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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813037/concomitant-bladder-cancer-and-prostate-cancer-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Francesco Montorsi, Maria Scarpelli, Maria R Raspollini, Rodolfo Montironi
Radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) followed by bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion remains the gold-standard therapy for men with localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Prostate cancer might be incidentally detected at the time of RCP with a reported prevalence of 24-51%. Typically, these patients are considered to have clinically insignificant disease, but data from emerging series challenge this assumption and suggest that some of these tumours might be aggressive, or somehow increase the aggressiveness of the associated MIBC, and can negatively influence the patient's overall survival outcomes...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813024/advances-in-understanding-of-penile-carcinogenesis-the-search-for-actionable-targets
#2
REVIEW
Juan Chipollini, Sharon Chaing, Mounsif Azizi, Laura C Kidd, Patricia Kim, Philippe E Spiess
Penile cancer (PeCa) is a rare malignancy with potentially devastating effects. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant with distinct precancerous lesions before development into invasive disease. Involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in PeCa, and once disease is present outside the groin, prognosis is poor. Metastatic PeCa is challenging to treat and often requires multidisciplinary approaches in management. Due to its rarity, molecular understanding of the disease continues to be limited with most studies based on small, single center series...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812983/a-microfluidic-platform-for-modeling-metastatic-cancer-cell-matrix-invasion
#3
Laura Blaha, Chentian Zhang, Mario Cabodi, Joyce Y Wong
Invasion of the extracellular matrix is a critical step in the colonization of metastatic tumors. The invasion process is thought to be driven by both chemokine signaling and interactions between invading cancer cells and physical components of the metastatic niche, including endothelial cells that line capillary walls and serve as a barrier to both diffusion and invasion of the underlying tissue. Transwell chambers, a tool for generating artificial chemokine gradients to induce cell migration, have facilitated recent work to investigate the chemokine contributions to matrix invasion...
August 16, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812922/a-circulating-micro-rna-signature-serves-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicator-in-sarcoidosis
#4
Christian Ascoli, Yue Huang, Cody Schott, Benjamin A Turturice, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812913/transcanalicular-laser-assisted-dacryocystorhinostomy-with-diode-laser
#5
Deepesh Mourya, Roshija Khanal Rijal
This article compares the efficacy of transcanalicular laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (TL DCR) with conventional external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex DCR). All patients were randomly divided into two groups - Group A included patients who underwent TL DCR and Group B included patients who underwent Ex DCR. 168 operations were done in a total of 163 patients; 79 patients in group A and 84 patients in group B. The overall success rate was 90.12% in group A and 95.40% in group B. The mean total surgical time was 17...
August 16, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812727/exceptionally-preserved-cambrian-loriciferans-and-the-early-animal-invasion-of-the-meiobenthos
#6
Thomas H P Harvey, Nicholas J Butterfield
Microscopic animals that live among and between sediment grains (meiobenthic metazoans) are key constituents of modern aquatic ecosystems, but are effectively absent from the fossil record. We describe an assemblage of microscopic fossil loriciferans (Ecdysozoa, Loricifera) from the late Cambrian Deadwood Formation of western Canada. The fossils share a characteristic head structure and minute adult body size (~300 μm) with modern loriciferans, indicating the early evolution and subsequent conservation of an obligate, permanently meiobenthic lifestyle...
January 30, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812706/a-decade-of-insights-into-grassland-ecosystem-responses-to-global-environmental-change
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Borer, James B Grace, W Stanley Harpole, Andrew S MacDougall, Eric W Seabloom
Earth's biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812665/erratum-evolution-alters-the-consequences-of-invasions-in-experimental-communities
#8
Cara A Faillace, Peter J Morin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812656/experimental-evidence-for-homeostatic-sex-allocation-after-sex-biased-reintroductions
#9
Wayne Leslie Linklater, Peter Roy Law, Jay Vinson Gedir, Pierre du Preez
First principles predict negative frequency-dependent sex allocation, but it is unproven in field studies and seldom considered, despite far-reaching consequences for theory and practice in population genetics and dynamics as well as animal ecology and behaviour. Twenty-four years of rhinoceros calving after 45 reintroductions across southern Africa provide the first in situ experimental evidence that unbalanced operational sex ratios predicted offspring sex and offspring sex ratios. Our understanding of population dynamics, especially reintroduction and invasion biology, will be significantly impacted by these findings...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812629/confronting-the-risks-of-large-scale-invasive-species-control
#10
R Keller Kopf, Dale G Nimmo, Paul Humphries, Lee J Baumgartner, Michael Bode, Nick R Bond, Andrea E Byrom, Julien Cucherousset, Reuben P Keller, Alison J King, Heather M McGinness, Peter B Moyle, Julian D Olden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812593/invasions-everywhere
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812562/invasion-ecology-unpredictable-arms-race-in-a-jam-jar
#12
Yvonne M Buckley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812560/an-invasive-social-insect-overcomes-genetic-load-at-the-sex-locus
#13
Rosalyn Gloag, Guiling Ding, Joshua R Christie, Gabriele Buchmann, Madeleine Beekman, Benjamin P Oldroyd
