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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793180/insulin-is-a-potential-antioxidant-for-diabetes-associated-cognitive-decline-via-regulating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes
#1
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Li-Bo Wang, Li-Yao Ai
PURPOSE: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of insulin on diabetic encephalopathy and its mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL AND APPROACH: The diabetic model was established by injection of streptozotocin. Behavior examinations were conducted by the Morris water maze. Histopathological alterations were detected by HE staining. ROS, CAT levels and SOD activity were measured using a microplate reader. In vitro, the viability of wild type and knock-down PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay, the morphology of cells was monitored under a microscope...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793178/nrf2-p-glycoprotein-axis-is-associated-with-clinicopathological-characteristics-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Farhad Jeddi, Narges Soozangar, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Masoud Shirmohamadi, Vahid Khaze, Nasser Samadi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Activation of ABCB1 gene and its main product, P-glycoprotein, is the common reason for chemoresistance. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) is directly regulated by Kelch like ECH-associated protein1 (Keap1). In addition, Nrf2 is a key transcriptional factor that regulates efflux transporters, including P-gp. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of Nrf2, Keap1 and ABCB1 in the biopsy samples and their association with clinicopathological features in CRC patients...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793177/long-noncoding-rna-gas5-suppresses-triple-negative-breast-cancer-progression-through-inhibition-of-proliferation-and-invasion-by-competitively-binding-mir-196a-5p
#3
Shuqin Li, Jun Zhou, Zhaoxin Wang, Peishun Wang, Xitao Gao, Yan Wang
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be the most aggressive and lethal type of breast cancer. Many studies have suggested that the dysfunction of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is correlated with breast cancer metastasis and progression. Here, we show that levels of the lncRNA, growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5), are decreased in TNBC tissues, and this down-regulation of GAS5 is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype in patients, affecting clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and overall survival...
May 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793167/improvement-of-neuronal-differentiation-by-carbon-monoxide-role-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#4
Ana S Almeida, Nuno L Soares, Catarina O Sequeira, Sofia A Pereira, Ursula Sonnewald, Helena L A Vieira
Over the last decades, the silent-killer carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to also be an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and modulate mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal metabolism is mostly oxidative and neurons also use glucose for maintaining their anti-oxidant status by generation of reduced glutathione (GSH) via the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP). It is established that neuronal differentiation depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and signalling, however there is a lack of information about modulation of the PPP during adult neurogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793152/identification-of-seven-polyamine-oxidase-genes-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-and-their-expression-profiles-under-physiological-and-various-stress-conditions
#5
Yanwei Hao, Binbin Huang, Dongyu Jia, Taylor Mann, Xinyi Jiang, Yuxing Qiu, Masaru Niitsu, Thomas Berberich, Tomonobu Kusano, Taibo Liu
Polyamines (PAs) are implicated in developmental processes and stress responses of plants. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs), flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes that function in PA catabolism, play a critical role. Even though PAO gene families of Arabidopsis and rice have been intensely characterized and their expression in response to developmental and environmental changes has been investigated, little is known about PAOs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found seven PAO genes in S. lycopersicum and named them SlPAO1∼7...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793133/an-ultrasensitive-and-selective-electrochemical-aptasensor-based-on-rgo-mwcnts-chitosan-carbon-quantum-dot-for-the-detection-of-lysozyme
#6
Behzad Rezaei, Hamid Reza Jamei, Ali Asghar Ensafi
An aptamer-based method is described for the electrochemical determination of lysozyme. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a nanocomposite composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), chitosan (CS), and a synthesized carbon quantum dot (CQD) from CS. The composition of the nanocomposite (rGO-MWCNT/CS/CQD) warrants a high surface-to-volume ratio, high conductivity, high stability, and great electrocatalytic activity. This nanocomposite provides a suitable site for better immobilization of aptamers due to the existence of many amino and carboxyl functional groups, and remaining oxygen-related defects properties in rGO...
