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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791564/morphology-and-morphometry-of-upland-lakes-over-lateritic-crust-serra-dos-caraj%C3%A3-s-southeastern-amazon-region
#1
Marcio S DA Silva, José T F Guimarães, Pedro W M Souza Filho, Wilson Nascimento Júnior, Prafulla K Sahoo, Francisco R DA Costa, Renato O Silva Júnior, Tarcísio M Rodrigues, Marlene F DA Costa
High-resolution satellite images, digital elevation models, bathymetric and sedimentological surveys coupled with statistical analysis were used to understand the physical environment and discuss their influence on water quality of the five upland lakes of Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia. The lakes have mid-altitude ranges (elevation), very small (catchment) and shallow to very shallow (central basins). Based on the length, area and volume, Violão and TI (Três Irmãs)-3 lakes may present large vertical movements of the water due to wind action and weakly stratified waters...
May 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791071/plastic-rates-of-development-and-the-effect-of-thermal-extremes-on-offspring-fitness-in-a-cold-climate-viviparous-lizard
#2
George D Cunningham, Luisa J Fitzpatrick, Geoffrey M While, Erik Wapstra
Populations at the climatic margins of a species' distribution can be exposed to conditions that cause developmental stress, resulting in developmental abnormalities. Even within the thermal range of normal development, phenotypes often vary with developmental temperature (i.e., thermal phenotypic plasticity). These effects can have significant consequences for organismal fitness and, thus, population persistence. Reptiles, as ectotherms, are particularly vulnerable to thermal effects on development and are, therefore, considered to be at comparatively high risk from changing climates...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789154/improved-prescribed-performance-control-for-air-breathing-hypersonic-vehicles-with-unknown-deadzone-input-nonlinearity
#3
Yingyang Wang, Jianbo Hu
An improved prescribed performance controller is proposed for the longitudinal model of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV) subject to uncertain dynamics and input nonlinearity. Different from the traditional non-affine model requiring non-affine functions to be differentiable, this paper utilizes a semi-decomposed non-affine model with non-affine functions being locally semi-bounded and possibly in-differentiable. A new error transformation combined with novel prescribed performance functions is proposed to bypass complex deductions caused by conventional error constraint approaches and circumvent high frequency chattering in control inputs...
May 19, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785643/estimating-and-mapping-forest-biomass-using-regression-models-and-spot-6-images-case-study-hyrcanian-forests-of-north-of-iran
#4
Mohadeseh Ghanbari Motlagh, Sasan Babaie Kafaky, Asadollah Mataji, Reza Akhavan
Hyrcanian forests of North of Iran are of great importance in terms of various economic and environmental aspects. In this study, Spot-6 satellite images and regression models were applied to estimate above-ground biomass in these forests. This research was carried out in six compartments in three climatic (semi-arid to humid) types and two altitude classes. In the first step, ground sampling methods at the compartment level were used to estimate aboveground biomass (Mg/ha). Then, by reviewing the results of other studies, the most appropriate vegetation indices were selected...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785157/cancer-risk-associated-with-living-at-high-altitude-in-ecuadorian-population-from-2005-to-2014
#5
David Israel Garrido, Santiago Moises Garrido
Background and aims: Cancer is a leading cause of death in Ecuador with high social and economic impact. This study aims to determinate the influence of living at a high altitude on the risk of developing or dying from cancer among the Ecuadorian population. Methods: This is an ecological and epidemiological analysis of cancer mortality and prevalence rates, based on national data from the Ecuadorian National Statistics and Census Institute, corresponding to the period between 2005 and 2014...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784979/pervasive-introgression-facilitated-domestication-and-adaptation-in-the-bos-species-complex
#6
Dong-Dong Wu, Xiang-Dong Ding, Sheng Wang, Jan M Wójcik, Yi Zhang, Małgorzata Tokarska, Yan Li, Ming-Shan Wang, Omar Faruque, Rasmus Nielsen, Qin Zhang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Species of the Bos genus, including taurine cattle, zebu, gayal, gaur, banteng, yak, wisent and bison, have been domesticated at least four times and have been an important source of meat, milk and power for many human cultures. We sequence the genomes of gayal, gaur, banteng, wisent and bison, and provide population genomic sequencing of an additional 98 individuals. We use these data to determine the phylogeny and evolutionary history of these species and show that the threatened gayal is an independent species or subspecies...
