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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934847/participation-of-ccl1-in-snail-positive-fibroblasts-in-colorectal-cancer-contribute-to-5-fluorouracil-paclitaxel-chemoresistance
#1
Ziqian Li, Kaying Chan, Yifei Qi, Linlin Lu, Fen Ning, Mengling Wu, Yuan Wang, Shaohui Cai, Jun Du
Purpose: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) activated by cancer cells has a central role in development and malignant biological behavior in colorectal cancer (CRC). Adult fibroblasts do not express Snail, but Snail-positive fibroblasts are discovered in the stroma of malignant CRC and reported to be the key role to chemoresistance. However, the reciprocal effect of CAFs expressed Snail to chemoresistance on CRC cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully characterized...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934823/comprehensive-analysis-of-non-synonymous-natural-variants-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#2
Hee Ryung Kim, Nguyen Minh Duc, Ka Young Chung
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors and have vital signaling functions in various organs. Because of their critical roles in physiology and pathology, GPCRs are the most commonly used therapeutic target. It has been suggested that GPCRs undergo massive genetic variations such as genetic polymorphisms and DNA insertions or deletions. Among these genetic variations, non-synonymous natural variations change the amino acid sequence and could thus alter GPCR functions such as expression, localization, signaling, and ligand binding, which may be involved in disease development and altered responses to GPCR-targeting drugs...
September 19, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934756/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-mediates-fibroblast-growth-factor-inducible-14-signaling
#3
Xuening Wang, Shengxiang Xiao, Yumin Xia
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) engages its sole receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), which participates in various inflammatory and immunologic processes. TWEAK/Fn14 interaction induces different cell fates depending on the local microenvironment, which correlates with certain expression profiles of TNF receptors (TNFR). The predominant expression of TNFR1 or TNFR2 facilitates cell death or proliferation, respectively, on TWEAK/Fn14 activation. TNFR-associated factors (TRAF) interact with Fn14, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, and TNFR, consequently transducing signals from TWEAK to downstream cytokines and cell cycle mediators...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934754/cntn-1-enhances-chemoresistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-through-induction-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-targeting-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#4
Ruijie Zhang, Shenghua Sun, Fuyun Ji, Chun Liu, Hua Lin, Lihua Xie, Honghui Yang, Wenxiang Tang, Yan Zhou, Jianping Xu, Pei Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chemoresistance has been a major obstacle to the effective treatment of lung cancer. Previously, we found that contactin-1 (CNTN-1) is related to cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism behind the role of CNTN-1 in cisplatin resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: EMT-associated phenotypes, including alterations in cellular morphology and marker (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) expression, were compared between A549 cells and A549/DDP cells (a cisplatin-resistant cell line of lung adenocarcinoma with abnormal CNTN-1 expression) by using real-time time PCR and Western blotting...
September 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934747/untangling-longevity-dauer-and-healthspan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-insulin-igf-1-signalling
#5
Collin Yvès Ewald, Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, T Keith Blackwell
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor gene daf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. In C. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enables C...
September 22, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934742/elevated-apoptosis-in-the-liver-of-dairy-cows-with-ketosis
#6
Xiliang Du, Liang Chen, Dan Huang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Yiwei Zhu, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress and hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic oxidative stress and the apoptotic status of ketotic cows, as well as the underlying apoptosis pathway. METHODS: The blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities and the haptoglobin (HP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum apoptotic cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope M30 (CK18 M30) concentrations were determined by commercially available kits and ELISA kits, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934735/effect-of-shikonin-on-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-hmgb1-tlr4-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#7
Yihui Bi, Yapeng Zhu, Mingkai Zhang, Keke Zhang, Xingyi Hua, Zheng Fang, Jian Zhou, Wenjie Dai, Yixing Cui, Jun Li, Tao You
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Shikonin, a compound extracted from Zicao, has been demonstrated to hold anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities in various diseases and it has been shown to protect human organs from injuries. However, the effect of shikonin on the recovery of spinal cord injury (SCI) remains unknown. This study was designed to estimate the potential therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of shikonin on SCI in vivo. METHODS: In the study, we used HE staining, ELISA assay, transfection assay, TUNEL assay, real time PCR and Western blot to detect the effects of shikonin on spinal cord injury in rats...