May 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793132/ph-responsive-label-assisted-click-chemistry-triggered-sensitivity-amplification-for-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-detection-of-carbohydrate-antigen-24-2
#7
Yun Zheng, Lihua Zhao, Zhanfang Ma
Sensitivity amplification strategy by implementing click chemistry in the construction of biosensing interface can efficiently improve the performance of immunosensor. Herein, we developed a sandwich-type amperometric immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 24-2 (CA 242) based on pH responsive label-assisted click chemistry triggered sensitivity amplification strategy. The sensitivity of amperometric immunosensor relies on the current response differences (ΔI) caused by per unit concentration target analyte...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793116/patterns-of-invasive-growth-in-malignant-gliomas-the-hippocampus-emerges-as-an-invasion-spared-brain-region
#8
Awais A Mughal, Lili Zhang, Artem Fayzullin, Andres Server, Yuping Li, Yingxi Wu, Rainer Glass, Torstein Meling, Iver A Langmoen, Trygve B Leergaard, Einar O Vik-Mo
BACKGROUND: Widespread infiltration of tumor cells into surrounding brain parenchyma is a hallmark of malignant gliomas, but little data exist on the overall invasion pattern of tumor cells throughout the brain. METHODS: We have studied the invasive phenotype of malignant gliomas in two invasive mouse models and patients. Tumor invasion patterns were characterized in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model using brain-wide histological analysis and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
May 21, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793105/copd-rat-model-is-more-susceptible-to-cold-stress-and-pm-2-5-exposure-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#9
Kai Zhang, Lei Guo, Qiaozhen Wei, Quanquan Song, Jiangtao Liu, Jingping Niu, Li Zhang, Ye Ruan, Bin Luo
The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model rat is more susceptible to cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure than the healthy rat, and explore the related mechanism. COPD rat model, established with cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide intratracheal instillation, were exposed to cold stress (0 °C) and PM2.5 (0, 3.2, 12.8 mg/ml). After that, the levels of superoxide dismutase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-Ⅱ) in lung were measured, as well as the expression levels of lung 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793103/disruption-of-the-gonadal-endocannabinoid-system-in-zebrafish-exposed-to-diisononyl-phthalate
#10
Isabel Forner-Piquer, Stefania Santangeli, Francesca Maradonna, Alessandro Rabbito, Fabiana Piscitelli, Hamid R Habibi, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Oliana Carnevali
DiNP (Di-isononyl phthalate) has been recently introduced as DEHP (Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) substitute and due to its chemical properties, DiNP is commonly used in a large variety of plastic items. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid signaling system involved in a plethora of physiological pathways including the control of the reproductive and metabolic processes. In this study, the effects of DiNP on the ECS of zebrafish (male and female) gonads were analyzed. Adult zebrafish were chronically exposed for 21 days via water to 3 environmentally relevant concentrations of DiNP (42 μg/L; 4...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793089/gold-and-gold-silver-alloy-nanoparticles-enhance-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-myoblasts-through-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-promote-in-vivo-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#11
Juan Ge, Kai Liu, Wen Niu, Mi Chen, Min Wang, Yumeng Xue, Chuanbo Gao, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Under the severe trauma condition, the skeletal muscles regeneration process is inhibited by forming fibrous scar tissues. Understanding the interaction between bioactive nanomaterials and myoblasts perhaps has important effect on the enhanced skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Herein, we investigate the effect of monodispersed gold and gold-silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and Au-AgNPs) on the proliferation, myogenic differentiation and associated molecular mechanism of myoblasts (C2C12), as well as the in vivo skeletal muscle tissue regeneration...