May 21, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784570/research-gaps-in-wilderness-medicine
#7
Daniel Tritz, Kody Dormire, Travis Brachtenbach, Joshua Gordon, Donald Sanders, David Gearheart, Julia Crawford, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: Wilderness medicine involves the treatment of individuals in remote, austere environments. Given the high potential for injuries as well as the unique treatment modalities required in wilderness medicine, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are necessary to provide optimal care. In this study, we identify evidence gaps from low-quality recommendations in wilderness medicine clinical practice guidelines and identify new/ongoing research addressing them. METHODS: We included relevant clinical practice guidelines from the Wilderness Medical Society and obtained all 1C or 2C level recommendations...
May 18, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782186/excessive-erythrocytosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-andean-highlanders
#8
Noemí Corante, Cecilia Anza-Ramírez, Rómulo Figueroa-Mujíca, José Luis Macarlupú, Gustavo Vizcardo-Galindo, Grzegorz Bilo, Gianfranco Parati, Jorge L Gamboa, Fabiola León-Velarde, Francisco C Villafuerte
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. Life under high-altitude (HA) hypoxic conditions is believed to provide highlanders with a natural protection against cardiovascular and metabolic diseases compared with sea-level inhabitants. However, some HA dwellers become intolerant to chronic hypoxia and develop a progressive incapacitating syndrome known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS), characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE; Hb ≥21 g/dL in men, Hb ≥19 g/dL in women). Evidence from HA studies suggests that, in addition to CMS typical signs and symptoms, these highlanders may also suffer from metabolic and cardiovascular disorders...
May 21, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780604/effect-of-long-term-high-altitude-exposure-on-cardiovascular-autonomic-adjustment-during-rest-and-post-exercise-recovery
#9
Prem Bhattarai, Bishnu H Paudel, Dilip Thakur, Balkrishna Bhattarai, Bijay Subedi, Rita Khadka
Background: Despite the successful adaptation to high altitude, some differences do occur due to long term exposure to the hypoxic environment. The effect of long term high altitude exposure on cardiac autonomic adjustment during basal and post-exercise recovery is less known. Thus we aimed to study the differences in basal cardiac autonomic adjustment and its response to exercise in highlanders and to compare it with lowlanders. Methods: The study was conducted on 29 healthy highlander males who were born and brought up at altitude of 3000 m and above from the sea level, their cardiac autonomic adjustment was compared with age, sex, physical activity and ethnicity-matched 29 healthy lowlanders using Heart Rate Variability (HRV) during rest and recovery from sub-maximal exercise (3 m step test)...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774577/genome-wide-association-analysis-reveals-novel-loci-for-hypoxia-adaptability-in-tibetan-chicken
#10
S Y Jiang, H Y Xu, Z N Shen, C J Zhao, C Wu
The Tibetan chicken (TBC), an indigenous chicken breed of the Tibetan Plateau, has adapted to its hypoxic, high-altitude environment over hundreds of years. The objective of this study was to identify the polymorphisms and genes associated with adaptation to hypoxia in this chicken breed. In the present study, samples were collected during days 18-21 of the incubation period from both surviving chicks and dead embryos, all of which were hatched under hypoxic conditions. A genome-wide association study was conducted using the Illumina iSelect 60K SNP array with a case-control design, in which the case group consisted of the dead chicken embryos (n = 54) and controls were the surviving chicks (n = 82)...
May 18, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773821/recording-animal-vocalizations-from-a-uav-bat-echolocation-during-roost-re-entry
#11
Laura N Kloepper, Morgan Kinniry
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are rising in popularity for wildlife monitoring, but direct recordings of animal vocalizations have not yet been accomplished, likely due to the noise generated by the UAV. Echolocating bats, especially Tadarida brasiliensis, are good candidates for UAV recording due to their high-speed, high-altitude flight. Here, we use a UAV to record the signals of bats during morning roost re-entry. We designed a UAV to block the noise of the propellers from the receiving microphone, and report on the characteristics of bioacoustic recordings from a UAV...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773725/high-altitude-may-have-driven-short-stature-in-peruvians
#12
Elizabeth Pennisi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773069/high-altitude-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Maurizio Bussotti, Giovanni Marchese
The effects of hypoxia on the human organism has been considered doubly fascinating by the scientific community: the knowledge of the discrete mechanisms allowing the acclimatization both at the genetic level or through the cell mediators production in addition to the macroscopic responses of the cardio-circulatory and ventilatory systems to a hypoxic environment has been progressively developed since the last century; moreover granting a safer stay in hypoxic conditions not only for the residents but also for the different cathegories of workers, sportsmen and tourists has been considered a worthy aim of the medical activity...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772888/mapping-malaria-risk-using-geographic-information-systems-and-remote-sensing-the-case-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#14
Amare Sewnet Minale, Kalkidan Alemu
The main objective of this study was to develop a malaria risk map for Bahir Dar City, Amhara, which is situated south of Lake Tana on the Ethiopian plateau. Rainfall, temperature, altitude, slope and land use/land cover (LULC), as well as proximity measures to lake, river and health facilities, were investigated using remote sensing and geographical information systems. The LULC variable was derived from a 2012 SPOT satellite image by supervised classification, while 30-m spatial resolution measurements of altitude and slope came from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770658/-a-case-control-study-on-risk-factors-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-humans-in-tibetan-areas
#15
Wu Wen-Ting, Wu Wei-Ping, Guan Ya-Yi, Han Shuai, Xue Chui-Zhao, Wang Xu, Liu Bai-Xue
OBJECTIVE: To understand the risk factors of cystic echinococcosis in Tibetan population, so as to provide the reference for development of prevention and control strategies. METHODS: Four cystic echinococcosis highly-prevalent townships were selected from Naqu County of Tibet and Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, which had similar environmental and altitude conditions, from August to September, 2017. Applying the 1∶1 case-control study, a household survey was conducted to investigate the risk factors of echinococcosis in humans...
