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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918214/immunosuppression-and-adult-heart-transplantation-emerging-therapies-and-opportunities
#1
Nicholas Furiasse, Jon A Kobashigawa
Immunosuppression following heart transplantation has improved graft longevity through the reduction of cellular and antibody mediated rejection. The attempt to limit the unintended consequences of immunosuppressive therapies and address sensitized patients has led to a revolution in immunosuppression. Areas Covered: This review will focus on the current emerging immunosuppressive therapies in heart transplantation while reviewing the effective contemporary treatments, and explore the potential development of new immunomodulatory therapies...
December 5, 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916323/donor-specific-anti-hla-antibodies-with-antibody-mediated-rejection-and-long-term-outcomes-following-heart-transplantation
#2
Kevin J Clerkin, Maryjane A Farr, Susan W Restaino, Emmanuel Zorn, Farhana Latif, Elena R Vasilescu, Charles C Marboe, Paolo C Colombo, Donna M Mancini
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) are common after heart transplantation and are associated with rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and mortality. A noninvasive diagnostic test for pathologic antibody-mediated rejection (pAMR) does not exist. METHODS: From January 1, 2010, through August 31, 2013, 221 consecutive adult patients underwent heart transplantation and were followed through October 1, 2015. The primary objective was to determine whether the presence of DSA could detect AMR at the time of pathologic diagnosis...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915115/a-novel-measure-of-reliability-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging-after-data-rejections-due-to-subject-motion
#3
V Sairanen, L Kuusela, O Sipilä, S Savolainen, S Vanhatalo
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is commonly challenged by subject motion during data acquisition, which often leads to corrupted image data. Currently used procedure in DTI analysis is to correct or completely reject such data before tensor estimations, however assessing the reliability and accuracy of the estimated tensor in such situations has evaded previous studies. This work aims to define the loss of data accuracy with increasing image rejections, and to define a robust method for assessing reliability of the result at voxel level...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913322/automatic-detection-and-classification-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-depth-eeg-signals
#4
Nisrine Jrad, Amar Kachenoura, Isabelle Merlet, Fabrice Bartolomei, Anca Nica, Arnaud Biraben, Fabrice Wendling
GOAL: Interictal High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs [30-600 Hz]) have proven to be relevant biomarkers in epilepsy. In this paper, four categories of HFOs are considered: Gamma ([30- 80 Hz]), High-Gamma ([80-120 Hz]), Ripples ([120-250 Hz]) and Fast-Ripples ([250-600 Hz]). A universal detector of the four types of HFOs is proposed. It has the advantages of i) classifying HFOs, and thus being robust to inter- and intra-subject variability; ii) rejecting artefacts, thus being specific. METHODS: Gabor atoms are tuned to cover the physiological bands...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911830/framework-for-making-better-predictions-by-directly-estimating-variables-predictivity
#5
Adeline Lo, Herman Chernoff, Tian Zheng, Shaw-Hwa Lo
We propose approaching prediction from a framework grounded in the theoretical correct prediction rate of a variable set as a parameter of interest. This framework allows us to define a measure of predictivity that enables assessing variable sets for, preferably high, predictivity. We first define the prediction rate for a variable set and consider, and ultimately reject, the naive estimator, a statistic based on the observed sample data, due to its inflated bias for moderate sample size and its sensitivity to noisy useless variables...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910457/applying-the-new-gamma-ray-imager-diagnostic-to-measurements-of-runaway-electron-bremsstrahlung-radiation-in-the-diii-d-tokamak-invited
#6
C M Cooper, D C Pace, C Paz-Soldan, N Commaux, N W Eidietis, E M Hollmann, D Shiraki
A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5-100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead "pinhole camera" mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893614/the-presence-of-pretransplant-hla-antibodies-does-not-impact-the-development-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-or-clad-related-death
#7
Oscar E Zazueta, Sara E Preston, Anna Moniodis, Sabrina Fried, Miae Kim, Keri Townsend, Isabelle Wood, Steve Boukedes, Indira Guleria, Phillip Camp, Souheil El-Chemaly, Ivan O Rosas, Anil Chandraker, Edgar Milford, Hilary J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Development of Donor-specific Antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is associated with antibody mediated rejection (AMR), acute cellular rejection, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS); however, the significance of circulating antibodies before transplant remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including recipients of primary lung transplants between 2008 and 2012.We assessed the impact of circulating human leukocyte (HLA) and noncytotoxic Donor Specific antibodies (DSA) detected before transplant on development of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD) or CLAD related death...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893263/-incidental-fear-cues-increase-monetary-loss-aversion-correction-to-schulreich-gerhardt-and-heekeren-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion" by Stefan Schulreich, Holger Gerhardt and Hauke R. Heekeren (Emotion, 2016[Apr], Vol 16[3], 402-412). In the current article, there was an error in the Study 2 portion of the article. The fourth paragraph of the Results section should read as follows: Performing the same analyses as in Study 1, we found an effect of incidental fear cues on decision behavior. Participants accepted fewer gambles in the fearful-face condition (32.77%) than in the neutral-face condition (33...
