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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#1
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432106/prohibitin-induced-obesity-leads-to-anovulation-and-polycystic-ovary-in-mice
#2
Sudharsana Rao Ande, Khanh Hoa Nguyen, Yang Xin Zi Xu, Suresh Mishra
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429889/omentin-treatment-of-epicardial-fat-improves-its-anti-inflammatory-activity-and-paracrine-benefit-on-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Rosa María Agra, Jose María García-Acuña, Ángel Luis Fernández, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Sonia Eiras
OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in coronary artery disease is insulin resistant and has a proinflammatory profile. This study examined the regulation of EAT by exogenous omentin and its consequence on vascular cells. METHODS: Stromal vascular cells (SC) of EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from patients who underwent heart surgery were cultured and exposed to adipogenic factors with or without omentin. Proinflammatory cytokine regulation by omentin was analyzed in SC and mature adipocytes...
April 21, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429532/neu1-sialidase-interacts-with-perilipin-1-on-lipid-droplets-and-inhibits-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#4
Yujin Natori, Miwako Nasui, Fumiko Kihara-Negishi
Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis. Increased plasma FFA levels in obesity are associated with several clinical conditions. We previously found that Neu1 activity is aberrant in the epididymal fat and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Here, we examined involvement of Neu1 in lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA against Neu1 was introduced into adipocytes, and glycerol concentrations were measured in the culture medium...
April 21, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429080/effect-of-gpr84-deletion-on-obesity-and-diabetes-development-in-mice-fed-long-chain-or-medium-chain-fatty-acid-rich-diets
#5
Eugene Du Toit, Liam Browne, Helen Irving-Rodgers, Helen M Massa, Nicolette Fozzard, Michael P Jennings, Ian R Peak
PURPOSE: Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428684/innate-immunity-of-adipose-tissue-in-rodent-models-of-local-and-systemic-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#6
Andreas Schmid, Thomas Karrasch, Miriam Thomalla, Jutta Schlegel, Bernd Salzberger, Andreas Schäffler, Frank Hanses
Background. The role of adipose tissue in systemic inflammation during bacterial infection is unclear. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus infection on adipocytes in rodent models of experimental endocarditis and peritonitis, the impact of S. aureus infection on gene expression in epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and effects of S. aureus infection on the toll-like receptor-2- (TLR2-) cathelicidin pathway in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Material and methods. The rat model of catheter-induced S...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428430/collagen-beta-1-o-galactosyltransferase-1-glt25d1-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-and-affects-lipid-accumulation
#7
Julie A Webster, Zhe Yang, Yu-Hee Kim, Dorothy Loo, Rasha M Mosa, Hongzhuo Li, Chen Chen
Secretion of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is dependent on post-translational modification (PTM) of conserved lysines in the collagenous domain. This work aims to characterize the enzymes responsible for the PTM of conserved lysines which leads to HMW adiponectin secretion, and to define its significance in relation to obesity.  Collagen beta (1- O ) galactosyltransferase 1 (GLT25D1) was knocked down in HEK cells modified for the stable expression of adiponectin (Adipo-HEK cells) as well as in Simpson Golabi-Behmel-Syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428261/ebf2-transcriptionally-regulates-brown-adipogenesis-via-the-histone-reader-dpf3-and-the-baf-chromatin-remodeling-complex
#8
Suzanne N Shapira, Hee-Woong Lim, Sona Rajakumari, Alexander P Sakers, Jeff Ishibashi, Matthew J Harms, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale
The transcription factor early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is an essential mediator of brown adipocyte commitment and terminal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which EBF2 regulates chromatin to activate brown fat-specific genes in adipocytes were unknown. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] followed by deep sequencing) analyses in brown adipose tissue showed that EBF2 binds and regulates the activity of lineage-specific enhancers. Mechanistically, EBF2 physically interacts with the chromatin remodeler BRG1 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex in brown adipocytes...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#9
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#10
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427098/opa1-in-lipid-metabolism-function-of-opa1-in-lipolysis-and-thermogenesis-of-adipocytes
#11
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Kjetil Taskén
OPA1 (Optic Atrophy 1) is a mitochondrial GTPase known to regulate fission of mitochondria. It was recently also shown to locate on lipid droplets in adipocytes where it functions as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) that mediates adrenergic control of lipolysis by facilitating PKA phosphorylation of perilipin (Plin1). In brown adipocytes indirect evidence support the notion that OPA1 regulation of fission serves to increase thermogenesis, which thereby contributes to dissipation of energy. In white adipocytes, OPA1 located on lipid droplets serves as a gatekeeper to control lipolysis induced by adrenergic agonists...
