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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346858/circulating-soluble-il-6-receptor-concentration-and-visceral-adipocyte-size-are-related-to-insulin-resistance-in-taiwanese-adults-with-morbid-obesity
#1
Feng-Chih Kuo, Ya-Hsien Huang, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Jen Hung, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Chieh-Hua Lu, Sheng-Chiang Su, Chia-Luen Huang, Chien-Hsing Lee, Nain-Feng Chu
BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is related to chronic inflammation and many metabolic complications. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in obesity, and IL-6 trans-signaling through the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) has a major proinflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sIL-6R, adipocyte size, and insulin resistance in morbidly obese individuals. METHODS: We measured concentrations of sIL-6R, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipid parameters and estimated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) before the patients underwent bariatric surgery...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346411/the-cold-induced-lipokine-12-13-dihome-promotes-fatty-acid-transport-into-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi, Tian Lian Huang, Hirokazu Takahashi, Michael F Hirshman, Christian Schlein, Alexandra Lee, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Michael A Kiebish, Aaron M Cypess, Matthias Blüher, Laurie J Goodyear, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kristin I Stanford, Yu-Hua Tseng
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT, and it has been shown to improve nutrient metabolism. These therapies, however, are time consuming and uncomfortable, demonstrating the need for pharmacological interventions. Recently, lipids have been identified that are released from tissues and act locally or systemically to promote insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; as a class, these lipids are referred to as 'lipokines'...
March 27, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344752/involvement-of-cbl-b-mediated-macrophage-inactivation-in-insulin-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Tomoki Abe, Katsuya Hirasaka, Takeshi Nikawa
Aging and overnutrition cause obesity in rodents and humans. It is well-known that obesity causes various diseases by producing insulin resistance (IR). Macrophages infiltrate the adipose tissue (AT) of obese individuals and cause chronic low-level inflammation associated with IR. Macrophage infiltration is regulated by the chemokines that are released from hypertrophied adipocytes and the immune cells in AT. Saturated fatty acids are recognized by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce inflammatory responses in AT macrophages (ATMs)...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344042/exercise-differentially-affects-metabolic-functions-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-female-letrozole-and-dihydrotestosterone-induced-mouse-models-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Rodrigo R Marcondes, Manuel Maliqueo, Romina Fornes, Anna Benrick, Min Hu, Niklas Ivarsson, Mattias Carlström, Samuel W Cushman, Karin G Stenkula, Gustavo A R Maciel, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
Here we hypothesized that exercise in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or letrozole (LET)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome mouse models improves impaired insulin and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue morphology, and expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, Notch pathway and browning in inguinal and mesenteric fat. DHT-exposed mice had increased body weight, increased number of large mesenteric adipocytes. LET-exposed mice displayed increased body weight and fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased frequency of small adipocytes and increased expression of genes related to lipolysis in mesenteric fat...
March 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344017/intranasal-delivery-of-n-terminal-modified-leptin-pluronic-conjugate-for-treatment-of-obesity
#5
Dongfen Yuan, Xiang Yi, Yuling Zhao, Chi-Duen Poon, Kristin M Bullock, Kim M Hansen, Therese S Salameh, Susan A Farr, William A Banks, Alexander V Kabanov
Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is delivered via a specific transport system across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the brain where it acts on the hypothalamus receptors to control appetite and thermogenesis. Peripheral resistance to leptin due to its impaired brain delivery prevents therapeutic use of leptin in overweight and moderately obese patients. To address this problem, we modified the N-terminal amine of leptin with Pluronic P85 (LepNP85) and administered this conjugate intranasally using the nose-to-brain (INB) route to bypass the BBB...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344004/identification-of-three-early-phases-of-cell-fate-determination-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-differentiation-by-transcription-factor-dynamics
#6
Jeroen van de Peppel, Tanja Strini, Julia Tilburg, Hans Westerhoff, Andre J van Wijnen, Johannes P van Leeuwen
Age-related skeletal degeneration in patients with osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mass and occurs concomitant with an increase in bone marrow adipocytes. Using microarray expression profiling with high temporal resolution, we identified gene regulatory events in early stages of osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Data analysis revealed three distinct phases when cells adopt a committed expression phenotype: initiation of differentiation (0-3 hr, phase I), lineage acquisition (6-24 hr, phase II), and early lineage progression (48-96 hr, phase III)...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342850/structural-basis-for-differential-activities-of-enantiomeric-ppar%C3%AE-agonists-binding-of-s35-to-the-alternate-site
#7
Jun Young Jang, Minseob Koh, Hwan Bae, Doo Ri An, Ha Na Im, Hyoun Sook Kim, Ji Young Yoon, Hye-Jin Yoon, Byung Woo Han, Seung Bum Park, Se Won Suh
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It functions as a ligand-activated transcription factor and plays important roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Many PPARγ agonists bind to the canonical ligand-binding pocket near the activation function-2 (AF-2) helix (i.e., helix H12) of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). More recently, an alternate ligand-binding site was identified in PPARγ LBD; it is located beside the Ω loop between the helices H2' and H3...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342615/effect-of-increasing-body-condition-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-depot-of-nonlactating-dairy-cows
#8
L Laubenthal, L Ruda, N Sultana, J Winkler, J Rehage, U Meyer, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein, S Häussler
With the onset of lactation, dairy cows with a body condition score >3.5 are sensitive to oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue (AT) can adapt to varying metabolic demands and energy requirements by the plasticity of its size during lactation. In AT, angiogenesis is necessary to guarantee sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply for adipocytes. Cellular energy metabolism is reflected mainly by mitochondria, which can be quantified by the mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of overconditioning on angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in AT of nonlactating cows, irrespective of the physiological influences of lactation and pregnancy...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342023/biogenic-synthesis-of-marsilea-quadrifolia-gold-nanoparticles-a-study-of-improved-glucose-utilization-efficiency-on-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#9
Anindita Chowdhury, Selvaraj Kunjiappan, Chiranjib Bhattacharjee, Balasubramanian Somasundaram, Theivendren Panneerselvam
This study aims mainly to provide an insight and understanding of the effect of glucose utilization efficiency of biogenic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) synthesized through the mediation of Marsilea quadrifolia (M. quadrifolia) methanol extract on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The biosynthesized GNPs were characterized by UV visible spectrophotometry and FTIR. Simultaneously, the nature, stability, and morphological characteristics were analyzed by XRD, TG-DTA, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, and SAED. The results of characterization studies were used to assess the properties of GNPs...