December 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888576/total-recall-can-we-reshape-t-cell-memory-by-lymphoablation
#9
Michael Nicosia, Anna Valujskikh
Despite recent advances in immunosuppression, donor-reactive memory T cells remain a serious threat to successful organ transplantation. To alleviate damaging effects of preexisting immunologic memory, lymphoablative induction therapies are used as a part of standard care in sensitized recipients. However, there is accumulating evidence that memory T cells have advantages over their naïve counterparts in surviving depletion and expanding under lymphopenic conditions. This may at least partially explain the inability of existing lymphoablative strategies to improve long term allograft outcome in sensitized recipients, despite well-documented decrease in the frequency of early acute rejection episodes...
November 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888573/b-cell-activating-factor-baff-a-predictor-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-recipients
#10
Wannarat Pongpirul, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Krit Pongpirul, Asada Leelahavanichakul, Wipawee Kittikowit, Kamonwan Jutivorakool, Bunthoon Nonthasoot, Yingyos Avihingsanon, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Natavudh Townamchai
BACKGROUND: Donor-specific antibody (DSA) is a widely-used biomarker for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) but correctly indicates only 30-40% of patients with ABMR. Additional biomarkers of ABMR in kidney transplant recipients are needed. METHODS: All 68 kidney transplanted-recipients enrolled in this study were negative for graft rejection as determined by surveillance-biopsy ELISA at day 7 post-transplantation. Allograft biopsy was then performed at 6 months post-transplantation for subclinical-ABMR detection...
November 26, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888556/evaluate-quality-of-kidneys-from-dcd-ecd-donors-by-parameters-of-machine-perfusion
#11
Guodong Chen, Chang Wang, Yi Zhao, Longhui Qiu, Xiaopeng Yuan, Jiang Qiu, Changxi Wang, Xiaoshun He, Lizhong Chen
AIM: To investigate whether the parameters of machine perfusion could predict the quality of kidneys from donation after circulatory death(DCD) donors and expanded criteria donors (ECD) . METHODS: 58 kidneys from DCD/ECD donors were harvested in our hospital from July 2011 to August 2014. All kidneys were preserved with machine perfusion(Life Port), and parameters of machine perfusion were collected. All kidneys were biopsied before transplantation. The primary endpoints were delayed graft function(DGF), graft loss and patient death...
November 26, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872471/recent-progress-in-xenotransplantation-with-emphasis-on-virological-safety
#12
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870356/clinical-and-immunological-relevance-of-antibodies-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
N K Mehra, A K Baranwal
The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection...
December 2016: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866269/effects-of-alexithymia-and-empathy-on-the-neural-processing-of-social-and-monetary-rewards
#14
Katharina Sophia Goerlich, Mikhail Votinov, Sarah E Lammertz, Lina Winkler, Katja N Spreckelmeyer, Ute Habel, Gerhard Gründer, Anna Gossen
Empathy has been found to affect the neural processing of social and monetary rewards. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition showing a close inverse relationship with empathy is linked to dysfunctions of socio-emotional processing in the brain. Whether alexithymia alters the neural processing of rewards, which is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of both alexithymia and empathy on reward processing using a social incentive delay (SID) task and a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in 45 healthy men undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
November 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864154/root-cause-analysis-of-limitations-of-virtual-crossmatch-for-kidney-allocation-to-highly-sensitized-patients
#15
Vivek Jani, Elizabeth Ingulli, Kristen Mekeel, Gerald P Morris
Efficient allocation of deceased donor organs depends upon effective prediction of immunologic compatibility based on donor HLA genotype and recipient alloantibody profile, referred to as virtual crossmatching (VCXM). VCXM has demonstrated utility in predicting compatibility, though there is reduced efficacy for patients highly sensitized against allogeneic HLA antigens. The recently revised deceased donor kidney allocation system (KAS) has increased transplantation for this group, but with an increased burden for histocompatibility testing and organ sharing...