September 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934733/exosomes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-hipsc-mscs-protect-liver-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-activating-sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-pathway
#8
Yingdong Du, Dawei Li, Conghui Han, Haoyu Wu, Longmei Xu, Ming Zhang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaosong Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exosomes produced by human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs-Exo) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Exosomes derived from hiPSC-MSCs were isolated and characterized both biochemically and biophysically. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo were injected systemically into a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury model via the inferior vena cava, and then the therapeutic effects were evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934723/neural-mechanisms-underlying-the-disruption-of-male-courtship-behavior-by-adult-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-in-mice
#9
Carlos Dombret, Daphné Capela, Kevin Poissenot, Caroline Parmentier, Emma Bergsten, Cédric Pionneau, Solenne Chardonnet, Hélène Hardin-Pouzet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Matthieu Keller, Isabelle Franceschini, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja
BACKGROUND: Courtship behavior plays a critical role in attracting females and reproduction success. However, the effects of exposure to a ubiquitous contaminant di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on these behaviors and, in particular, on courtship vocalizations have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The effects of adult exposure to DEHP on courtship and mating behaviors and gonadotropic axis and neural mechanisms involved in DEHP-induced effects were analyzed in male mice...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934697/detection-of-bcg-bacteria-using-a-magnetoresistive-biosensor-a-step-towards-a-fully-electronic-platform-for-tuberculosis-point-of-care-detection
#10
Teresa G Barroso, Rui C Martins, Elisabete Fernandes, Susana Cardoso, José Rivas, Paulo P Freitas
Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns. This highly contagious disease affects more than 10.4 million people, being a leading cause of morbidity by infection. Tuberculosis is diagnosed at the point-of-care by the Ziehl-Neelsen sputum smear microscopy test. Ziehl-Neelsen is laborious, prone to human error and infection risk, with a limit of detection of 10(4) cells/mL. In resource-poor nations, a more practical test, with lower detection limit, is paramount. This work uses a magnetoresistive biosensor to detect BCG bacteria for tuberculosis diagnosis...
September 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934640/continuous-longitudinal-infusion-of-rhigf-1-rhigfbp-3-in-extremely-preterm-infants-evaluation-of-feasibility-in-a-phase-ii-study
#11
Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Ann Hellström, Mohamed Hamdani, Adina Tocoian, Nerissa C Kreher, David Ley, Boubou Hallberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of continuous longitudinal intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/recombinant human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for prevention of retinopathy of prematurity and other complications in extremely preterm infants (<28weeks' gestational age), based on initial sections of a phase II randomized controlled trial. DESIGN: The phase II trial was designed in four sections (A-D); we report pharmacokinetic and adverse events (AEs) data pooled for Sections B and C...
August 31, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934637/igf-system-targeted-therapy-therapeutic-opportunities-for-ovarian-cancer
#12
REVIEW
J A L Liefers-Visser, R A M Meijering, A K L Reyners, A G J van der Zee, S de Jong
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system comprises multiple growth factor receptors, including insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin receptor (IR) -A and -B. These receptors are activated upon binding to their respective growth factor ligands, IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin, and play an important role in development, maintenance, progression, survival and chemotherapeutic response of ovarian cancer. In many pre-clinical studies anti-IGF-1R/IR targeted strategies proved effective in reducing growth of ovarian cancer models...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934630/delta-plots-do-not-reveal-response-inhibition-in-lying
#13
Corrado Caudek, Martina Lorenzino, Rosita Liperoti
The role of response inhibition in lying is debated. By using the delta-plot method applied to the Sheffield Lie Test, Debey, Ridderinkhof, De Houwer, De Schryver, and Verschuere (2015) provided evidence supporting the role of inhibition in lying. In the study of Debey et al., inhibitory skill was measured in terms of the size of the lie effect. However, to provide convincing evidence that delta plots highlight the role of response inhibition in lying, inhibitory ability must be evaluated independently from the size of the lie effect...
