocytes. Here, we review the literature regarding the effects of oxysterols on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and the main signaling pathways involved in this process...
June 29, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664842/difference-between-biomarkers-of-tibial-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue
#12
Ersin Kuyucu, Mehmet Erdil, Adnan Kara, Murat Bülbül
BACKGROUND: Stem cells, with their regeneration capacity, long-term viability, and differentiation characteristics, have indispensable biological properties. As described by Hauner and Grigoradis et al., mesenchymal stem cell originating from adipose or bone marrow can be differentiated into many tissues such as adipocyte, chondrocyte, myeloblast, and osteoblast. The aim of our study is to compare the use of adipose and tibial bone marrow derived stem cells for therapeutic purposes in orthopedic surgery, which has not been clearly evaluated in the literature to our knowledge and to also evaluate their use...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656222/activation-of-the-toll-like-receptor-8-pathway-increases-the-immunogenicity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-umbilical-cord
#13
Yu Yang, Yanwen Wang, Li Li, Fei Chen, Peng Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now widely used in clinical cell‑based therapy due to their characteristics of low immunogenicity, multiple differentiation potency and the capability to modulate immune responses. However, accumulated research has indicated the absence of engrafted MSCs because of the increased immunogenicity of MSCs. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are essential for the innate immune response and regulating the biological function of MSCs. The present study used human umbilical cord‑derived MSCs (UCMSCs) and activated the TLR8 pathway of UCMSCs to study the role of TLR8 in mediating the immune status of UCMSCs...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655922/direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-to-brown-adipocytes-by-small-chemical-compounds
#14
Yukimasa Takeda, Yoshinori Harada, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Ping Dai
Brown adipocytes play an important role in human energy metabolism and prevention of obesity and diabetes. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a promising source for brown adipocytes; however, exogenous gene induction is generally required for iPSCs generation, which might cause undesired effects particularly in long-term treatment after transplantation. We have previously reported a cocktail of six small chemical compounds that enables a conversion of human fibroblasts into chemical compound-induced neuronal cells (CiNCs)...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648118/physiological-effects-of-proinsulin-connecting-peptide-in-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#15
A Ghorbani, R Shafiee-Nick, S A Zojaji, M T Rajabi-Mashhadi
Recent studies suggest that proinsulin-connecting peptide (C-peptide) may exhibit characteristics of a hormone and show physiological functions in various tissues. This study was aimed to determine whether C-peptide could be involved in the regulation of lipolysis, adiponectin release, and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in adipose tissue. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue was cultured in the presence of C-peptide. The level of lipolysis was determined by glycerol measurement in the conditioned media...
June 26, 2017: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646352/lead-enhancement-of-3t3-l1-fibroblasts-differentiation-to-adipocytes-involves-erk-c-ebp%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-activation
#16
Claudia Noemí Martini, Matías Gabrielli, Graciela Bonifacino, María Magdalena Codesido, María Del Carmen Vila
Lead (Pb) is an environmental and industrial contaminant that still represents a public health problem. Elevated Pb exposure has been inversely correlated with femoral bone density and associated with osteoporosis. In the last years, it has been shown that inhibition of osteogenesis from mesenchymal stem cells activates adipogenesis and vice versa. In this paper, we investigated the effect of Pb on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes which is the cell model most used to study adipogenesis...
June 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646271/characterization-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-following-burn-injury
#17
Anesh Prasai, Amina El Ayadi, Randy C Mifflin, Michael D Wetzel, Clark R Andersen, Heinz Redl, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty
Severe burns induce a prolonged inflammatory response in subcutaneous adipose tissue that modulates signaling in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which hold potential for healing burn wounds or generating skin substitutes. Using a 60% rat scald burn model, we conducted a series of experiments to determine which cells isolated from the adipose tissue produced inflammatory mediators and how these changes affect ASC fate and function. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF), adipocytes, and ASCs were isolated from adipose tissue at varying times up to 4 weeks postburn and from non-injured controls...
June 23, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645702/use-of-adipose-tissue-and-stromal-vascular-fraction-in-hand-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Iad Nseir, Flore Delaunay, Charles Latrobe, Albane Bonmarchand, Dorothée Coquerel-Beghin, Isabelle Auquit-Auckbur
Adipose tissue is an abundant source of various cell types including not only adipocytes, but also progenitor and endothelial cells from thestroma. Interest in adipose tissue has surged since the identification in 2001 of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) obtained from adipose tissue by enzymatic digestion and centrifugation. SVF has been proven effective in ensuring tissue regeneration, thus improving tissue trophicityand vascularisation. These effects have generated strong interest among both physicians and surgeons, particularly in the field of hand surgery...
June 20, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#19
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640098/the-characteristics-of-stem-cells-in-human-degenerative-intervertebral-disc
#20
Lin Liang, Xuefeng Li, Dapeng Li, Weimin Jiang, Heng Wang, Jie Chen, Zhiyong Sun, Niannian Zhang, Yangyi Zhu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify which possessed the best stem-cell-like characteristics in 3 kinds of cell in human degenerative intervertebral disc: NPSCs (nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells), AFSCs (annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells), or CESCs (cartilage endplate-derived stem cells). METHODS: We separated the disc samples obtained from 15 surgically treated patients with disc degenerative diseases into nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, and cartilage endplate...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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