May 18, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793075/newcastle-disease-virus-induces-g-0-g-1-cell-cycle-arrest-in-asynchronously-growing-cells
#12
Yan Wang, Rui Wang, Yanrong Li, Yingjie Sun, Cuiping Song, Yuan Zhan, Lei Tan, Ying Liao, ChunChun Meng, Xusheng Qiu, Chan Ding
The cell cycle, as a basic cellular process, is conservatively regulated. Consequently, subversion of the host cell replication cycle is a common strategy employed by many viruses to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes disease in poultry and is also an effective oncolytic agent. However, the effects of NDV infection on cell cycle progression are unknown. In this study, we showed that NDV replication in asynchronized cells resulted in the accumulation of infected cells in the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle, which benefitted the proliferation of NDV...
May 21, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#13
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#14
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#15
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793041/-selenoproteins-in-colon-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Kristin M Peters, Bradley A Carlson, Vadim N Gladyshev, Petra A Tsuji
Selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) have been implicated in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways, many of which are linked to colorectal malignancies. In this in-depth excurse into the selenoprotein literature, we review possible roles for human selenoproteins in colorectal cancer, focusing on the typical hallmarks of cancer cells and their tumor-enabling characteristics. Human genome studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in various genes coding for selenoproteins have revealed potential involvement of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other proteins...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793020/epha2-stimulates-vcam-1-expression-through-calcium-dependent-nfat1-activity
#17
Steven Daniel Funk, Alexandra C Finney, Arif Yurdagul, Christopher B Pattillo, A Wayne Orr
Endothelial cell activation by proinflammatory stimuli drives leukocyte recruitment through enhanced expression of counter-receptors such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). We previously demonstrated that activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 with its ligand ephrin-A1 induces VCAM-1 expression. Here, we sought to characterize the proinflammatory signaling pathways involved. Analysis of over-represented transcription factors in ephrin-A1-induced genes identified multiple potential transcriptional regulators, including the Rel family members nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/p65) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT)...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792950/transcriptome-profile-analysis-reveals-the-ontogenesis-of-rooted-chichi-in-ginkgo-biloba-l
#18
Xiaojing Liu, Limin Sun, Qikui Wu, Xiaoyan Men, Linmei Yao, Shiyan Xing
The Ginkgo biloba L. chichi is a unique organ. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the ontogenesis of G. biloba chichi, we used RNA-seq to analyse the transcriptome profile of rooted chichi at two developmental stages (ch1 and ch2) and nearby tissues (ck), and each sample had three biological replicates. A total of 57.74 Gb of clean bases were generated in nine cDNA libraries. These bases were de novo assembled into 68,277 unigenes with average length of 844 bp, and 51.47% of the unigenes had a match in at least one public database...
May 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792948/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-significant-differences-in-gene-expression-between-appressoria-and-hyphae-in-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides
#19
Meiyu Wang, Zongshan Zhou, Jianyuan Wu, Zhirui Ji, Junxiang Zhang
Fruit rot caused mainly by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major cause of pre- and/or post-harvest diseases, which seriously constrains production, marketing, and export of fruits. To infect the host, this fungus evolves a specialized infection structure called the appressorium. Extensive past studies have characterized many appressorium-related genes in C. gloeosporioides, separately. However, a comprehensive understanding of the genes contributing to appressorium formation is far from complete. Here, global changes in gene expression were analyzed between appressoria and hyphae using RNA-Seq...
May 21, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792907/electrocortical-reactivity-to-negative-and-positive-facial-expressions-in-individuals-with-a-family-history-of-major-depression
#20
Anna J Watters, Anthony W F Harris, Leanne M Williams
Facial expressions signaling threat and mood-congruent loss have been used to probe abnormal neural reactivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) and may be implicated in genetic vulnerability to MDD. This study investigated electro-cortical reactivity to facial expressions 101 unaffected, adult first degree relatives of probands with MDD and non-relative controls (n = 101). We investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) to five facial expressions of basic emotion: fear, anger, disgust, sadness and happiness under both subliminal (masked) and conscious (unmasked) presentation conditions, and the source localization of group differences...
May 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
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