Some invasive hymenopteran social insects found new populations with very few reproductive individuals. This is despite the high cost of founder effects for such insects, which generally require heterozygosity at a single locus-the complementary sex determiner, csd-to develop as females. Individuals that are homozygous at csd develop as either infertile or subfertile diploid males or not at all. Furthermore, diploid males replace the female workers that are essential for colony function. Here we document how the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) overcame the diploid male problem during its invasion of Australia...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812559/evolution-alters-the-consequences-of-invasions-in-experimental-communities
#14
Cara A Faillace, Peter J Morin
Evolution has the capacity to alter the course of biological invasions, although such changes remain mostly unexplored by experiments. Integrating evolution into studies of invasions is important, because species traits can potentially evolve in ways that either moderate or exacerbate the impacts of invasions. We have assessed whether species evolved during experimental invasions by comparing the performance of founder populations and their potentially evolved descendants in communities of ciliates and rotifers...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812407/scaling-the-punctum-and-canaliculus-in-patients-undergoing-punctoplasty-surgery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Nisha Nesaratnam, Krisztina Emeriewen, Julie Smith, Beena David, James Wawrzynski, Anant Sharma, George M Saleh
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a safe and non-invasive method of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructures using infrared radiation. This study investigates how the appearance of the punctum and proximal canaliculus differs pre- and post-operatively in patients undergoing punctoplasty surgery. Patients with symptomatic punctal stenosis warranting punctoplasty surgery were prospectively invited to enrol from a single centre. Spectral OCT images of the lower punctae were captured with a Topcon 3D OCT 2000 machine pre- and post-operatively (at their follow-up appointment)...
August 16, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812395/current-research-on-circular-rnas-associated-with-colorectal-cancer
#16
Penghui Wang, Xiaodong He
Representing a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have recently gained much attention for their involvement in multiple biological processes. CircRNAs are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells and modulate gene expression by acting as sponges of microRNAs (miRNAs) or other proteins, such as RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Due to their unique structure, circRNAs are more stable than linear RNAs. Expression profiles of circRNAs are associated with clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer patients, such as differentiation, TNM classification and distant metastasis...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812296/mxr7-facilitates-liver-cancer-metastasis-via-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Guishuai Lv, Yexiong Tan, Hongwei Lv, Tian Fang, Changzheng Wang, Ting Li, Yanting Yu, Congli Hu, Wen Wen, Hongyang Wang, Wen Yang
MXR7 is a cell-surface protein and highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to determine the expression profile of MXR7 in HCC and investigate the influence of MXR7 on invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. For this purpose, immunohistochemical assay was used to identify the differential expression of MXR7 in 94 HCC specimens. Expression of MXR7 in 4 pairs of HCC and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) was also tested. The motility of HCC cells were characterized by transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays...
August 11, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812224/risk-factors-for-totally-implantable-venous-access-device-associated-complications-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
C McCarthy, O O'Carroll, M E O'Brien, T McEnery, A Franciosi, C Gunaratnam, N G McElvaney
BACKGROUND: Candidaemia is an important nosocomial infection, seen frequently in immunocompromised and critically ill patients and increasingly recognised in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs). This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of TIVAD-associated candidaemia and to assess the rate of TIVAD-related complications in CF patients. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective study was carried out on adult CF patients attending a single centre...
August 15, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812154/robotic-versus-laparoscopic-versus-open-colorectal-surgery-towards-defining-criteria-to-the-right-choice
#19
Matthew Zelhart, Andreas M Kaiser
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of various parameters related to the patient, the disease, and the needed surgical maneuvers to develop guidance for preoperative selection of the appropriate and the best approach for a given patient. Rapid advances in minimally invasive surgical technology are fascinating and challenging alike. It can be difficult for surgeons to keep up with new modalities that come on to the market place and to assess their true value, i.e., distinguish between fashionable trends versus scientific evidence...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812153/establishing-the-learning-curve-of-transanal-minimally-invasive-surgery-for-local-excision-of-rectal-neoplasms
#20
Lawrence Lee, Justin Kelly, George J Nassif, Deborah Keller, Teresa C Debeche-Adams, Paul A Mancuso, John R Monson, Matthew R Albert, Sam B Atallah
INTRODUCTION: Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is an endoscopic operating platform for local excision of rectal neoplasms. However, it may be technically demanding, and its learning curve has yet to be adequately defined. The objective of this study was to determine the number of TAMIS procedures for the local excision of rectal neoplasm required to reach proficiency. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All TAMIS cases performed from 07/2009 to 12/2016 at a single high-volume tertiary care institution for local excision of benign and malignant rectal neoplasia were identified from a prospective database...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
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