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Neuropsychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351035/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-associated-with-visuospatial-cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-disease
#1
Rakesh Balachandar, Srikala Bharath, John P John, Himanshu Joshi, Shilpa Sadanand, Jitender Saini, Keshav J Kumar, Mathew Varghese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive disconnection of various brain networks leading to neuropsychological impairment. Pathology in the visual association areas has been documented in presymptomatic AD and therefore we aimed at examining the relationship between brain connectivity and visuospatial (VS) cognitive deficits in early AD. METHODS: Tests for VS working memory, episodic memory and construction were used to classify patients with AD (n = 48) as having severe VS deficits (n = 12, female = 4) or mild deficits (n = 11, female = 4)...
March 29, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346865/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-executive-function-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-trial-approach
#2
Stephanie H Ameis, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Pushpal Desarkar, Irene Drmic, Donald J Mabbott, Meng-Chuan Lai, Paul E Croarkin, Peter Szatmari
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) deficits in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are ubiquitous and understudied. Further, there are no effective, neuroscience-based treatments to address this impairing feature of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has demonstrated promise in addressing EF deficits in adult neuropsychiatric disorders. This article will outline the design of a novel randomized-controlled trial of bilateral, 20 Hz, rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of EF deficits in ASD that is currently ongoing...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346535/caudwell-xtreme-everest-a-prospective-study-of-the-effects-of-environmental-hypoxia-on-cognitive-functioning
#3
Konstadina Griva, Jan Stygall, Mark H Wilson, Daniel Martin, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Mike P Grocott, Golnar Aref-Adib, Mark Edsell, Tracie Plant, Chris Imray, Debbie Cooke, Jane Harrington, Maryam Khosravi, Stanton P Newman
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH) remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m). METHODS: A neuropsychological (NP) test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male). These were studied at baseline (sea level), 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar), 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp) and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu) (attrition rate 23...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346532/decline-in-changing-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-scores-is-associated-with-post-stroke-cognitive-decline-determined-by-a-formal-neuropsychological-evaluation
#4
Hui Hui Tan, Jing Xu, Hock Luen Teoh, Bernard Poon-Lap Chan, Raymond Chee Seong Seet, Narayanaswarmy Venketasubramanian, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, YanHong Dong
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine changes in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores within a one-year period after stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in associating cognitive decline determined by a formal neuropsychological test battery. METHODS: Patients with ischemic stroke/TIA received MoCA and MMSE at baseline within 14 days after stroke/TIA, at 3-6 months and 1-year follow-ups. The scores of MoCA and MMSE were considered to have declined if there were a reduction of ≥2 points in the respective scores measured across two time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344438/learning-disabilities-in-neuromuscular-disorders-a-springboard-for-adult-life
#5
Guja Astrea, Roberta Battini, Sara Lenzi, Silvia Frosini, Silvia Bonetti, Elena Moretti, Silvia Perazza, Filippo M Santorelli, Chiara Pecini
Although the presence of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy or myotonic dystrophy DM1 is well established in view of brain-specific expression of affected muscle proteins, in other neuromuscular disorders, such as congenital myopathies and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, cognitive profiles are poorly defined. Also, there are limited characterization of the cognitive profile of children with congenital muscular dystrophies, notwithstanding the presence of cerebral abnormality in some forms, and in spinal muscular atrophies, with the exception of distal spinal muscular atrophy (such as the DYN1CH1- associated form)...
October 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343958/simultanagnosia-does-not-affect-processes-of-auditory-gestalt-perception
#6
Johannes Rennig, Anna Lena Bleyer, Hans-Otto Karnath
Simultanagnosia is a neuropsychological deficit of higher visual processes caused by temporo-parietal brain damage. It is characterized by a specific failure of recognition of a global visual Gestalt, like a visual scene or complex objects, consisting of local elements. In this study we investigated to what extend this deficit should be understood as a deficit related to specifically the visual domain or whether it should be seen as defective Gestalt processing per se. To examine if simultanagnosia occurs across sensory domains, we designed several auditory experiments sharing typical characteristics of visual tasks that are known to be particularly demanding for patients suffering from simultanagnosia...
