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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156832/associations-of-high-altitude-polycythemia-with-polymorphisms-in-epas1-itga6-and-erbb4-in-chinese-han-and-tibetan-populations
#1
Yiduo Zhao, Zhiying Zhang, Lijun Liu, Yao Zhang, Xiaowei Fan, Lifeng Ma, Jing Li, Yuan Zhang, Haijin He, Longli Kang
High altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is a common chronic disease at high altitude, which is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (females, hemoglobin ≥ 190 g/L; males, hemoglobin ≥ 210 g/L). It is the most common disease in chronic mountain sickness casued primarily by persistent arterial hypoxia and ventilatory impairment. However, the disease is still unmanageable and related molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study aims to explore the genetic basis of HAPC in the Chinese Han and Tibetan populations...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156444/survival-of-microbes-in-earth-s-stratosphere
#2
REVIEW
Priya DasSarma, Shiladitya DasSarma
The remarkable survival of microorganisms high above the surface of the Earth is of increasing interest. At stratospheric levels, multiple stressors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, low temperatures, hypobaric conditions, extreme desiccation, and nutrient scarcity are all significant challenges. Our understanding of which microorganisms are capable of tolerating such stressful conditions has been addressed by stratospheric sample collection and survival assays, through launching and recovery, and exposure to simulated conditions in the laboratory...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155855/iron-status-and-anaemia-in-sri-lankan-secondary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Angela Allen, Stephen Allen, Rexan Rodrigo, Lakshman Perera, Wei Shao, Chao Li, Duolao Wang, Nancy Olivieri, David J Weatherall, Anuja Premawardhena
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency, the most common micronutrient disorder and cause of anaemia globally, impairs growth, cognition, behaviour and resistance to infection. METHODS/RESULTS: As part of a national survey of inherited haemoglobin variants in 7526 students from 72 secondary schools purposefully selected from the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, we studied 5912 students with a normal haemoglobin genotype. Median age was 16.0 (IQR 15.0-17.0) years and 3189 (53.9%) students were males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152316/seroepidemiology-and-assessment-of-risk-factors-for-the-spread-of-avian-influenza-in-birds-in-two-nigerian-states
#4
Musa Ibrahim Waziri, Paul A Abdu, Lawal Sa'idu, Mohammed Bello
Despite modified stamping out eradication policy adopted in Nigeria, there was resurgence in 2015 of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 with greater infectivity. A survey of the risk of spread of HPAI in two HPAI-infected and -uninfected Nigerian states were studied. A cross-sectional study to detect avian influenza (AI) H5 antibodies was conducted using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 950 birds' sera were tested for AI H5 antibodies...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152251/oxygen-the-forgotten-nutrient
#5
Paul Trayhurn
O2 is essential for the maintenance and growth of aerobic animals, similar to the essentiality of what are classically considered nutrients. Nevertheless, O2 is not customarily regarded as a nutrient, this reflecting the route by which it enters the body - through the lungs or gills in vertebrates, rather than via the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. A relative deficiency of O2 occurs at high altitudes and during deep-sea diving, to which distinct adaptations occur. Deficiency is also evident in lung diseases such as emphysema...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152197/selection-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr-and-expression-analysis-of-high-altitude-related-genes-in-grassland-caterpillars-lepidoptera-erebidae-gynaephora-along-an-altitude-gradient
#6
Li Zhang, Qi-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Peng Li, Ming-Long Yuan
Changes in gene expression patterns can reflect the adaptation of organisms to divergent environments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important tool for ecological adaptation studies at the gene expression level. The quality of the results of qRT-PCR analysis largely depends on the availability of reliable reference genes (RGs). To date, reliable RGs have not been determined for adaptive evolution studies in insects using a standard approach. Here, we evaluated the reliability of 17 candidate RGs for five Gynaephora populations inhabiting various altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the deltaCt method) and one comprehensive (RefFinder) algorithms...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150716/slow-life-histories-in-lizards-living-in-the-highlands-of-the-andes-mountains
#7
Jorgelina M Boretto, Facundo Cabezas-Cartes, Nora R Ibargüengoytía