November 15, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859243/effect-of-infusion-of-mabs-to-tnfrsf25-on-graft-rejection-in-allo-immune-mice-receiving-autologous-marrow-transplantation
#16
Reginald M Gorczynski, Hassan Sadozai, Fang Zhu, Ismat Khatri
Significant barriers to transplantation exist for individuals who are pre-sensitized to donor Ag and have high titres of donor-reactive Ab. We report the effect of autologous BMTx after myeloablation in pre-sensitized mice along with the use of mAbs to TNFRSF25, expressed on Tregs. C57BL/6 mice, which had been sensitized earlier with BALB/c skin allografts, received secondary BALB/c grafts after the primary grafts had been rejected. Subsequently, recipient mice underwent myeloablation with cyclophosphamide and busulphan and were injected with T-cell depleted bone marrow from CD45...
November 17, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857321/improved-algorithm-for-the-transmittance-estimation-of-spectra-obtained-with-soir-venus-express
#17
Loic Trompet, Arnaud Mahieux, Bojan Ristic, Séverine Robert, Valérie Wilquet, Ian R Thomas, Ann Carine Vandaele, Jean-Loup Bertaux
The Solar Occultation in the InfraRed (SOIR) instrument onboard the ESA Venus Express spacecraft, an infrared spectrometer sensitive from 2.2 to 4.3 μm, probed the atmosphere of Venus from June 2006 until December 2014. During this time, it performed more than 750 solar occultations of the Venus mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A new procedure has been developed for the estimation of the transmittance in order to decrease the number of rejected spectra, to check that the treated spectra are well calibrated, and to improve the quality of the calibrated spectra by reducing the noise and accurately normalizing it to the solar spectrum...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856343/brain-response-to-masked-and-unmasked-facial-emotions-as-a-function-of-implicit-and-explicit-personality-self-concept-of-extraversion
#18
Thomas Suslow, Harald Kugel, Christian Lindner, Udo Dannlowski, Boris Egloff
Extraversion-introversion is a personality dimension referring to individual differences in social behavior. In the past, neurobiological research on extraversion was almost entirely based upon questionnaires which inform about the explicit self-concept. Today, indirect measures are available that tap into the implicit self-concept of extraversion which is assumed to result from automatic processing functions. In our study, brain activation while viewing facial expression of affiliation relevant (i.e., happiness, and disgust) and irrelevant (i...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843086/measurement-of-visual-function-among-patients-undergoing-corneal-transplantation-using-the-vf-14-index-in-morocco
#19
S Belghmaidi, L Adarmouch, M Baali, M Sebbani, I Hajji, M Amine, A Moutaouakil
OBJECTIVE: To validate the Moroccan version of the VF-14 in candidates for keratoplasty and to assess their quality of life using this tool before and after transplantation. METHODS: This is a longitudinal prospective study that assessed 57 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty, recruited in the ophthalmology service in Marrakech over 5 years. The original VF-14 questionnaire was adapted into Moroccan dialect. The questionnaire was administered before and 2 years after transplantation...
November 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836169/an-improved-method-for-total-organic-iodine-in-drinking-water
#20
Rassil Sayess, David A Reckhow
A concise, rapid, and sensitive method is developed to measure organically-bound iodine in water. Total organic iodine (TOI) is used as an integrative surrogate that reflects the amount of iodinated organics in a water sample and is quantified using a refined method that builds on previous adsorption and detection approaches. The proposed method combines adsorption, combustion, and trapping of combustion products, with an offline inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for iodide detection. During method development, three analytical variables (factors) were varied across two levels each in order to optimize the method for iodine recovery: 1) the sample pH prior to adsorption on the granular activated carbon (GAC); 2) the amount of base addition to the trap solution; and 3) composition of the ICP-MS wash solution...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
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