April 16, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769792/social-and-ecological-drivers-of-reproductive-seasonality-in-geladas
#16
Elizabeth Tinsley Johnson, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Amy Lu, Thore J Bergman, Jacinta C Beehner
Many nonseasonally breeding mammals demonstrate some degree of synchrony in births, which is generally associated with ecological factors that mediate fecundity. However, disruptive social events, such as alpha male replacements, also have the potential to affect the timing of female reproduction. Here, we examined reproductive seasonality in a wild population of geladas ( Theropithecus gelada ) living at high altitudes in an afro-alpine ecosystem in Ethiopia. Using 9 years of demographic data (2006-2014), we determined that, while females gave birth year-round, a seasonal peak in births coincided with peak green grass availability (their staple food source)...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769561/transcriptome-analysis-of-circulating-pbmcs-to-understand-mechanism-of-high-altitude-adaptation-in-native-cattle-of-ladakh-region
#17
Preeti Verma, Ankita Sharma, Monika Sodhi, Kiran Thakur, Ranjit S Kataria, Saket K Niranjan, Vijay K Bharti, Prabhat Kumar, Arup Giri, Sahil Kalia, Manishi Mukesh
Ladakhi cattle is native population of Leh and Ladakh region and constantly exposed to hypobaric hypoxia over many generations. In present study, transcriptome signatures of cattle from Ladakh region (~5500 m) and Sahiwal cattle from tropical regions were evaluated using Agilent 44 K microarray chip. The top up-regulated genes in Ladakhi cows were INHBC, ITPRI, HECA, ABI3, GPR171, and HIF-1α involved in hypoxia and stress response. In Sahiwal cows, the top up-regulated genes eEF1A1, GRO1, CXCL2, DEFB3 and BOLA-DQA3 were associated with immune function and inflammatory response indicating their strong immune potential to combat the pathogens prevalent in the tropical conditions...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765695/influence-of-high-altitude-on-the-burning-behaviour-of-typical-combustibles-and-the-related-responses-of-smoke-detectors-in-compartments
#18
Ran Tu, Yi Zeng, Jun Fang, Yong-Ming Zhang
The effect of altitude on typical combustible burning and related smoke detector response signals was investigated by comparison experiments at altitudes of 40 m and 3650 m based on EN54 standard tests. Point-type light scattering photoelectric smoke detectors and ionization smoke detectors were used for four kinds of EN54 fire tests, including two kinds of smouldering fires with wood (test fire no. 2 in EN54 standard or TF2) and cotton (TF3), and two kinds of flaming fires with polyurethane (TF4) and n -heptane (TF5)...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764915/remote-physiological-monitoring-in-an-austere-environment-a-future-for-battlefield-care-provision
#19
Matthew J Smyth, J A Round, A J Mellor
Wearable technologies are making considerable advances into the mainstream as they become smaller and more user friendly. The global market for such devices is forecasted to be worth over US$5 billion in 2018, with one in six people owning a device. Many professional sporting teams use self-monitoring to assess physiological parameters and work rate on the pitch, highlighting the potential utility for military command chains. As size of device reduces and sensitivity improves, coupled with remote connectivity technology, integration into the military environment could be relatively seamless...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763853/text-mining-and-network-analysis-to-find-functional-associations-of-genes-in-high-altitude-diseases
#20
Balu Bhasuran, Devika Subramanian, Jeyakumar Natarajan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Travel to elevations above 2500 m is associated with the risk of developing one or more forms of acute altitude illness such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Our work aims to identify the functional association of genes involved in high altitude diseases. METHOD: In this work we identified the gene networks responsible for high altitude diseases by using the principle of gene co-occurrence statistics from literature and network analysis...
May 2, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
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