In the highlands of the Andes, lizards must balance precisely the allocation of energy for growth and reproduction to ensure their survival. We studied the individuals' age, growth rates, age at sexual maturity, and maximum life span of the viviparous lizard Phymaturus antofagastensis, endemic of cold and harsh environments at high altitudes in the Andes Mountains of Catamarca province, Argentina. We also estimated key life history parameters like reproductive effort, lifetime reproductive effort, net reproductive rate, and relative reproductive time in P...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#8
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149296/comparative-transcriptomics-of-five-high-altitude-vertebrates-and-their-low-altitude-relatives
#9
Qianzi Tang, Yiren Gu, Xuming Zhou, Long Jin, Jiuqiang Guan, Rui Liu, Jing Li, Kereng Long, Shilin Tian, Tiandong Che, Silu Hu, Yan Liang, Xuemei Yang, Xuan Tao, Zhijun Zhong, Guosong Wang, Xiaohui Chen, Diyan Li, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Miaomiao Mai, An'an Jiang, Xiaolin Luo, Xuebin Lv, Vadim N Gladyshev, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Background: Species living at high altitude are subject to strong selective pressures due to inhospitable environments (e.g., hypoxia, low temperature, high solar radiation, and lack of biological production), making these species valuable models for comparative analyses of local adaptation. Studies that examined high-altitude adaptation identified a vast array of rapidly evolving genes that characterize the dramatic phenotypic changes in high-altitude animals. However, how high-altitude environment shapes gene expression programs remains largely unknown...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147740/geo-spatial-characterization-of-soil-mercury-and-arsenic-at-a-high-altitude-bolivian-gold-mine
#10
Glen D Johnson, Brian Pavilonis, Jack Caravanos, Jean Grassman
Soil mercury concentrations at a typical small-scale mine site in the Bolivian Andes were elevated (28-737 mg/kg or ppm) in localized areas where mercury amalgams were either formed or vaporized to release gold, but was not detectable beyond approximately 10 m from its sources. Arsenic was measurable, exceeding known background levels throughout the mine site (77-137,022 ppm), and was also measurable through the local village of Ingenio (36-1803 ppm). Although arsenic levels were high at all surveyed locations, its spatial pattern followed mercury, being highest where mercury was high...
November 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146808/extended-gamma-ray-sources-around-pulsars-constrain-the-origin-of-the-positron-flux-at-earth
#11
A U Abeysekara, A Albert, R Alfaro, C Alvarez, J D Álvarez, R Arceo, J C Arteaga-Velázquez, D Avila Rojas, H A Ayala Solares, A S Barber, N Bautista-Elivar, A Becerril, E Belmont-Moreno, S Y BenZvi, D Berley, A Bernal, J Braun, C Brisbois, K S Caballero-Mora, T Capistrán, A Carramiñana, S Casanova, M Castillo, U Cotti, J Cotzomi, S Coutiño de León, C De León, E De la Fuente, B L Dingus, M A DuVernois, J C Díaz-Vélez, R W Ellsworth, K Engel, O Enríquez-Rivera, D W Fiorino, N Fraija, J A García-González, F Garfias, M Gerhardt, A González Muñoz, M M González, J A Goodman, Z Hampel-Arias, J P Harding, S Hernández, A Hernández-Almada, J Hinton, B Hona, C M Hui, P Hüntemeyer, A Iriarte, A Jardin-Blicq, V Joshi, S Kaufmann, D Kieda, A Lara, R J Lauer, W H Lee, D Lennarz, H León Vargas, J T Linnemann, A L Longinotti, G Luis Raya, R Luna-García, R López-Coto, K Malone, S S Marinelli, O Martinez, I Martinez-Castellanos, J Martínez-Castro, H Martínez-Huerta, J A Matthews, P Miranda-Romagnoli, E Moreno, M Mostafá, L Nellen, M Newbold, M U Nisa, R Noriega-Papaqui, R Pelayo, J Pretz, E G Pérez-Pérez, Z Ren, C D Rho, C Rivière, D Rosa-González, M Rosenberg, E Ruiz-Velasco, H Salazar, F Salesa Greus, A Sandoval, M Schneider, H Schoorlemmer, G Sinnis, A J Smith, R W Springer, P Surajbali, I Taboada, O Tibolla, K Tollefson, I Torres, T N Ukwatta, G Vianello, T Weisgarber, S Westerhoff, I G Wisher, J Wood, T Yapici, G Yodh, P W Younk, A Zepeda, H Zhou, F Guo, J Hahn, H Li, H Zhang
The unexpectedly high flux of cosmic-ray positrons detected at Earth may originate from nearby astrophysical sources, dark matter, or unknown processes of cosmic-ray secondary production. We report the detection, using the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), of extended tera-electron volt gamma-ray emission coincident with the locations of two nearby middle-aged pulsars (Geminga and PSR B0656+14). The HAWC observations demonstrate that these pulsars are indeed local sources of accelerated leptons, but the measured tera-electron volt emission profile constrains the diffusion of particles away from these sources to be much slower than previously assumed...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143710/importance-of-determining-the-climatic-domains-of-sheep-breeds
#12
D Petit, I Boujenane
The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#13
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#14