March 24, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341496/prospective-assessment-and-histological-analysis-of-adherent-perinephric-fat-in-partial-nephrectomies
#10
Charles Dariane, Thomas Le Guilchet, Sophie Hurel, François Audenet, Aurélien Beaugerie, Cécile Badoual, Joan Tordjman, Karine Clément, Saïk Urien, Michel Pietak, Eric Fontaine, Arnaud Méjean, Marc-Olivier Timsit
OBJECTIVES: The complexity of partial nephrectomy (PN) is partly anticipated by morphometric tumor-based scores that do not consider patient-related issues such as adherent perinephric fat (APF). Also, the objective is to prospectively assess the predictive factors of APF during PN, its effect on complications, and to correlate it to the histological reality. METHODS: A total of 125 consecutive patients undergoing robotic or open PN were prospectively included. The Mayo adhesive probability score (MAP score) was compared to the peroperative presence of APF defined by a score≥2...
February 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340487/microrna-4739-regulates-osteogenic-and-adipocytic-differentiation-of-immortalized-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-via-targeting-lrp3
#11
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Nehad M Alajez, Rimi Hamam, Raed Abu Dawud, Abdullah Aldahmash, Zafar Iqbal, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Amer Mahmood
Understanding the regulatory networks underlying lineage differentiation and fate determination of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) is a prerequisite for their therapeutic use. The goal of the current study was to unravel the novel role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 3 (LRP3) in regulating the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of immortalized hBMSCs. Gene expression profiling revealed significantly higher LRP3 levels in the highly osteogenic hBMSC clone imCL1 than in the less osteogenic clone imCL2, as well as a significant upregulation of LRP3 during the osteogenic induction of the imCL1 clone...
March 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339172/maternal-high-fat-diet-consumption-enhances-offspring-susceptibility-to-dss-induced-colitis-in-mice
#12
Shima Bibi, Yifei Kang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) may alter the offspring intestinal immune system, thereby enhancing susceptibility toward inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of maternal HFD on offspring intestinal health using a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Dams were provided with either HFD (60%) or control diet. After weaning, female offspring from both groups were kept on 45% HFD...
March 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#13
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#14
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338661/adipose-tissue-new-route-to-functional-human-beige-adipocytes
#15
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338095/the-effect-of-microbial-mats-in-the-decay-of-anurans-with-implications-for-understanding-taphonomic-processes-in-the-fossil-record
#16
M Iniesto, I Villalba, A D Buscalioni, M C Guerrero, A I López-Archilla
The pattern and sequence of the decomposition of the Pipidae African dwarf frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) is tracked in an experiment with microbial mats in order to explore soft tissue preservation over three years. Frog decay in microbial mats is preceded by rapid entombment (25-30 days) and mediated by the formation of a sarcophagus, which is built by a complex microbial community. The frog carcasses maintained a variety of soft tissues for years. Labile organic structures show greater durability within the mat, cells maintain their general shape (bone marrow cells and adipocytes), and muscles and connective tissues (adipose and fibrous tendons) exhibit their original organic structures...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337713/the-potential-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-in-lipid-metabolism-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Zhe Huang, Aimin Xu, Bernard M Y Cheung
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#18
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335087/ursolic-acid-and-mechanisms-of-actions-on-adipose-and-muscle-tissue-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Carlos K Katashima, Vagner R Silva, Tatyanne L Gomes, Claude Pichard, Gustavo D Pimentel
This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression...
March 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335075/breastmilk-with-a-high-omega-6-to-omega-3-fatty-acid-ratio-induced-cellular-events-similar-to-insulin-resistance-and-obesity-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#20
H Vaidya, S K Cheema
BACKGROUND: An imbalance of omega (n)-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during critical periods of development may have adverse effects on the health of the newborn in later life. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that breastmilk with higher n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio will have higher inflammatory cytokines and initiate cellular events similar to insulin resistance and obesity. METHODS: Breastmilk was collected from healthy women who gave natural birth at full term...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
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