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Rejection sensitivity

Byung Ha Chung, Jeong Ho Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Cheol Whee Park, Ji-Il Kim, In Sung Moon, Yong-Soo Kim, Yeong Jin Choi, Eun-Jee Oh, Chul Woo Yang
Background/Aims: This study investigated the clinical significance of detecting anti-human leukocyte antigen-donor specific antibody (HLA-DSA) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) requiring indication biopsy owing to allograft dysfunction. Methods: We analyzed the presence of HLA-DSA in 210 KTRs who took indication biopsy. We divided these cases into two groups, HLA-DSA (+) (n = 52) and HLA-DSA (-) (n = 158) group, and compared the clinical characteristics, pathological findings, and clinical outcomes of the two groups...
October 20, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Masayoshi Okumi, Yasuyuki Sato, Kohei Unagami, Toshihito Hirai, Hideki Ishida, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND: The reasons for improved outcomes associated with preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) are incompletely understood, and post-transplant complications have been scarcely investigated. METHODS: We evaluated the outcomes of PKT in both unmatched (n = 1060) and propensity score matched cohorts (n = 186) of adults who underwent living kidney transplant between 2000 and 2014. Outcomes were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), biopsy-proven rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), graft failure (non-censored for death), and malignancy...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Christina Dyar, Brian A Feinstein, Nicholas R Eaton, Bonita London
The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Francesca Diomedi Camassei, Antonina Piazza, Elvira Poggi, Luca Dello Strologo
BACKGROUND: Several cases of severe antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) secondary to antibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Ab) have been described with variable outcome. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report the case of a 13-year-old boy whose first kidney transplant failed due to steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection, with the subsequent development of sensitization. He received a second kidney transplant which was complicated by early humoral rejection, with weakly positive staining for the complement degradation product C4d...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Nataša Katalinić, Marina Fućak, Tajana Crnić, Milena Ćurković, Alma Starčević, Sanja Balen
BACKGROUND: The introduction of more sensitive techniques, such as Luminex® for HLA antibody screening of patients awaiting organ transplantation has resulted in a better understanding of transplantation immunology and improvements in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The interpretation of the results obtained only by Luminex® can lead to inaccurate evaluation of a patient's antibody status and unjustified rejection of a potential organ donor. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the benefits of performing HLA antibody screening in the sera of patients on the waiting list for organ transplantation by two different assays, complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and Luminex®...
October 14, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Luca Dello Strologo, Luisa Murer, Isabella Guzzo, Federica Morolli, Annalisa M V Pipicelli, Elisa Benetti, Germana Longo, Sara Testa, Andrea Ricci, Fabrizio Ginevri, Luciana Ghio, Massimo Cardillo, Antonina Piazza, Alessandro Nanni Costa
BACKGROUND: High levels of preformed anti-HLA antibodies dramatically diminish renal transplant outcomes. Most desensitization programmes guarantee good intermediate outcomes but quite disappointing long-term prognosis. The search for a fully compatible kidney increases time on the waiting list. METHODS: In February 2011, a nationwide hyperimmune programme (NHP) was begun in Italy: all available kidneys are primarily proposed to highly sensitized patients with a panel reactive antibody above 80%...
October 14, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Yihung Huang, Evan Farkash
As both T cell and antibody-mediated rejection can have a subclinical phase, protocol biopsies provide an early opportunity to intervene before the onset of clinical allograft dysfunction. Protocol biopsies are usually done after reperfusion to establish baseline, between 3 and 6 months to identify subclinical rejection, and at 6-12 months to assess chronicity and persistent inflammation that have prognostic implication. Treatment of both subclinical T cell and antibody-mediated rejection prevents progression of rejection and development of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy or transplant glomerulopathy...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Patricio Cabané Toledo, Ricardo L Rossi, Pablo Caviedes
Cell encapsulation is an alternative to avoid rejection of grafted tissue, thus bringing an interesting alternative in cell therapy. It is particularly relevant in ailments where only the implant of small quantities of tissues is warranted. In such circumstances, the use of immunosuppressive therapy in patients implanted with tissues from donors is debatable, yet unavoidable at present in order to prevent rejection and/or sensitization of the host to the tissue, in turn jeopardizing the success of successive implants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tyler B Mason, Ralitsa S Maduro, Valerian J Derlega, Desi S Hacker, Barbara A Winstead, Jacqueline E Haywood
Objective: This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. Method: In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr...
October 13, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Emily E LeDue, Kevin Mann, Ellen Koch, Bonnie Chu, Roslyn Dakin, Michael D Gordon
Nutrient deprivation can lead to dramatic changes in feeding behavior, including acceptance of foods that are normally rejected. In flies, this behavioral shift depends in part on reciprocal sensitization and desensitization of sweet and bitter taste, respectively. However, the mechanisms for bitter taste modulation remain unclear. Here, we identify a set of octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons, named OA-VLs, that directly modulate bitter sensory neuron output in response to starvation. OA-VLs are in close proximity to bitter sensory neuron axon terminals and show reduced tonic firing following starvation...
