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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#1
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922125/an-er%C3%AE-agonist-induces-browning-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-fat-pad-in-obese-female-mice
#2
Yi-Fei Miao, Wen Su, Yu-Bing Dai, Wan-Fu Wu, Bo Huang, Rodrigo P A Barros, Hao Nguyen, Laure Maneix, You-Fei Guan, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922090/mir-146a-mediated-suppression-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-adipocytes
#3
Julian Roos, Eveliina Enlund, Jan-Bernd Funcke, Daniel Tews, Karlheinz Holzmann, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Martin Wabitsch, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky
The obesity-associated inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the factors leading to the development of related diseases such as insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified as important regulators of WAT functions. Herein, we cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes with macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) and performed an Affimetrix miRNA array to identify miRNAs differentially expressed under inflammatory conditions. We identified 24 miRNAs differentially expressed upon inflammation in human adipocytes and miR-146a was the most up-regulated miRNA species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921437/-adaptation-of-adipose-tissue-to-weight-reduction-energy-restricted-diet-in-obese-individuals
#4
Vladimír Štich
Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and ultimately cardiovascular diseases. An important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders accompanying obesity is probably played by the alterations of adipose tissue characteristics: metabolic, endocrine and immune functions. The key component of obesity treatment, the weight-reduction energy-restricted diet, leads not only to the reduction of weight (specifically fat mass), but also to correction of obesity accompanying metabolic disorders...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#5
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918490/activity-of-eribulin-in-a-primary-culture-of-well-differentiated-dedifferentiated-adipocytic-sarcoma
#6
Alessandro De Vita, Giacomo Miserocchi, Federica Recine, Laura Mercatali, Federica Pieri, Laura Medri, Alberto Bongiovanni, Davide Cavaliere, Chiara Liverani, Chiara Spadazzi, Dino Amadori, Toni Ibrahim
Eribulin mesylate is a novel, non-taxane, synthetic microtubule inhibitor showing antitumor activity in a wide range of tumors including soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Eribulin has been recently approved for the treatment of metastatic liposarcoma (LPS) patients previously treated with anthracyclines. This work investigated the mechanism of action of this innovative antitubulin agent in well-differentiated/dedifferentiated LPS (ALT/DDLPS) which represents one of the most common adipocytic sarcoma histotypes. A primary culture of ALT/DDLPS from a 54-year-old patient was established...
December 3, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918207/gemigliptin-ameliorates-western-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#7
Seung Hee Choi, Jaechan Leem, Sungmi Park, Chong-Kee Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks...
September 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917940/ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-regulates-ppar%C3%AE-stability-and-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#8
Jing Jing Li, Ruishan Wang, Rati Lama, Xinjiang Wang, Z Elizabeth Floyd, Edwards A Park, Francesca-Fang Liao
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor which controls lipid and glucose metabolism. It is also the master regulator of adipogenesis. In adipocytes, ligand-dependent PPARγ activation is associated with proteasomal degradation; therefore, regulation of PPARγ degradation may modulate its transcriptional activity. Here, we show that neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with the hinge and ligand binding domains of PPARγ and is a bona fide E3 ligase for PPARγ...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917887/13-methylberberine-a-berberine-analogue-with-stronger-anti-adipogenic-effects-on-mouse-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Yit-Lai Chow, Mami Sogame, Fumihiko Sato
Lipid metabolism modulation is a main focus of metabolic syndrome research, an area in which many natural and synthetic chemicals are constantly being screened for in vitro and in vivo activity. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid, has been extensively investigated for its anti-obesity effects and as a potential cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering drug. We screened 11 protoberberine and 2 benzophenanthridine alkaloids for their anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that 13-methylberberine exhibited the most potent activity...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917474/germacrone-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-via-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#10
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study, we reported that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Of the components in ASE, germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent. GM is known for its anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the effects of GM and the molecular mechanism by which GM regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis were not reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GM on adipogenesis and lipolysis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917316/quantitative-analysis-of-rat-adipose-tissue-cell-recovery-and-non-fat-cell-volume-in-primary-cell-cultures
#11
Floriana Rotondo, María Del Mar Romero, Ana Cecilia Ho-Palma, Xavier Remesar, José Antonio Fernández-López, Marià Alemany
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917274/sertoli-cell-condition-medium-can-induce-germ-like-cells-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Mahdieh Hajian Monfared, Bagher Minaee, Tayebeh Rastegar, Ebrahim Khrazinejad, Mohammad Barbarestani
