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M M Garcia Basalo, M C Fernandez, M Ojea Quintana, J I Rojas, M J Garcia Basalo, E Bogliotti, N Campora, M Fernandez, W Berrios, E Cristiano, A Golimstok
BACKGROUND: Early detection of neurodegenerative diseases is essential for treatment and proper care of these patients. Screening tools available today are effective for several types of dementia. However, there is no one specific for Lewy Body Dementia (LBD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to present a tool for early detection of LBD, accessible even for non-medical staff. METHODS: We stratified subjects (MMSE>20) into four groups: health controls (HC), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), LBD and other dementias (Alzheimer and vascular)...
January 5, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Sylvester O Orimaye, Jojo S-M Wong, Karen J Golden, Chee P Wong, Ireneous N Soyiri
BACKGROUND: The manual diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related Dementias has been a challenge. Currently, these disorders are diagnosed using specific clinical diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological examinations. The use of several Machine Learning algorithms to build automated diagnostic models using low-level linguistic features resulting from verbal utterances could aid diagnosis of patients with probable AD from a large population...
January 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
Samuel Bulteau, Veronique Sébille, Guillemette Fayet, Veronique Thomas-Ollivier, Thibault Deschamps, Annabelle Bonnin-Rivalland, Edouard Laforgue, Anne Pichot, Pierre Valrivière, Elisabeth Auffray-Calvier, June Fortin, Yann Péréon, Jean-Marie Vanelle, Anne Sauvaget
BACKGROUND: The treatment of depression remains a challenge since at least 40% of patients do not respond to initial antidepressant therapy and 20% present chronic symptoms (more than 2 years despite standard treatment administered correctly). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective adjuvant therapy but still not ideal. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS), which has only been used recently in clinical practice, could have a faster and more intense effect compared to conventional protocols, including 10-Hz high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS)...
January 13, 2017: Trials
Michael B Gascoigne, Mary Lou Smith, Belinda Barton, Richard Webster, Deepak Gill, Suncica Lah
OBJECTIVE: Attention difficulties are a common clinical complaint among children with epilepsy. We aimed to compare a range of attentional abilities between groups of children with two common epilepsy syndromes, Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) and Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE), and to healthy controls. We also investigated whether epilepsy factors (laterality of seizure focus, epilepsy onset, duration, and severity) were related to attentional abilities. METHODS: Multiple dimensions of attention (selective, sustained, and divided attention and attentional control) were assessed directly with standardized neuropsychological measures in 101 children aged 6-16years (23 children with TLE, 20 with IGE and 58 healthy controls)...
January 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Adrienne Viola, Lyn Balsamo, Joseph P Neglia, Pim Brouwers, Xiaomei Ma, Nina S Kadan-Lottick
Neurocognitive problems, including executive dysfunction, are potential late effects of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Surveillance for neurocognitive impairment in a timely and efficient manner is imperative to ongoing clinical care. We sought to determine if the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) Parent Form identified leukemia survivors with cognitive impairment. In this 28-site cross-sectional study, parents of 256 children, a mean of 8.9±2.2 years after treatment for standard-risk precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia and in first remission, completed the BRIEF...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Anna Pearce, Craig Lockwood, Corinna van den Heuvel, James Pearce
BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemia occurs due to reduced blood supply to the brain. This is commonly caused by a cessation of myocardial activity associated with cardiac arrest and cardiac surgery. Survival is not the only important outcome because neurological dysfunction impacts on quality of life, reducing independent living. Magnesium has been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent; however, its role in this context is not yet clear. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to present the best currently available evidence related to the neuroprotective effects of magnesium during a period of global cerebral ischemia in adults with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery...
January 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Ahmed A Moustafa, Ryan D McMullan, Bjorn Rostron, Doaa H Hewedi, Harry H Haladjian
Here, we provide a review of behavioural, cognitive, and neural studies of the thalamus, including its role in attention, consciousness, sleep, and motor processes. We further discuss neuropsychological and brain disorders associated with thalamus function, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome, and sleep disorders. Importantly, we highlight how thalamus-related processes and disorders can be explained by the role of the thalamus as a relay station.