October 1, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Danny Gordon, Mario Prajna Pratama
This work sough to document how Indonesian trans* FTM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace and health/healthcare institutions. Objectives were 1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FTM individuals in Indonesia, and 2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FTM community. In-depth interviews, focus-groups and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Mick Zeljko, Philip M Grove
The audiovisual stream-bounce effect refers to the resolution of ambiguous motion sequences as streaming or bouncing depending on the presence or absence of a sound. We used a novel experimental design and signal detection theory (SDT) to determine its sensory or decisional origins. To account for issues raised by Witt et al. on the interpretation of SDT results, we devised a pure signal detection (as opposed to signal discrimination) paradigm and measured participants' sensitivity and criterion when detecting a weak tone concurrent with objectively streaming or bouncing visual displays...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Erik Jarefors, Thomas Hansson
OBJECTIVE: The vascularised free fibular flap is considered to be a reliable choice for reconstruction of oromandibular defects, especially after resection of malignant tumours in the area. This study evaluates the functional outcome of this method. METHOD: From January 2001 - May 2014, 37 patients were treated at the University Hospital of Linköping using the free fibular flap. The authors present the results from 17. This study reviewed their records and used the University of Washington Quality-of-Life questionnaire (UW-QoL), the Head and Neck Performance Status Scale (PSS), and interviews to assess their outcome...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Yuta Yoshizaki, Eiji Yuba, Toshihiro Komatsu, Keiko Udaka, Atsushi Harada, Kenji Kono
To establish peptide vaccine-based cancer immunotherapy, we investigated the improvement of antigenic peptides by encapsulation with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes for induction of antigen-specific immunity. The liposomes were prepared by modification of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and l-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine with 3-methyl-glutarylated hyperbranched poly(glycidol) (MGlu-HPG) and were loaded with antigenic peptides derived from ovalbumin (OVA) OVA-I (SIINFEKL), and OVA-II (PSISQAVHAAHAEINEAPβA), which bind, respectively, to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules on dendritic cell (DCs)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Joshua Y Kausman, Amanda M Walker, Linda S Cantwell, Catherine Quinlan, Matthew P Sypek, Francesco L Ierino
Donor-recipient HLA mismatch remains a leading cause for sensitization and graft loss in kidney transplantation. HLA compatibility at an epitope level is emerging as an improved method of matching compared with current HLA antigen allocation. A novel epitope-based allocation approach to prospectively exclude donors with high-level mismatches was implemented for pediatric KTRs on the DD waiting list. Nineteen consecutive transplants were followed for 12 months, including eight DD KTRs listed with eplet exclusions, as well as three DD KTRs and eight LD KTRs without exclusions...
September 24, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Cahue Henrique Pinto, Helio Tedesco-Silva, C R Felipe, A Ferreira, M Cristelli, L A Viana, W Aguiar, José Medina-Pestana
BACKGROUND: The identification of the best strategy to manage cytomegalovirus infection is hampered by uncertainties regarding the risk/benefit ratios of universal prophylaxis versus preemptive therapy, the impact of indirect cytomegalovirus effects and the associated costs. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of targeted preemptive therapy according to perceived risk of cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. METHODS: 144 adult kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in this 12-month study...
September 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yanqiu Liu, Huijuan Lu, Ke Yan, Haixia Xia, Chunlin An
Embedding cost-sensitive factors into the classifiers increases the classification stability and reduces the classification costs for classifying high-scale, redundant, and imbalanced datasets, such as the gene expression data. In this study, we extend our previous work, that is, Dissimilar ELM (D-ELM), by introducing misclassification costs into the classifier. We name the proposed algorithm as the cost-sensitive D-ELM (CS-D-ELM). Furthermore, we embed rejection cost into the CS-D-ELM to increase the classification stability of the proposed algorithm...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Justo Aznar, Julio Tudela
BACKGROUND: The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine has major therapeutic potential. Recent clinical trials using cells derived from human stem cells are showing encouraging results, although these should be assessed with the necessary caution. DISCUSSION: Some media have reported the results of these trials without due care, perhaps creating expectations that do not match the reality of the facts. This paper describes some of the recent advances in the use of human stem cells, particularly those made in the area of ophthalmology, and more specifically, in Stargardt's disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
A V Vatazin, A B Zul'karnaev
AIM: to comparatively assess desensitization schemes with and without plasmapheresis in patients with low presensitization. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigators studied the efficiency of the two desensitization schemes (cascade plasma filtration + intravenous immunoglobulin used in a dose of 100 mg/kg in 19 patients (a study group; panel reactive antibodies (PRA) 25.1±6.1%) versus 2 g/kg in 23 patients (a comparison group, PRA 18.9±4.4%). The crossmatch reaction was negative in both groups...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Ji Won Min, Kyoung Woon Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Kyoung Chan Doh, Min Seok Choi, Bum Soon Choi, Cheol Whee Park, Chul Woo Yang, Yong-Soo Kim, Eun-Jee Oh, Byung Ha Chung
It is well known that pre-transplant B cell activating factor (BAFF) levels are associated with the development of de novo anti-HLA antibodies and antibody mediated rejection post-transplant. However, the clinical significance of BAFF values at allograft rejection has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of pre-transplant BAFF level as well as post-transplant BAFF levels measured when indication biopsy was done. We checked for anti-HLA antibodies in 115 kidney transplant recipients who required allograft biopsy due to an increase in serum creatinine...
2016: PloS One
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