March 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343465/academic-outcomes-in-individuals-with-childhood-onset-epilepsy-mediating-effects-of-working-memory
#7
Ashley N Danguecan, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVES: Academic difficulties are common in children with epilepsy, although little is known about the effect of various seizure-related and cognitive variables. Given that persistent seizures may negatively impact academics, and that working memory is predictive of academic abilities, we examined the effects of recent seizures and working memory on word reading, spelling, and arithmetic in pediatric epilepsy. We hypothesized that persistent seizures would be associated with lower working memory ability, which would in turn result in poorer academic performance...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343454/adhd-patients-fail-to-maintain-task-goals-in-face-of-subliminally-and-consciously-induced-cognitive-conflicts
#8
K Gohil, A Bluschke, V Roessner, A-K Stock, C Beste
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have been reported to display deficits in action control processes. While it is known that subliminally and consciously induced conflicts interact and conjointly modulate action control in healthy subjects, this has never been investigated for ADHD. METHOD: We investigated the (potential) interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts in children with ADHD and matched healthy controls using neuropsychological methods (event-related potentials; ERPs) to identify the involved cognitive sub-processes...
March 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342378/elevated-triglyceride-levels-are-associated-with-cognitive-impairments-among-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Tian Nan Shao, Guang Zhong Yin, Xiao Li Yin, Jing Qin Wu, Xiang Dong Du, Hong Liang Zhu, Jia Hong Liu, Xiao Qiong Wang, Dong Wu Xu, Wen Jie Tang, Li Hui
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits have been identified as one of core clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence indicated that triglycerides (TG) might be associated with MDD and cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether patients with MDD had poorer cognitive functions than healthy controls, and further investigate whether TG levels were involved in MDD, and its cognitive impairments in a Han Chinese population. METHOD: 115 patients with MDD and 119 healthy controls were enrolled...
March 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341718/relationships-among-cortical-glutathione-levels-brain-amyloidosis-and-memory-in-healthy-older-adults-investigated-in-vivo-with-1-h-mrs-and-pittsburgh-compound-b-pet
#10
G C Chiang, X Mao, G Kang, E Chang, S Pandya, S Vallabhajosula, R Isaacson, L D Ravdin, D C Shungu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important pathologic mechanism in the development of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this study was to assess whether glutathione levels, detected noninvasively with proton MR spectroscopy, are associated with brain amyloidosis and memory in a community-dwelling cohort of healthy older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen cognitively healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled in this study...
March 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341686/incidental-findings-on-brain-mri-of-cognitively-normal-first-degree-descendants-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-alfa-alzheimer-and-families-project
#11
Anna Brugulat-Serrat, Santiago Rojas, Nuria Bargalló, Gerardo Conesa, Carolina Minguillón, Karine Fauria, Nina Gramunt, José Luis Molinuevo, Juan Domingo Gispert
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of brain MRI incidental findings (IF) in a cohort of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: All scans were obtained with a 3.0 T scanner. Scans were evaluated by a single neuroradiologist and IF recorded and categorised. The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) was determined with the Fazekas scale and reported as relevant if ≥2...
March 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341527/the-relationship-of-maternal-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-and-pregnancy-weight-gain-to-neurocognitive-function-at-age-10-years-among-children-born-extremely-preterm
#12
Elizabeth T Jensen, Jelske W van der Burg, Thomas M O'Shea, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, Tim Heeren, Alan Leviton, Karl C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of pregnancy weight gain in relation to neurocognitive function in school-aged children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: Study participants were 535 ten-year-old children enrolled previously in the prospective multicenter Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns cohort study who were products of singleton pregnancies. Soon after delivery, mothers provided information about prepregnancy weight...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341162/structural-laterality-is-associated-with-cognitive-and-mood-outcomes-an-assessment-of-105-healthy-aged-volunteers
#13
M Esteves, P Marques, R Magalhães, T C Castanho, J M Soares, A Almeida, N C Santos, N Sousa, H Leite-Almeida
The human brain presents multiple asymmetries that dynamically change throughout life. These phenomena have been associated with cognitive impairments and psychiatric disorders although possible associations with specific patterns of cognitive aging are yet to be determined. We have therefore mapped and quantified morphological asymmetries in a heterogeneous and aged population (65.2±8.0 years old, 52 male and 53 female) to explore potential associations between the asymmetries in specific brain regions and cognitive performance...
