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Rejection sensitivity

Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Roni Lehmann-Werman, Judith Magenheim, Joshua Moss, Daniel Neiman, Ofri Abraham, Sheina Piyanzin, Hai Zemmour, Ilana Fox, Talya Dor, Markus Grompe, Giora Landesberg, Bao-Li Loza, Abraham Shaked, Kim Olthoff, Benjamin Glaser, Ruth Shemer, Yuval Dor
Liver damage is typically inferred from serum measurements of cytoplasmic liver enzymes. DNA molecules released from dying hepatocytes are an alternative biomarker, unexplored so far, potentially allowing for quantitative assessment of liver cell death. Here we describe a method for detecting acute hepatocyte death, based on quantification of circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments carrying hepatocyte-specific methylation patterns. We identified 3 genomic loci that are unmethylated specifically in hepatocytes, and used bisulfite conversion, PCR, and massively parallel sequencing to quantify the concentration of hepatocyte-derived DNA in mixed samples...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Michael McRae, François Bouchard-Boivin, Stéphanie Béland, Réal Noël, Isabelle Côté, Isabelle Lapointe, Julie Lesage, Eva Latulippe, Julie Riopel, Dominick Santoriello, Syed A Husain, Olivier Désy, Isabelle Houde, Ibrahim Batal, Sacha A De Serres
BACKGROUND: Since the borderline changes suspicious for acute T-cell-mediated rejection (BL) category was broadened, there has been a debate regarding the right threshold for tubulitis (t) and interstitial inflammation (i) scores. METHODS: We studied a first cohort of 111 patients with BL found on an indication biopsy between 2006 and 2016 and compared those with scores of t1i0 (BLt1i0) to those with higher scores (BL≥t1i1). A second cohort of 56 patients with BL was used for external validation...
June 18, 2018: Transplantation
Guerard W Byrne
The major histocompatibility complex class I and class II human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play a central role in adaptive immunity but are also the dominant polymorphic proteins targeted in allograft rejection. Sensitized patients with high levels of panel-reactive anti-HLA antibody (PRA) are at risk of early allograft injury, rejection, reduced allograft survival and often experience prolonged waiting times prior to transplantation. Xenotransplantation, using genetically modified porcine organs, offers a unique source of donor organs for these highly sensitized patients if the anti-HLA antibody, which places the allograft at risk, does not also enhance anti-pig antibody reactivity responsible for xenograft rejection...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Emmanuel Zorn
Innate B cells and natural antibodies (Nabs) have been extensively studied in normal physiological conditions as well as in several diseases. However, their significance in the context of ABO-compatible solid organ transplantation is only emerging. This review summarizes recent studies exploring these often neglected innate immune elements in situations related to sensitization and clinical graft rejection. A focus is placed on class-switched IgG Nabs that develop amidst inflammation, rather than IgM Nabs abundant at the steady state, as new evidence point to their implication in serum reactivity to HLA and kidney graft failure...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Duilio Pagano, Ester Badami, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Aurelio Seidita, Fabio Tuzzolino, Marco Barbàra, Fabrizio di Francesco, Alessandro Tropea, Rosa Liotta, Gaia Chiarello, Angelo Luca, Salvatore Gruttadauria
BACKGROUND: The ability to predict which recipients will successfully complete their posttransplant clinical course, is crucial for liver transplant (LT) programs. The assessment of natural killer (NK) cell subset determined by flow cytometry from a monocentric series of consecutive liver perfusates (LPs) could help identify risk factors portending adverse LT outcomes. METHODS: LPs were collected during the back-table surgical time after the procurement procedures for donors after brain death (DBDs)...
