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High altitude

Jiao Ren, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Ping Gong, Xiruo Wang, Tandong Yao
Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Grégoire P Millet, Franck Brocherie, Raphael Faiss, Olivier Girard
The authors report that many LHTL studies in normobaric hypoxia (NH) "failed to show a positive outcome", which in our view is only partially true. In a cross-over design, we (Saugy et al. 2016) recently tested if LHTL in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) would lead to larger performance enhancement than in NH. Our hypothesis was that HH (i.e. natural altitude) would lead to larger enhancement than NH but the results were contrary to this hypothesis. So we cannot support the affirmation by Lundby & Robach that "natural altitude remains the best approach"...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Sergio Caravita, Andrea Faini, Grzegorz Bilo, Morin Lang, Gianfranco Parati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Jonny Coppel, Hennis Phillip, Michael Grocott, Can Ince, Daniel Martin
Present knowledge of how the microcirculation is altered by prolonged exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is incomplete and modification of existing analytical techniques may improve our knowledge considerably. We set out to use a novel simplified method of measuring in vivo capillary density during an expedition to high altitude using a CytoCam incident dark field imaging video-microscope. The simplified method of data capture involved recording one-second images of the mucosal surface of the inner lip to reveal data about microvasculature density in ten individuals...
2016: F1000Research
Michael P Heaton, Timothy P L Smith, Jacky K Carnahan, Veronica Basnayake, Jiansheng Qiu, Barry Simpson, Theodore S Kalbfleisch
The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene ( EPAS1), a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle...
2016: F1000Research
Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoko Handa, Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka
We measured oxygen consumption during walking per unit distance (Cw) values for 12 human healthy young males at six speeds from 0.667 to 1.639 m s(-1) (four min per stage) on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia, moderate hypoxia (15% O2), and severe hypoxia (11% O2). Muscle deoxygenation (HHb) was measured at the vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy. Economical speed which can minimize the Cw in each individual was calculated from a U-shaped relationship. We found a significantly slower economical speed (ES) under severe hypoxia [1...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Manju Shahare, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
We previously reported that rats and mice that have been raised for more than 30 generations in La Paz, Bolivia (3600m), display divergent physiological responses to high altitude (HA), including improved respiratory and metabolic control in mice. In the present study we asked whether these traits would also be present in response to hypoxia at sea level (SL). To answer this question, we exposed rats (SD) and mice (FVB) to normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (15 and 12% O2) for 6 hours and measured ventilation and metabolic rate (whole body plethysmography), and expression of the transcription factor HIF-1α (ELISA and Mass Spectrometry) and other proteins whose expression are regulated by hypoxia (Glucose Transporter 1, Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1, and Angiopoietin 2 - Mass Spectrometry) in the brainstem...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gayatri Padhy, Anamika Gangwar, Manish Sharma, Kalpana Bhargava, Niroj Kumar Sethy
Padhy Gayatri, Anamika Gangwar, Manish Sharma, Kalpana Bhargava, and Niroj Kumar Sethy. Plasma proteomics of Ladakhi natives reveal functional regulation between renin-angiotensin system and eNOS-cGMP pathway. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2016.-Humans have been living in high altitudes for more than 25,000 years but the molecular pathways promoting survival and performance in these extreme environments are not well elucidated. In an attempt to understand human adaptation to high altitudes, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF to identify plasma proteins and associated pathways of ethnic Ladakhi natives residing at 3520 m...
October 14, 2016: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marieke Verkleij, Anita Beelen, Bart E van Ewijk, Rinie Geenen
OBJECTIVE: For children with problematic severe asthma, achieving adequate control of asthma is difficult. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effects of intensive multidisciplinary inpatient treatment on multiple outcome variables in children with problematic severe asthma. METHODS: Participants were 89 children with problematic severe asthma (mean age 13.6 ± 2.5 years) treated in tertiary care clinics at high altitude (Switzerland) or sea level (Netherlands) and their parents (85 mothers, 55 fathers)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Mateja Senica, Franci Stampar, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
BACKGROUND: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to ail numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations. RESULTS: The data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tianbo Jin, Yongchao Ren, Xikai Zhu, Xun Li, Yongri Ouyang, Xue He, Zhiying Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Longli Kang, Dongya Yuan
Previous studies demonstrated that Angiotensin II Receptor 1 (AGTR1) may play an important role in the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema. We envisaged a role for AGTR1 gene variants in the pathogenesis of HAPE and investigated their potential associations with HAPE in a Han Chinese population. We genotyped seven AGTR1 polymorphisms in 267 patients with diagnosed HAPE and 304 controls and evaluated their association with risk of HAPE. Statistically significant associations were found for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs275651 (p = 0...