April 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426713/metallothioneins-regulate-the-adipogenic-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells-via-the-insulin-signaling-pathway
#12
Yoshito Kadota, Yuriko Toriuchi, Yuka Aki, Yuto Mizuno, Takashige Kawakami, Tomoko Nakaya, Masao Sato, Shinya Suzuki
Knockout of metallothionein (MT) genes contributes to a heavier body weight in early life and the potential to become obese through the intake of a high fat diet (HFD) in mice. It has thus been suggested that MT genes regulate the formation of adipose tissue, which would become the base for later HFD-induced obesity. We evaluated the fat pads of mice during the lactation stage. The fat mass and adipocyte size of MT1 and MT2 knockout mice were greater than those of wild type mice. Next, we assayed the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence MT genes in the 3T3-L1 cell line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425850/a-novel-and-robust-method-for-testing-bimodality-and-characterizing-porcine-adipocytes-of-adipose-tissue-of-5-purebred-lines-of-pig
#13
Eric D Testroet, Peter Sherman, Chad Yoder, Amber Testroet, Carmen Reynolds, Mathew O'Neil, Soi Meng Lei, Donald C Beitz, Tom J Baas
Adipocyte sizes from adipose tissue of mature animals form a bimodal distribution, thus reporting mean cell size is misleading. The objectives of this study were to develop a robust method for testing bimodality of porcine adipocytes, describe the size distribution with an informative metric, and statistically test hypertrophy and appearance of new small adipocytes, possibly resulting from hyperplasia or lipid filling of previously divided fibroblastic cells. Ninety-three percent of adipose samples measured were bimodal (P < 0...
March 10, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425849/age-dependent-obesity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#14
Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Ines Soro-Arnaiz, Julián Aragonés
Aging is associated with progressive visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion both in human and mouse. Importantly, WAT enlargement is initiated early in life, suggesting that molecular mechanisms underlying age-dependent obesity are activated at early stages of lifetime. Our recent study found that age-dependent obesity was associated with a specific decline in mitochondrial complex IV activity, which leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation and subsequent adipocyte hypertrophy. At the molecular level, global mitochondrial complex IV inhibition was driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)-mediated repression of some of its key subunits, including cytochrome c oxidase 5b (Cox5b)...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#15
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425847/form-ul-ation-of-adipocytes-by-lipids
#16
Kfir Lapid, Jonathan M Graff
Lipids have the potential to serve as bio-markers, which allow us to analyze and to identify cells under various experimental settings, and to serve as a clinical diagnostic tool. For example, diagnosis according to specific lipids that are associated with diabetes and obesity. The rapid development of mass-spectrometry techniques enables identification and profiling of multiple types of lipid species. Together, lipid profiling and data interpretation forge the new field of lipidomics. Lipidomics can be used to characterize physiologic and pathophysiological processes in adipocytes, since lipid metabolism is at the core of adipocyte physiology and energy homeostasis...
March 1, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425845/nck2-an-unexpected-regulator-of-adipogenesis
#17
N Haider, J Dusseault, A Rudich, L Larose
The regulation of adipose tissue expansion by adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia is the topic of extensive investigations given the potential differential contribution of the 2 processes to the development of numerous chronic diseases associated with obesity. We recently discovered that the loss-of-function of the Src homology domain-containing protein Nck2 in mice promotes adiposity accompanied with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired function, and enhanced adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Moreover, in severely-obese human's adipose tissue, we found that Nck2 expression is markedly downregulated...
February 6, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425843/the-dual-role-of-bmp4-in-adipogenesis-and-metabolism
#18
Salvatore Modica, Christian Wolfrum
BMP4 has a well-established role in triggering commitment of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteogenic and adipogenic linage. We recently described an additional dual function in adipogenesis: after promoting the formation of both white and brown pre-adipocytes, Bmp4 drives terminal differentiation into mature white rather than brown fat cells. Besides this, Bmp4 seems to have a dual role in metabolism either promoting or repressing oxidative metabolism in a cell context dependent manner.
February 6, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425842/estradiol-does-not-directly-regulate-adipose-lipolysis
#19
Tara L MacDonald, Rebecca MacPherson, Laura Castellani, Daniel Cervone, Eoin Anderson, David C Wright, David J Dyck
The mechanisms by which estradiol modulates adipose lipolysis are poorly understood. We sought to measure basal and β3-stimulated indices of lipoysis (FFAs, glycerol) in vivo in E2 deficient or supplemented rats, and ex vivo with direct acute E2 exposure. For 2 weeks, ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX rats treated with a daily oral dose of E2 (OVX E2) were pairfed to SHAM controls (n = 12 per group). Adipocyte size was modestly (∼40%) increased in OVX rats, but did not reach significance (p = 0.2). After 2 weeks, half of the animals in each group received an in vivo injection of saline or 1 mg/kg of the β3 agonist CL 316, 243...
January 27, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425841/adipocyte-hypertrophy-hyperplasia-balance-contributes-to-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
Lindsey A Muir, Nicki A Baker, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Carmen G Flesher, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn M Geletka, Amir A Ghaferi, Jonathan F Finks, Kanakadurga Singer, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Predictors of weight loss responses are not well-defined. We hypothesized that adipose tissue phenotypic features related to remodeling would be associated with bariatric surgery weight loss responses. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues collected from patients during bariatric surgery were studied with flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and QRTPCR, and results correlated with weight loss outcomes. Age, male sex, and a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were associated with less weight loss. Adipocyte size was increased and preadipocyte frequency was decreased in visceral adipose tissue from diabetic subjects...
January 27, 2017: Adipocyte
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