June 13, 2018: Transplantation
Anna Van Meter, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Shirley Yen, Heather Hower, Michael Strober, John A Merranko, Mary Kay Gill, Rasim S Diler, David Axelson, Neal D Ryan, Martin B Keller, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: Most studies of pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) combine youth who have manic symptoms, but do not meet criteria for BP I/II, into one "not otherwise specified" (NOS) group. Consequently, little is known about how youth with cyclothymic disorder (CycD) differ from youth with BP NOS. The objective of this study was to determine whether youth with a research diagnosis of CycD (RDCyc) differ from youth with operationalized BP NOS. METHOD: Participants from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study were evaluated to determine whether they met RDCyc criteria...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andrea Fontana, Chiara De Panfilis, Erica Casini, Emanuele Preti, Juliette Richetin, Massimo Ammaniti
INTRODUCTION: Emerging personality organization may play an important role in the psychological adjustment of early adolescents, but research in this area is still limited. The current study evaluated if personality organization moderates the association between rejection sensitivity and adverse psychological outcomes in early adolescence. METHODS: Three-hundred eighty-six early adolescents (age range 13-15 years; 51% Female) attending junior high schools in Italy completed the semi-structured Interview of Personality Organization Processes in Adolescence (IPOP-A), the Children's Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (CRSQ), and the Youth Self Report/11-18 (YSR)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Ellen C Moore, Lillian Sun, Paul E Clavijo, Jay Friedman, Joe B Harford, Anthony D Saleh, Carter Van Waes, Esther H Chang, Clint T Allen
Loss or mutation of TP53 has been linked to alterations in anti-tumor immunity as well as dysregulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. We explored immunologic effects and mechanisms following restoration of wild-type human TP53 cDNA in murine oral cancer cells using the therapeutic nanocomplex scL-53. We demonstrated scL-53 induces dose-dependent expression of TP53 and induction of apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. We further demonstrated both TP53-dependent and independent induction of tumor cell immunogenicity through the use of blocking mAbs, nanocomplex loaded with DNA plasmid with or without TP53 cDNA, empty nanocomplex and siRNA knockdown techniques...
2018: Oncoimmunology
John K Brealey, John Cassidy, Jim Manavis
Microvascular injury is an important factor in renal allograft survival. Repeated episodes of endothelial injury from chronic antibody-mediated rejection typically manifest at the ultrastructural level as circumferential multilayering of remodeled glomerular basement membrane material and peritubular capillary basal lamina. In contrast to this typical pattern of microvascular injury, a renal transplantation case is presented in which focally dilated and multilayered segments of peritubular capillary basal lamina bearing lipid droplets were interspersed with ultrastructurally normal unilayered segments of basal lamina devoid of lipid droplets...
June 13, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Ondrej Zenata, Zdenek Dvorak, Radim Vrzal
Mycophenolate Mofetil (MYC) is a transplant drug used to prevent rejection in heart and kidneys transplant patients. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, was considered as a primary target for MYC. Recently, we described that MYC was activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor and it antagonizes glucocorticoid receptor. Here we describe an androgen receptor (AR) as another off-target for MYC. We found that MYC increased basal and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducible AR-dependent luciferase activity in AIZ-AR cells...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Uwadiae Obahiagbon, Joseph T Smith, Meilin Zhu, Benjamin A Katchman, Hany Arafa, Karen S Anderson, Jennifer M Blain Christen
An effective method of combating infectious diseases is the deployment of hand-held devices at the point-of-care (POC) for screening or self-monitoring applications. There is a need for very sensitive, low-cost and quantitative diagnostic devices. In this study, we present a low-cost, multiplexed fluorescence detection platform that has a high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. Our system features inexpensive 3 × 3 mm interference filters with a high stopband rejection, sharp transition edges, and greater than 90% transmission in the passband...
April 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Samer Bou Jawde, Bradford J Smith, Adam Sonnenberg, Jason H T Bates, Bela Suki
OBJECTIVE: While many studies rely on flow and pressure measurements in small animal models of respiratory disease, such measurements can however be inaccurate and difficult to obtain. Thus, the goal of this study was to design and implement an easy to manufacture and accurate sensor capable of monitoring flow. APPROACH: We designed and 3-D printed a flowmeter and utilized parametric (resistance and inertance) and nonparametric (polynomial and Volterra series) system identification to characterize the device...
