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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#1
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334079/how-do-cold-adapted-plants-respond-to-climatic-cycles-interglacial-expansion-explains-current-distribution-and-genomic-diversity-in-primula-farinosa-l
#2
Spyros Theodoridis, Christophe Randin, Peter Szövényi, Florian C Boucher, Theofania S Patsiou, Elena Conti
Understanding the effects of past climatic fluctuations on the distribution and population-size dynamics of cold-adapted species is essential for predicting their responses to ongoing global climate change. In spite of the heterogeneity of cold-adapted species, two main contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain their responses to Late Quaternary glacial cycles, namely, the interglacial contraction versus the interglacial expansion hypotheses. Here, we use the cold-adapted plant Primula farinosa to test two demographic models under each of the two alternative hypotheses and a fifth, null model...
December 21, 2016: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333563/effect-of-high-altitude-exposure-on-intraocular-pressure-using-goldmann-applanation-tonometry
#3
Gabriel Willmann, Kai Schommer, Maximilian Schultheiss, M Dominik Fischer, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Florian Gekeler, Andreas Schatz
Willmann, Gabriel, Kai Schommer, Maximilian Schultheiss, M. Dominik Fischer, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Florian Gekeler, and Andreas Schatz. Effect of high altitude exposure on intraocular pressure using Goldmann applanation tonometry. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017. AIMS: The aim of the study was to quantify changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) during exposure to 4559 m using the state-of-the-art method of Goldmann applanation tonometry for IOP measurement and to detect correlations between IOP and acute mountain sickness (AMS) in a prospective manner...
March 23, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332574/natural-variation-in-ctb4a-enhances-rice-adaptation-to-cold-habitats
#4
Zhanying Zhang, Jinjie Li, Yinghua Pan, Jilong Li, Lei Zhou, Hongli Shi, Yawen Zeng, Haifeng Guo, Shuming Yang, Weiwei Zheng, Jianping Yu, Xingming Sun, Gangling Li, Yanglin Ding, Liang Ma, Shiquan Shen, Luyuan Dai, Hongliang Zhang, Shuhua Yang, Yan Guo, Zichao Li
Low temperature is a major factor limiting rice productivity and geographical distribution. Improved cold tolerance and expanded cultivation to high-altitude or high-latitude regions would help meet growing rice demand. Here we explored a QTL for cold tolerance and cloned the gene, CTB4a (cold tolerance at booting stage), encoding a conserved leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. We show that different CTB4a alleles confer distinct levels of cold tolerance and selection for variation in the CTB4a promoter region has occurred on the basis of environmental temperature...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332025/endurance-aerobic-high-intensity-and-repeated-sprint-cycling-performance-is-unaffected-by-normobaric-live-high-train-low-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#5
Jacob Bejder, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Rie Buchardt, Tanja Hultengren Larsson, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia (LHTL) and normoxia (placebo) for 8 h/day. LHTL exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500 m, 2 weeks at 3000 m, and 2 weeks at 3500 m...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331406/redescription-of-potamonautes-sidneyi-rathbun-1904-decapoda-potamonautidae-and-description-of-a-new-congeneric-species-from-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#6
Nasreen Peer, Gavin Gouws, Eric Lazo-Wasem, Renzo Perissinotto, Nelson A F Miranda
A new species of freshwater crab, Potamonautes danielsisp. n., is described from the southern region of the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Potamonautes danielsi most closely resembles Potamonautes sidneyi which is re-described here, but can be distinguished by a suite of key morphological characters including carapace shape and width, slim pereopods, inflated propodi of the chelipeds, and the shape and terminal segment length:subterminal segment length ratio of the 1(st) gonopod. In a previous study (Gouws et al...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329216/heart-mechanics-at-high-altitude-6%C3%A2-days-on-the-top-of-europe
#7
Claire Maufrais, Thomas Rupp, Pierre Bouzat, Gregory Doucende, Samuel Verges, Stéphane Nottin, Guillaume Walther
Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the underlying mechanisms of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) functional alterations during several days in high-altitude hypoxia. Methods and results: Resting evaluations of LV and RV function and mechanics were assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography on 11 subjects at sea level (SLPRE), 3 ± 2 h after helicopter transport to high altitude (D0), at day 2 (D2), day 4 (D4) and day 6 (D6) at 4350 m and 5 ± 2 h after return to sea level (SLPOST)...