OBJECTIVES: Although many researchers have confirmed induction of germ cells from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), there are no reports that confirm spontaneous differentiation of germ cells from BMMSCs. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of adult Sertoli cell condition medium (SCCM) as a mutative factor in the induction of germ cells from BMMSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BMMSCs were collected from the bone marrow of 6-8-week old NMRI mice and their mesenchymal entities were proven using superficial markers (expression of CD44 and CD73 and non-expresion of CD45 and CD11b) by fow cytometry...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916988/circulating-scd36-levels-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-controls
#13
S Heebøll, M K Poulsen, M J Ornstrup, T N Kjær, S B Pedersen, S Nielsen, H Grønbæk, A Handberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels, intrahepatic lipid content and markers of obesity in NAFLD patients and controls. METHODS: 111 NAFLD patients and 33 normal/overweight controls were included. Intrahepatic lipid content was measured by MR spectroscopy; and subgroups of participants had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n=99), magnetic resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916641/ucp1-the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-of-brown-adipocyte-a-personal-contribution-and-a-historical-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Ricquier
The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916118/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-approach-for-lipolysis-measurement-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-partial-least-squares-based-analysis
#15
Wen-Qi Chang, Jian-Liang Zhou, Yi Li, Zi-Qi Shi, Li Wang, Jie Yang, Ping Li, Li-Fang Liu, Gui-Zhong Xin
The elevation of free fatty acids (FFAs) has been regarded as a universal metabolic signature of excessive adipocyte lipolysis. Nowadays, in vitro lipolysis assay is generally essential for drug screening prior to the animal study. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach for lipolysis measurement combining UHPLC-Orbitrap and partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. Firstly, the calibration matrix was constructed by serial proportions of mixed samples (blended with control and model samples). Then, lipidome profiling was performed by UHPLC-Orbitrap, and 403 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914980/cloning-and-characterization-of-adipogenin-and-its-overexpression-enhances-fat-accumulation-of-bovine-myosatellite-cells
#16
Yang Liu, Bijie Jiang, Changzhen Fu, Ruijie Hao
Adipogenin (ADIG) is an adipocyte-specific membrane protein highly expressed in adipose tissues and is increased during the adipocyte differentiation. However, the roles and mechanisms of ADIG on fat accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in ex vivo still largely unknown. In this study, we isolated bovine myosatellite cells based on adhesion characteristics to investigate whether ADIG overexpression could promote trans-differentiation and increase fat accumulation in myosatellite cells. Immunofluorescence labeling was then used for the phenotypic characteristics of myosatellite...
November 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913584/nitro-fatty-acid-pharmacokinetics-in-the-adipose-tissue-compartment
#17
Marco Fazzari, Nicholas K H Khoo, Steven R Woodcock, Diane K Jorkasky, Lihua Li, Francisco J Schopfer, Bruce A Freeman
Electrophilic nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) promote adaptive and anti-inflammatory cell signaling responses as a result of an electrophilic character that supports post-translational protein modifications. A unique pharmacokinetic profile is expected for NO2-FAs because of an ability to undergo reversible reactions including Michael additions with biological cysteine-containing proteins and esterification into complex lipids. Herein we report via quantitative whole-body autoradiography analysis of rats gavaged with radiolabeled 10-nitro-[14C]oleic acid, preferential accumulation in adipose tissue over two weeks...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913296/regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-insulin-stimulated-signaling-through-the-mek-redd1-mtor-axis
#18
Cory M Dungan, David L Williamson
Recent findings in adipocytes suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-regulated signaling kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) signaling regulates regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) protein expression. Similarly, our previous work show that a lack of REDD1 protein expression, and associated hyperactive basal mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, limits skeletal muscle's response to insulin. Therefore, we sought to determine: 1) if MEK1/2 inhibition is sufficient to reduce REDD1 protein expression and subsequently insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation via negative feedback of hyperactive mTOR in REDD1 wild-type (WT) mice and 2) if rapamycin-mediated mTOR inhibition is sufficient to improve IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in REDD1 knockout (KO) mice...
November 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913094/hematopoietic-stem-cell-niches-produce-lineage-instructive-signals-to-control-multipotent-progenitor-differentiation
#19
Ana Cordeiro Gomes, Takahiro Hara, Vivian Y Lim, Dietmar Herndler-Brandstetter, Erin Nevius, Tatsuki Sugiyama, Shizue Tani-Ichi, Susan Schlenner, Ellen Richie, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Richard A Flavell, Takashi Nagasawa, Koichi Ikuta, João Pedro Pereira
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew in bone marrow niches formed by mesenchymal progenitors and endothelial cells expressing the chemokine CXCL12, but whether a separate niche instructs multipotent progenitor (MPP) differentiation remains unclear. We show that MPPs resided in HSC niches, where they encountered lineage-instructive differentiation signals. Conditional deletion of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in MPPs reduced differentiation into common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which decreased lymphopoiesis...
November 23, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912085/pdgfa-makes-thin-skin-thicker-molecular-regulation-of-adipose-progenitor-maintenance
#20
Shingo Kajimura
Adipocyte progenitor proliferation and self-renewal contribute to adipose tissue maintenance; however, the regulatory circuits of these processes are less understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Rivera-Gonzalez et al. (2016) show that PDGFA, which acts through PI3K-Akt pathways, plays a vital role in the proliferation and maintenance of adipocyte progenitors in dermal adipose tissues.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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