June 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Julian Oreggioni, Angel A Caputi, Fernando Silveira
There are neural recording applications in which the amplitude of common-mode interfering signals is several orders of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signals of interest. This challenging situation for neural amplifiers occurs, among other applications, in neural recordings of weakly electric fish or nerve activity recordings made with cuff electrodes. This paper reports an integrated neural amplifier architecture targeting in-vivo recording of local field potentials and unitary signals from the brain stem of a weakly electric fish Gymnotus omarorum...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Jutta Kray, Hannah Schmitt, Corinna Lorenz, Nicola K Ferdinand
A number of recent hypothetical models on adolescent development take a dual-systems perspective and propose an imbalance in the maturation of neural systems underlying reward-driven and control-related behavior. In particular, such models suggest that the relative dominance of the early emerging subcortical reward system over the later emerging prefrontal-guided control system leads to higher risk-taking and sensation-seeking behavior in mid-adolescents. Here, we will review recent empirical evidence from behavioral and neuroscientific studies examining interactions between these systems and showing that empirical evidence in support for the view of a higher sensitivity to rewards in mid-adolescents is rather mixed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Devon M Headen, Kyle B Woodward, María M Coronel, Pradeep Shrestha, Jessica D Weaver, Hong Zhao, Min Tan, Michael D Hunckler, William S Bowen, Christopher T Johnson, Lonnie Shea, Esma S Yolcu, Andrés J García, Haval Shirwan
Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes. However, chronic immunosuppression to control rejection of allogeneic islets induces morbidities and impairs islet function. T effector cells are responsible for islet allograft rejection and express Fas death receptors following activation, becoming sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here, we report that localized immunomodulation using microgels presenting an apoptotic form of the Fas ligand with streptavidin (SA-FasL) results in prolonged survival of allogeneic islet grafts in diabetic mice...
June 4, 2018: Nature Materials
Maria Cristina Ribeiro de Castro, Erick A Barbosa, Renata P Souza, Fabiana Agena, Patrícia S de Souza, Gabriella Maciel, Hélcio Rodrigues, Nicolas Panajotopoulos, Daísa S David, Flávio J de Paula, Elias David-Neto
The impact of the kinetics of the anti-HLA antibodies after KTx on the occurrence of acute rejection as well as the better time-point to monitor anti-HLA Abs after transplantation is not completely defined. This prospective study followed 150 patients over 12 months after transplantation. Serum IgG anti-HLA Abs were detected by single antigen beads after typing donors and recipients for loci A, B, C, DR, and DQ. Before KTx, 89 patients did not present anti-HLA Abs and 2% developed "de novo" Abs during the 1st year, 39 patients were sensitized without DSAs, and 13% developed DSA after surgery; all of them presented ABMR...
2018: Journal of Transplantation
Cesar A Keller, Andras Khoor, Douglas A Arenberg, Michael A Smith, Shaheen U Islam
BACKGROUND: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) in lung transplant recipients requires demonstration of perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in alveolar tissue samples from transbronchial biopsies (TBBs). Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) allows in vivo observation of alveolar, vascular, and cellular microstructures in the lung with potential to identify ACR. The objective of our prospective, blinded, multicenter observational study was to identify pCLE findings in patients with ACR diagnosed histopathologically by TBB...
May 29, 2018: Transplantation
Chiara De Panfilis, Camilla Antonucci, Kevin B Meehan, Nicole M Cain, Antonio Soliani, Carlo Marchesi, John F Clarkin, Fabio Sambataro
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with both seeming indifference and hypersensitivity to social feedback. This study evaluated whether rejection sensitivity and empathic difficulties in NPD are accounted for by altered facial emotion recognition (FER). Two-hundred non-clinical individuals self-reported NPD features, rejection sensitivity, and empathy and performed an FER task assessing the ability to determine the presence or absence of an emotion when viewing neutral and negative facial stimuli presented at varying emotional intensities (25%, 50%, 75%)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Nicholas J Conn, Karl Q Schwarz, David A Borkholder
BACKGROUND: Wearable and connected in-home medical devices are typically utilized in uncontrolled environments and often measure physiologic signals at suboptimal locations. Motion artifacts and reduced signal-to-noise ratio, compared with clinical grade equipment, results in a highly variable signal quality that can change significantly from moment to moment. The use of signal quality classification algorithms and robust feature delineation algorithms designed to achieve high accuracy on poor quality physiologic signals can prove beneficial in addressing concerns associated with measurement accuracy, confidence, and clinical validity...
May 28, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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