December 22, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326844/oxidative-stress-in-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia
#8
Sebastián Irarrázaval, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, Federico Leighton
Irarrázaval, Sebastián, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, and Federico Leighton. Oxidative stress in acute hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-The effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia endured by mountaineers were studied, specifically as evidenced by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and oxidative stress damage. Ten male volunteers were exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia, and AMS was evaluated through arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac rate, and the Lake Louise Score (LLS)...
March 22, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326097/different-proteome-profiles-between-male-and-female-populus-cathayana-exposed-to-uv-b-radiation
#9
Yunxiang Zhang, Lihua Feng, Hao Jiang, Yuanbin Zhang, Sheng Zhang
With increasing altitude, solar UV-B radiation is enhanced. Based on the phenomenon of male-biased sex ratio of Populus cathayana Rehder in high altitude alpine area, we hypothesized that males have a faster and more sophisticated responsive mechanism to high UV-B radiation than that of females. Our previous studies have shown sexually different responses to high UV-B radiation were existed in P. cathayana at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. However, the responses at the proteomic level remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324230/lentzea-chajnantorensis-sp-nov-an-actinobacterium-from-a-very-high-altitude-cerro-chajnantor-gravel-soil-in-northern-chile
#10
Hamidah Idris, Imen Nouioui, Juan A Asenjo, Alan T Bull, Michael Goodfellow
The taxonomic position of a filamentous actinobacterial strain, isolate H45(T), recovered from a high altitude Atacama Desert gravel soil, was established using a polyphasic approach. The strain, which is known to produce novel dienes, has chemotaxonomic and morphological properties typical of the genus Lentzea and formed a distinct branch in the Lentzea 16S rRNA gene tree that is closely related to the type strain of Lentzea kentuckyensis. The two strains were distinguished using a combination of phenotypic properties and by a DNA:DNA relatedness value of 37...
March 21, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323589/preventing-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-rats-with-repurposed-anti-angiogenesis-pharmacotherapy
#11
Samantha Tarshis, Joanne Maltzahn, Zoe Loomis, David C Irwin
BACKGROUND: High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a fulminant, deadly, and yet still unpredictable brain disease. A new prophylactic treatment for HACE and its predecessor, acute mountain sickness (AMS), needs to be developed without the contraindications or adverse effect profiles of acetazolamide and dexamethasone. Since neovascularization signals are likely key contributors to HACE/AMS, our approach was to examine already existing anti-angiogenic drugs to inhibit potential initiating HACE pathway(s)...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323582/white-matter-integrity-in-high-altitude-pilots-exposed-to-hypobaria
#12
Stephen A McGuire, Goldie R E Boone, Paul M Sherman, David F Tate, Joe D Wood, Beenish Patel, George Eskandar, S Andrea Wijtenburg, Laura M Rowland, Geoffrey D Clarke, Patrick M Grogan, John H Sladky, Peter V Kochunov
INTRODUCTION: Nonhypoxic hypobaric (low atmospheric pressure) occupational exposure, such as experienced by U.S. Air Force U-2 pilots and safety personnel operating inside altitude chambers, is associated with increased subcortical white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this discrete WMH change remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with altered white matter integrity as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA) measured using diffusion tensor imaging and relate these findings to WMH burden and neurocognitive ability...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323456/stratosphere-conditions-inactivate-bacterial-endospores-from-a-mars-spacecraft-assembly-facility
#13
Christina L Khodadad, Gregory M Wong, Leandro M James, Prital J Thakrar, Michael A Lane, John A Catechis, David J Smith
Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10(7) spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility...