January 13, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Robert J Kanser, Lisa J Rapport, Jesse R Bashem, Nia M Billings, Robin A Hanks, Bradley N Axelrod, Justin B Miller
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated strategies used by healthy adults coached to simulate traumatic brain injury (TBI) during neuropsychological evaluation. METHOD: Healthy adults (n = 58) were coached to simulate TBI while completing a test battery consisting of multiple performance validity tests (PVTs), neuropsychological tests, a self-report scale of functional independence, and a debriefing survey about strategies used to feign TBI. RESULTS: "Successful" simulators (n = 16) were classified as participants who failed 0 or 1 PVT and also scored as impaired on one or more neuropsychological index...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Kathryn J Peall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Tom Burke, Katie Lonergan, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Peter Bede, Caoifa Madden, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to illustrate the variation of non-executive cognitive processes, i.e. visual memory, considering executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: Patients with ALS (n = 203), and matched healthy controls (n = 117) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Sub-stratification was based on whether cognitive assessment detected no cognitive abnormalities (NCA: n = 117), multiple executive cognitive deficits (ALS-Exec; n = 56), or a comorbid frontotemporal dementia process (ALS-FTD; n = 30)...
January 13, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Theresa A Koleck, Catherine M Bender, Susan M Sereika, Christopher M Ryan, Puja Ghotkar, Adam M Brufsky, Rachel C Jankowitz, Priscilla F McAuliffe, Beth Z Clark, Yvette P Conley
Intertumor heterogeneity has been proposed as a potential mechanism to account for variability in cognitive performance in women diagnosed with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between variation in pathologic tumor features (PTFs) and variability in preadjuvant therapy cognitive performance in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Participants (N = 329) completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to evaluate cognitive performance after primary surgery but prior to initiation of adjuvant anastrozole±chemotherapy...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Medicine
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Yuchao Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) shared a significant overlap in genetic susceptibility, pharmacological treatment responses, neuropsychological deficits, and epidemiological features. However, it remains unknown whether these clinical overlaps are mediated by shared or disorder-specific abnormalities of white matter integrity. In this voxel-based meta-analytic comparison of whole-brain white matter integrity, we aimed to identify the shared or disorder-specific structural abnormalities between schizophrenia and BD...
January 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Elizabeth Heigrujam, Ishfaq Ali, Shobha Bhargava
Most of the amphibians breed in temporary ponds vulnerable to occasional desiccation, thus, leaving their larvae exposed to stressful fluctuations in various environmental parameters including salinity. These animals possess a well suited central adaptive mechanism to adapt to these alterations. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neurotransmitter, has been reported to antagonize various neuropsychological consequences of stress within the mammalian brain. Osmotic regulation of NPY in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial pathway of mammalian brain is also known...
January 9, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Cheryl L Brosig, Laurel Bear, Sydney Allen, Raymond G Hoffmann, Amy Pan, Michele Frommelt, Kathleen A Mussatto
OBJECTIVE: To describe preschool neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), who were evaluated as part of a longitudinal cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up program, as recommended by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics, and identify predictors of neurodevelopmental outcomes in these children. STUDY DESIGN: Children with CHD meeting the American Heart Association/American Academy of Pediatrics high-risk criteria for neurodevelopmental delay were evaluated at 4-5 years of age...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
V Chiasson, E Vera-Estay, G Lalonde, J J Dooley, M H Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing recognition that socio-cognitive skills, such as moral reasoning (MR), are affected in a wide range of developmental and neuropsychological conditions. However, the lack of appropriate measures available to neuropsychologists poses a challenge for the direct assessment of these skills. This study sought to explore age-related changes in MR using an innovative visual tool and examine the developmental sensitivity of the task. METHOD: To address some of the methodological limitations of traditional measures of MR, a novel, visual task, the Socio-Moral Reasoning Aptitude Level (So-Moral), was used to evaluate MR in 216 healthy participants aged 6-20 years...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Sunita K Patel, Adrienne M Meier, Nathaniel Fernandez, Tracy T Y Lo, Colleen Moore, Nicole Delgado
OBJECTIVE: Computerized tests have increasingly garnered interest for assessing cognitive functioning due to their potential logistical and financial advantages over traditional 'pencil and-paper' neuropsychological tests. However, psychometric information is necessary to guide decisions about their clinical and research utility with varied populations. We explored the convergent construct validity and criterion validity of the CogState computerized tests in breast cancer survivors, a group known to present with mostly mild, subtle cognitive dysfunction...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Shayl F Griffith, David H Arnold, Benjamin Rolon-Arroyo, Elizabeth A Harvey
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a commonly diagnosed childhood behavior disorder, yet knowledge of relations between ODD and early neuropsychological functions, particularly independent of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is still limited. In addition, studies have not examined neuropsychological functioning as it relates to the different ODD symptom dimensions. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate how preschool neuropsychological functioning predicted negative affect, oppositional behavior, and antagonistic behavior symptom dimensions of ODD in 224 six-year-old children, oversampled for early behavior problems...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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