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141880/divergent-respiratory-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-hypoxia-in-bar-headed-geese-and-andean-birds
#15
Sabine L Lague, Beverly Chua, Luis Alza, Graham R Scott, Peter B Frappell, Yang Zhong, Anthony P Farrell, Kevin G McCracken, Yuxiang Wang, William K Milsom
Many high-altitude vertebrates have evolved increased capacities in their oxygen transport cascade (ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, circulation and tissue diffusion), enhancing oxygen transfer from the atmosphere to mitochondria. However, the extent of interspecies variation in the control processes that dictate hypoxia responses remains largely unknown. We compared the metabolic, cardiovascular and respiratory responses to progressive decreases in inspired oxygen levels of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), birds that biannually migrate across the Himalayan mountains, with those of Andean geese (Chloephaga melanoptera) and crested ducks (Lophonetta specularioides), lifelong residents of the high Andes...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140980/prokaryotic-diversity-and-biogeochemical-characteristics-of-benthic-microbial-ecosystems-at-la-brava-a-hypersaline-lake-at-salar-de-atacama-chile
#16
Maria Eugenia Farias, Maria Cecilia Rasuk, Kimberley L Gallagher, Manuel Contreras, Daniel Kurth, Ana Beatriz Fernandez, Daniel Poiré, Fernando Novoa, Pieter T Visscher
Benthic microbial ecosystems of Laguna La Brava, Salar de Atacama, a high altitude hypersaline lake, were characterized in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity, biogeochemistry, (including O2 and sulfide depth profiles and mineralogy), and physicochemical characteristics. La Brava is one of several lakes in the Salar de Atacama where microbial communities are growing in extreme conditions, including high salinity, high solar insolation, and high levels of metals such as lithium, arsenic, magnesium, and calcium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138459/the-genomic-landscape-of-nepalese-tibeto-burmans-reveals-new-insights-into-the-recent-peopling-of-southern-himalayas
#17
Guido A Gnecchi-Ruscone, Choongwon Jeong, Sara De Fanti, Stefania Sarno, Michela Trancucci, Davide Gentilini, Anna M Di Blasio, Mingma G Sherpa, Phurba T Sherpa, Giorgio Marinelli, Marco Di Marcello, Luca Natali, Davide Peluzzi, Davide Pettener, Anna Di Rienzo, Donata Luiselli, Marco Sazzini
While much research attention has focused on demographic processes that enabled human diffusion on the Tibetan plateau, little is known about more recent colonization of Southern Himalayas. In particular, the history of migrations, admixture and/or isolation of populations speaking Tibeto-Burman languages, which is supposed to be quite complex and to have reshaped patterns of genetic variation on both sides of the Himalayan arc, remains only partially elucidated. We thus described the genomic landscape of previously unsurveyed Tibeto-Burman (i...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136449/does-this-patient-have-acute-mountain-sickness-the-rational-clinical-examination-systematic-review
#18
David Meier, Tinh-Hai Collet, Isabella Locatelli, Jacques Cornuz, Bengt Kayser, David L Simel, Claudio Sartori
Importance: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) affects more than 25% of individuals ascending to 3500 m (11 500 ft) and more than 50% of those above 6000 m (19 700 ft). AMS may progress from nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema in less than 1% of patients. It is not clear how to best diagnose AMS. Objective: To systematically review studies assessing the accuracy of AMS diagnostic instruments, including the visual analog scale (VAS) score, which quantifies the overall feeling of sickness at altitude (VAS[O]; various thresholds), Acute Mountain Sickness-Cerebral score (AMS-C; ≥0...
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135065/a-simple-pre-lithiation-strategy-to-build-high-rate-and-long-life-lithium-ion-battery-with-improved-low-temperature-performance
#19
Yonggang Wang, Yao Liu, Bingchang Yang, Xiaoli Dong, Yongyao Xia
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being used to power the commercial electric vehicles (EVs). However, the charge/discharge rate and life of current LIBs still cannot satisfy the further development of EVs. Furthermore, the poor low temperature performance of LIBs limits their application in cold climates and high altitude areas. Herein, a simple pre-lithiation method is developed to fabricate a new LIB. In this strategy, a Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode and a pristine hard carbon anode are used to form a primary cell, and the initial Li+ extraction from Li3V2(PO4)3 is used to pre-lithiate the hard carbon...
November 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131669/research-in-high-altitude-and-mountain-emergency-medicine-is-methodology-key
#20
Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Erik R Swenson, Markus Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
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