March 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317078/role-of-selenium-from-different-sources-in-prevention-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens
#14
A K Zamani Moghaddam, M H Mehraei Hamzekolaei, F Khajali, H Hassanpour
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) syndrome in broilers is associated with hypoxia, which prevails at high altitude. Oxidative stress is the pathogenic mechanism underlying PAH. Because selenium is key element in the structure of antioxidant enzymes, we evaluated pulmonary hypertensive responses in broiler chickens fed with diets supplemented with organic or nano-selenium. One hundred forty-four broilers (starting at 5 days old) were fed with (i) control group: birds received a standard diet; (ii) nano-selenium group: birds were fed with basal diet supplemented with nano-selenium at 0...
March 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316610/integrative-approaches-for-studying-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genome-co-evolution-in-oxidative-phosphorylation
#15
Paul Sunnucks, Hernán E Morales, Annika M Lamb, Alexandra Pavlova, Chris Greening
In animals, interactions among gene products of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (mitonuclear interactions) are of profound fitness, evolutionary, and ecological significance. Most fundamentally, the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes responsible for cellular bioenergetics are formed by the direct interactions of 13 mitochondrial-encoded and ∼80 nuclear-encoded protein subunits in most animals. It is expected that organisms will develop genomic architecture that facilitates co-adaptation of these mitonuclear interactions and enhances biochemical efficiency of OXPHOS complexes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306414/cross-sectional-comparison-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-native-peruvian-highlanders-and-lowlanders
#16
Luu V Pham, Christopher Meinzen, Rafael S Arias, Noah G Schwartz, Adi Rattner, Catherine H Miele, Philip L Smith, Hartmut Schneider, J Jaime Miranda, Robert H Gilman, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, William Checkley, Alan R Schwartz
Pham, Luu V., Christopher Meinzen, Rafael S. Arias, Noah G. Schwartz, Adi Rattner, Catherine H. Miele, Philip L. Smith, Hartmut Schneider, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, William Checkley, and Alan R. Schwartz. Cross-sectional comparison of sleep-disordered breathing in native Peruvian highlanders and lowlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 18:11-19, 2017. BACKGROUND: Altitude can accentuate sleep disordered breathing (SDB), which has been linked to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases...
March 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306412/periodic-high-altitude-exposure-and-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-are-they-the-same
#17
Matiram Pun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306370/genetic-diversity-of-atp8-and-atp6-genes-is-associated-with-high-altitude-adaptation-in-yak
#18
Jie Wang, Yu Shi, Mauricio A Elzo, Shuzhang Dang, Xianbo Jia, Songjia Lai
ATP synthase 8 (ATP8) and ATPase synthase 6 (ATP6) play an important role in mitochondrial ATPase assembly. Mutations in either of these units could affect the ATP processing and the respiration chain in mitochondria. To find out if there were differences in gene diversity between Tibetan yaks and domestic cattle, we sequenced the ATP8 and ATP6 genes in 66 Tibetan yaks and 81 domestic cattle. We identified 20 SNPs in the ATP8 gene and 60 SNPs in the ATP6 gene. Ten SNPs detected in ATP8 were probably positively associated with high-altitude adaptation, of which SNPs m...
March 17, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304356/spatially-correlated-time-series-and-ecological-niche-analysis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-afghanistan
#19
Oyelola A Adegboye, Majeed Adegboye
Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 1.2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to study the geographically suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303453/altitudinal-patterns-and-controls-of-trace-metal-distribution-in-soils-of-a-remote-high-mountain-southwest-china
#20
Rui Li, Haijian Bing, Yanhong Wu, Jun Zhou, Zhongxiang Xiang
The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of regional human activity on trace metal accumulation in remote alpine ecosystems under long-distance atmospheric transport. Trace metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn) in soils of the Mt. Luoji, Southwest China, were investigated along a large altitudinal gradient [2200-3850 m above sea level (a.s.l.)] to elaborate the key factors controlling their distribution by Pb isotopic composition and statistical models. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils (O and A horizons) were relatively low at the altitudes of 3500-3700 m a...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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