March 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340321/exploring-the-relationship-between-cognition-and-functional-verbal-reasoning-in-adults-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-at-six-months-post-injury
#14
Petra Avramović, Belinda Kenny, Emma Power, Skye McDonald, Robyn Tate, Louise Hunt, Sheila MacDonald, Rob Heard, Leanne Togher
OBJECTIVE(S): This study aims to determine the association between cognitive impairment and functional verbal reasoning in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), at six months post-injury. METHOD(S): 38 participants with severe TBI were assessed using the four tasks on the Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies (FAVRES) [1] and a battery of neuropsychological tests at 6 months post injury in a cross-sectional observational study...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340315/systematic-behavioural-observation-of-executive-performance-after-brain-injury
#15
Mark W Lewis, Duncan R Babbage, Janet M Leathem
OBJECTIVE: To develop an ecologically valid measure of executive functioning (i.e. Planning and Organization, Executive Memory, Initiation, Cognitive Shifting, Impulsivity, Sustained and Directed Attention, Error Detection, Error Correction and Time Management) during a functional chocolate brownie cooking task. METHODS: In Study 1, the inter-rater reliability of a novel behavioural observation assessment method was assessed with 10 people with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340237/pain-and-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
R Scherder, N Kant, E Wolf, A C M Pijnenburg, E Scherder
Objective. : The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between pain and cognition in patients with multiple sclerosis. Design. : Cross-sectional. Setting. : Nursing home and personal environment of the investigators. Subjects. : Two groups of participants were included: 91 patients with multiple sclerosis and 80 matched control participants. Methods. : The level of pain was measured by the following pain scales: Number of Words Chosen-Affective, Colored Analogue Scale for pain intensity and suffering from pain, and the Faces Pain Scale...
March 15, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339998/executive-functioning-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-do-deficits-exist
#17
Karen E Weiss, Cynthia Harbeck-Weber, Michael J Zaccariello, Jacqueline N Kimondo, Tracy E Harrison, Barbara K Bruce
Objective. : Despite ample research documenting deficits in executive functioning for adults with chronic pain, the literature on pediatric patients with chronic pain is limited and provides mixed results. The current study sought to further investigate the nature of executive dysfunction in this population and also examine the relationships between pain intensity, duration, and catastrophizing with sustained attention, working memory, and self- and parent-report of executive functioning...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339952/value-of-multidisciplinary-reassessment-in-attribution-of-neuropsychiatric-events-to-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-prospective-data-from-the-leiden-npsle-cohort
#18
César Magro-Checa, Els J Zirkzee, Liesbeth J J Beaart-van de Voorde, Huub A Middelkoop, Nic J van der Wee, Menno V Huisman, Jeroen Eikenboom, Nyika D Kruyt, Mark A van Buchem, Tom W J Huizinga, Gerda M Steup-Beekman
Objective.: To determine the contribution of reassessment in the attribution process of neuropsychiatric (NP) events to SLE or other aetiologies in a large, prospective and multidisciplinary assessed NPSLE cohort and to compare these results with other available attribution models for NP events occurring in SLE. Methods.: Three hundred and four consecutive SLE patients presenting NP events were evaluated. All subjects underwent standardized multidisciplinary medical, neuropsychological, laboratory and radiological examination on the inclusion and reassessment dates...
February 28, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338882/tribal-love-the-neural-correlates-of-passionate-engagement-in-football-fans
#19
Isabel C Duarte, Sónia Afonso, Helena Jorge, Ricardo Cayolla, Carlos Ferreira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The tribal character of the affective link between football fans and their teams is a well-recognized phenomenon. Other forms of love such as romantic or maternal attachment have previously been studied from a neuroimaging point of view. Here we aimed to investigate the neural basis of this tribal form of love, which implies both the feeling of belongingness and rivalry against opposing teams. A pool of 56 participants was submitted to an fMRI experimental design involving the presentation of winning and losing football moments of their loved, rival or neutral teams...
February 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338440/a-study-of-cognitive-function-in-treatment-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treated-with-capsulotomy
#20
Feilong Gong, Peng Li, Bin Li, Shizhen Zhang, Xinjie Zhang, Sen Yang, Hongbin Liu, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE Anterior capsulotomy (AC) is sometimes used as a last resort for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous studies assessing neuropsychological outcomes in patients with OCD have identified several forms of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the disease, but few have focused on changes in cognitive function in OCD patients who have undergone surgery. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of AC on the cognitive function of patients with treatment-refractory OCD...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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