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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747779/fungal-root-symbionts-of-high-altitude-vascular-plants-in-the-himalayas
#1
Milan Kotilínek, Inga Hiiesalu, Jiří Košnar, Marie Šmilauerová, Petr Šmilauer, Jan Altman, Miroslav Dvorský, Martin Kopecký, Jiří Doležal
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) form symbiotic relationships with plants influencing their productivity, diversity and ecosystem functions. Only a few studies on these fungi, however, have been conducted in extreme elevations and none over 5500 m a.s.l., although vascular plants occur up to 6150 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas. We quantified AMF and DSE in roots of 62 plant species from contrasting habitats along an elevational gradient (3400-6150 m) in the Himalayas using a combination of optical microscopy and next generation sequencing...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746619/floristic-functional-variation-of-tree-component-along-an-altitudinal-gradient-in-araucaria-forest-areas-in-southern-brazil
#2
Vanessa F Soboleski, Pedro Higuchi, Ana Carolina DA Silva, Mariele A F DA Silva, Amanda S Nunes, Rodineli Loebens, Karine DE Souza, Jheniffer Ferrari, Carla L Lima, Ricardo V Kilca
We aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional variations of tree component of Araucaria Forest (AF) areas located along an altitudinal gradient (700, 900 and 1,600 m asl), in the southern region of Brazil. The functional traits determined were leaf area, specific leaf area, wood density, maximum potential height and dispersal syndromes and deciduousness. The data were analyzed through a functional and taxonomic dissimilarity dendrograms, community-weighted mean trait values, parametric and nonparametric tests, and Principal Component Analysis...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746420/compositional-changes-in-bee-and-wasp-communities-along-neotropical-mountain-altitudinal-gradient
#3
Lucas Neves Perillo, Frederico de Siqueira Neves, Yasmine Antonini, Rogério Parentoni Martins
Climate conditions tend to differ along an altitudinal gradient, resulting in some species groups' patterns of lower species richness with increasing altitude. While this pattern is well understood for tropical mountains, studies investigating possible determinants of variation in beta-diversity at its different altitudes are scarce. We sampled bee and wasp communities (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) along an altitudinal gradient (1,000-2,000 m.a.s.l.) in a tropical mountainous region of Brazil. Trap nests and Moericke traps were established at six sampling points, with 200 m difference in altitude between each point...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742865/a-novel-mitochondrial-genome-of-arborophila-and-new-insight-into-arborophila-evolutionary-history
#4
Chaochao Yan, Biqin Mou, Yang Meng, Feiyun Tu, Zhenxin Fan, Megan Price, Bisong Yue, Xiuyue Zhang
The lineage of the Bar-backed Partridge (Arborophila brunneopectus) was investigated to determine the phylogenetic relationships within Arborophila as the species is centrally distributed within an area covered by the distributions of 22 South-east Asian hill partridge species. The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. brunneopectus was determined and compared with four other hill partridge species mitogenomes. NADH subunit genes are radical in hill partridge mitogenomes and contain the most potential positive selective sites around where variable sites are abundant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741441/atmospheric-pressure-and-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-rupture-results-from-a-time-series-analysis-and-case-crossover-study
#5
Bas B L Penning de Vries, Joé L P Kolkert, Robbert Meerwaldt, Rolf H H Groenwold
BACKGROUND: Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. METHODS: Associations between atmospheric pressure and AAA rupture risk were investigated using local meteorological data and a case series of 358 patients admitted to hospital for ruptured AAA during the study period, January 2002 to December 2012...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741038/changes-in-appetite-energy-intake-body-composition-and-circulating-ghrelin-constituents-during-an-incremental-trekking-ascent-to-high-altitude
#6
Jamie Matu, John O'Hara, Neil Hill, Sarah Clarke, Christopher Boos, Caroline Newman, David Holdsworth, Theocharis Ispoglou, Lauren Duckworth, David Woods, Adrian Mellor, Kevin Deighton
PURPOSE: Circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations are associated with altitude-induced anorexia in laboratory environments, but have never been measured at terrestrial altitude. This study examined time course changes in appetite, energy intake, body composition, and ghrelin constituents during a high-altitude trek. METHODS: Twelve participants [age: 28(4) years, BMI 23.0(2.1) kg m(-2)] completed a 14-day trek in the Himalayas. Energy intake, appetite perceptions, body composition, and circulating acylated, des-acylated, and total ghrelin concentrations were assessed at baseline (113 m, 12 days prior to departure) and at three fixed research camps during the trek (3619 m, day 7; 4600 m, day 10; 5140 m, day 12)...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738469/-analysis-on-geographic-distribution-of-high-blood-pressure-prevalence-in-children-and-adolescents-aged-7-18-years-in-china-2014
#7
Y H Dong, Z Y Zou, Z H Wang, S Wang, Z P Yang, Y J Chen, J Ma
Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735726/molecular-adaptive-convergence-in-the-%C3%AE-globin-in-subterranean-octodontid-rodents
#8
Ivanna H Tomasco, Nicolás Boullosa, Federico G Hoffmann, Enrique P Lessa
Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys) and related coruros (Spalacopus) are South American subterranean rodents. An energetically demanding lifestyle within the hypoxic/hypercapnic underground atmosphere may change the selective regime on genes involved in O2 transport in blood. In addition, some species of tuco-tucos may be found at high altitude, thus facing additional reductions in changes O2 availabily. We examined sequence variation in the alpha globin subunit gene of hemoglobine in these lineages, within a robust phylogenetic context...