October 6, 2016: Oncotarget
Denis Vinnikov, Abdullah Khafagy, Paul D Blanc, Nurlan Brimkulov, Craig Steinmaus
We used meta-analysis to measure the effect of high-altitude climate therapy (HACT) on lung function outcomes in asthma, and systematically searched PubMed, Embase and for publications appearing from 1970 to mid-2015. We included studies carried out with children or adults with an exposure of up to 12 weeks at an altitude of ≥1500 m above sea level. Changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/vital capacity ratio or peak expiratory flow rate as the HACT intervention outcomes were analysed...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Lakey, Kinley Dorji
BACKGROUND: Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks...
October 11, 2016: BMC Ecology
A Claesson, D Fredman, L Svensson, M Ringh, J Hollenberg, P Nordberg, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, S Österberg, J Lennartsson, Y Ban
BACKGROUND: The use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) prior to EMS arrival can increase 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) significantly. Drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can fly with high velocity and potentially transport devices such as AEDs to the site of OHCAs. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate the feasibility of a drone system in decreasing response time and delivering an AED. METHODS: Data of Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates from historical OHCA in Stockholm County was used in a model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to find suitable placements and visualize response times for the use of an AED equipped drone...
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Qingshu Wang, Ling Hu, Yu Hu, Gu Gong, Hua Tan, Li Deng, Xiaoqin Sun, Xiaobo Yi, Yangyang Sun, Wei Wu, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on high-altitude hypoxia-induced cardiac damage. METHODS: Forty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. The mice were exposed to normoxia or simulated 5,500-meter high-altitude hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber for 7 days. During the first 3 days, the mice were pretreated with CO-saturated hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier (CO-HBOC), oxygen-saturated hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (O2-HBOC) at a dose of 0...
October 12, 2016: Cardiology
S Kumar, V Dutta, N Aggarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Irene Asensio, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, María Jesús Muñoz, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Matilde Carballo
We analyzed six apiaries in several natural environments with a Mediterranean ecosystem in Madrid, central Spain, in order to understand how landscape and management characteristics may influence apiary health and bee production in the long term. We focused on five criteria (habitat quality, landscape heterogeneity, climate, management and health), as well as 30 subcriteria, and we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to rank them according to relevance. Habitat quality proved to have the highest relevance, followed by beehive management...
2016: PloS One
Doj Raj Khanal, Meera Prajapati, Prazila Shrestha, Madhav Prasad Acharya, Narayan Paudyal, Richard Bowen, Upendra Man Singh, Bhoj Raj Joshi
Bluetongue (BT) is one of the most economically important transboundary animal diseases. In recent years, it has been considered a disease related to climate change. A study was undertaken in 2013 in Nepal to measure the prevalence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection among domestic ruminants inhabiting the 3 agro-climatic zones with altitudes ranging from 150 to 2,400 metres above sea level. Twelve clusters representing the 3 altitudes were selected. The presence of antibodies against BTV was demonstrated in serum samples of sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, yaks/chauries, and chyangra goats (Himalayan goat) of Nepal...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Jessy Moza, Hardeep Singh Gujral
Hulless barley cultivars grown at various altitudes were subjected to different conditioning treatments prior to roller milling. Amongst all treatments, conditioning grains to a moisture content of 14% for 30min was found to be optimum. The bran fractions displayed greater levels of non-starchy polysaccharides and bioactive components as compared to refined flour fraction. The presence of greater levels of β-glucan in whole barley flour and bran of high altitude cultivars affected the refined flour yield inversely...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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