September 18, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#14
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934561/epigenetic-mechanisms-regulating-adaptive-responses-to-targeted-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer
#15
Steven P Angus, Jon S Zawistowski, Gary L Johnson
Although targeted inhibition of oncogenic kinase drivers has achieved remarkable patient responses in many cancers, the development of resistance has remained a significant challenge. Numerous mechanisms have been identified, including the acquisition of gatekeeper mutations, activating pathway mutations, and copy number loss or gain of the driver or alternate nodes. These changes have prompted the development of kinase inhibitors with increased selectivity, use of second-line therapeutics to overcome primary resistance, and combination treatment to forestall resistance...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934500/a-synthetic-dna-binding-inhibitor-of-sox2-guides-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-differentiate-into-mesoderm
#16
Junichi Taniguchi, Ganesh N Pandian, Takuya Hidaka, Kaori Hashiya, Toshikazu Bando, Kyeong Kyu Kim, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Targeted differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using only chemicals would have value-added clinical potential in the regeneration of complex cell types including cardiomyocytes. Despite the availability of several chemical inhibitors targeting proteins involved in signaling pathways, no bioactive synthetic DNA-binding inhibitors, targeting key cell fate-controlling genes such as SOX2, are yet available. Here, we demonstrate a novel DNA-based chemical approach to guide the differentiation of hiPSCs using pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs), which are sequence-selective DNA-binding synthetic molecules...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934498/widespread-intra-dependencies-in-the-removal-of-introns-from-human-transcripts
#17
Seong Won Kim, Allison J Taggart, Claire Heintzelman, Kamil J Cygan, Caitlin G Hull, Jing Wang, Barsha Shrestha, William G Fairbrother
Research into the problem of splice site selection has followed a reductionist approach focused on how individual splice sites are recognized. Early applications of information theory uncovered an inconsistency. Human splice signals do not contain enough information to explain the observed fidelity of splicing. Here, we conclude that introns do not necessarily contain 'missing' information but rather may require definition from neighboring processing events. For example, there are known cases where an intronic mutation disrupts the splicing of not only the local intron but also adjacent introns...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934485/detecting-gene-subnetworks-under-selection-in-biological-pathways
#18
Alexandre Gouy, Joséphine T Daub, Laurent Excoffier
Advances in high throughput sequencing technologies have created a gap between data production and functional data analysis. Indeed, phenotypes result from interactions between numerous genes, but traditional methods treat loci independently, missing important knowledge brought by network-level emerging properties. Therefore, detecting selection acting on multiple genes affecting the evolution of complex traits remains challenging. In this context, gene network analysis provides a powerful framework to study the evolution of adaptive traits and facilitates the interpretation of genome-wide data...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934480/hydroxyl-radical-footprinting-combined-with-molecular-modeling-identifies-unique-features-of-dna-conformation-and-nucleosome-positioning
#19
Alexey K Shaytan, Hua Xiao, Grigoriy A Armeev, Carl Wu, David Landsman, Anna R Panchenko
Nucleosomes are the most abundant protein-DNA complexes in eukaryotes that provide compaction of genomic DNA and are implicated in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair. The details of DNA positioning on the nucleosome and the DNA conformation can provide key regulatory signals. Hydroxyl-radical footprinting (HRF) of protein-DNA complexes is a chemical technique that probes nucleosome organization in solution with a high precision unattainable by other methods. In this work we propose an integrative modeling method for constructing high-resolution atomistic models of nucleosomes based on HRF experiments...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934469/hnrnp-l-controls-hpv16-rna-polyadenylation-and-splicing-in-an-akt-kinase-dependent-manner
#20
Naoko Kajitani, Jacob Glahder, Chengjun Wu, Haoran Yu, Kersti Nilsson, Stefan Schwartz
Inhibition of the Akt kinase activates HPV16 late gene expression by reducing HPV16 early polyadenylation and by activating HPV16 late L1 mRNA splicing. We identified 'hot spots' for RNA binding proteins at the early polyA signal and at splice sites on HPV16 late mRNAs. We observed that hnRNP L was associated with sequences at all HPV16 late splice sites and at the early polyA signal. Akt kinase inhibition resulted in hnRNP L dephosphorylation and reduced association of hnRNP L with HPV16 mRNAs. This was accompanied by an increased binding of U2AF65 and Sam68 to HPV16 mRNAs...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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