July 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735090/impacts-of-the-2003-and-2015-summer-heatwaves-on-permafrost-affected-rock-walls-in-the-mont-blanc-massif
#9
L Ravanel, F Magnin, P Deline
Rockfall is one of the main geomorphological processes that affects the evolution and stability of rock-walls. At high elevations, rockfall is largely climate-driven, very probably because of the warming of rock-wall permafrost. So with the ongoing global warming that drives the degradation of permafrost, the related hazards for people and infrastructure could continue to increase. The heatwave of summer 2015, which affected Western Europe from the end of June to August, had a serious impact on the stability of high-altitude rock-walls, including those in the Mont Blanc massif...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732756/health-of-high-altitude-pilgrims-a-neglected-topic
#10
EDITORIAL
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala
HASH(0x4a67898)
July 18, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#11
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731986/the-effect-of-sex-on-heart-rate-variability-at-high-altitude
#12
Christopher John Boos, Emma Vincent, Adrian Mellor, John O'Hara, Caroline Newman, Richard Cruttenden, Phylip Scott, Mark Cooke, Jamie Matu, David Richard Woods
There is evidence to suggest that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. METHODS: HRV (5-minute single lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) aged 18-56 years at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619m, 4600m and 5140m respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619, 4600 and 5140m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726295/antioxidant-defense-and-oxidative-damage-vary-widely-among-high-altitude-residents
#13
Allison J Janocha, Suzy A A Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C Erzurum, Cynthia M Beall
OBJECTIVES: People living at high altitude experience unavoidable low oxygen levels (hypoxia). While acute hypoxia causes an increase in oxidative stress and damage despite higher antioxidant activity, the consequences of chronic hypoxia are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to assess antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in high-altitude natives and upward migrants. METHODS: Individuals from two indigenous high-altitude populations (Amhara, n = 39), (Sherpa, n = 34), one multigenerational high-altitude population (Oromo, n = 42), one upward migrant population (Nepali, n = 12), and two low-altitude reference populations (Amhara, n = 29; Oromo, n = 18) provided plasma for measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as a marker of antioxidant capacity, and urine for measurement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724450/variation-in-species-composition-and-infection-rates-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-at-different-altitudinal-transects-and-the-risk-of-malaria-in-the-highland-of-dirashe-woreda-south-ethiopia
#14
Taye Yohannes Daygena, Fekadu Massebo, Bernt Lindtjørn
BACKGROUND: The transmission of malaria is heterogeneous, and varies due to altitude. The information on whether the transmission of malaria is indigenous or imported to highland areas is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the species composition and infection rates of Anopheles at different altitudinal transects, and the risk of malaria if any in the highland of Dirashe Woreda, South Ethiopia. METHODS: This study was conducted in Gato (low altitude; average elevation of 1273 m), Onota (mid-altitude; average elevation of 1707 m) and Layignaw-Arguba (high altitude; average elevation of 2337 m) from August 2015 to April 2016...
July 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#15
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#16
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722582/population-movement-as-a-risk-factor-for-malaria-infection-in-high-altitude-villages-of-tahtay-maychew-district-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-case-ccontrol-study
#17
Mebrahtom Haile, Hailemariam Lemma, Yemane Weldu
Key goal and targets of the Ethiopian national malaria control strategy are to achieve malaria elimination within specific geographical areas with historically low malaria transmission and to reach near-zero malaria transmission in the remaining malarious areas by 2020. However, back and forth population movement between high-transmission and low-transmission area imposes challenge on the success of national malaria control programs. Therefore, examining the effect of human movement and identification of at-risk populations is crucial in an elimination setting...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720533/phylogenetic-relationships-of-diurnal-phytotelm-breeding-melanophryniscus-anura-bufonidae-based-on-mitogenomic-data
#18
Marcio R Pie, Patrícia R Ströher, Ricardo Belmonte-Lopes, Marcos R Bornschein, Luiz F Ribeiro, Brant C Faircloth, John E McCormack
Melanophryniscus is a bufonid frog genus with a broad geographic distribution over southeastern South America. In recent years, several new species of Melanophryniscus have been discovered in southern Brazil showing a distinctive life-history strategy for the genus - breeding in phytotelmata - as well as a strong association with high-altitude regions. In this study, we use mitogenomic data to infer the phylogenetic relationships among diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus and to determine the timing of their divergence...
July 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717592/epas1-variants-in-high-altitude-tibetan-wolves-were-selectively-introgressed-into-highland-dogs
#19
Bridgett vonHoldt, Zhenxin Fan, Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Robert K Wayne
BACKGROUND: Admixture can facilitate adaptation. For example, black wolves have obtained the variant causing black coat color through past hybridization with domestic dogs and have higher fitness than gray colored wolves. Another recent example of the transfer of adaptive variation between the two species has been suggested by the similarity between high altitude Tibetan mastiffs and wolves at the EPAS1 gene, a transcription factor induced in low oxygen environments. METHODS: Here, we investigate the directionality of admixture in EPAS1 between 28 reference highland gray wolves, 15 reference domestic dogs, and 21 putatively admixed highland wolves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#20
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
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