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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239877/feeding-range-of-age-1-year-eurasian-perch-perca-fluviatilis-in-the-baltic-sea
#1
I Ahlbeck Bergendahl, P B Holliland, S Hansson, O Karlöf
Using the widespread Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis as a model organism, feeding ranges were investigated using stable-isotope ratios (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) and body condition. Differences were found between closely located sampling sites in a littoral area without obvious migration barriers, indicating that individual fish had small feeding ranges. Body condition differences between sampled stations were consistent over 4 years. Such sedentary behaviour is important to consider in, e.g. fisheries management and environmental monitoring, as local catch regulations may be meaningful or geographic stability in sampling locations may reduce noise in data...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239851/sawfishes-stealth-revealed-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#2
D R Bradney, A Davidson, S P Evans, B E Wueringer, D L Morgan, P D Clausen
Detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations for the rostrum of three species of sawfish (Pristidae) revealed that negligible turbulent flow is generated from all rostra during lateral swipe prey manipulation and swimming. These results suggest that sawfishes are effective stealth hunters that may not be detected by their teleost prey's lateral line sensory system during pursuits. Moreover, during lateral swipes, the rostra were found to induce little velocity into the surrounding fluid. Consistent with previous data of sawfish feeding behaviour, these data indicate that the rostrum is therefore unlikely to be used to stir up the bottom to uncover benthic prey...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239774/change-of-monascus-pigment-metabolism-and-secretion-in-different-extractive-fermentation-process
#3
Gong Chen, Rui Tang, Xiaofei Tian, Peng Qin, Zhenqiang Wu
Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism...
February 26, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239653/the-human-brain-produces-fructose-from-glucose
#4
Janice J Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Gary Cline, Douglas L Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S Sherwin
Fructose has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In contrast to glucose, CNS delivery of fructose in rodents promotes feeding behavior. However, because circulating plasma fructose levels are exceedingly low, it remains unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier to exert CNS effects. To determine whether fructose can be endogenously generated from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) in human brain, 8 healthy subjects (4 women/4 men; age, 28...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239534/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analysis-of-liver-and-kidneys-of-rats-chronically-fed-nk603-roundup-tolerant-genetically-modified-maize
#5
Robin Mesnage, Matthew Arno, Gilles-Eric Séralini, Michael N Antoniou
BACKGROUND: A previous 2-year rat feeding trial assessing potential toxicity of NK603 Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize revealed blood and urine biochemical changes indicative of liver and kidney pathology. In an effort to obtain deeper insight into these findings, molecular profiling of the liver and kidneys from the same animals was undertaken. RESULTS: Transcriptomics showed no segregation of NK603 maize and control feed groups with false discovery rates ranging from 43 to 83% at a cut-off p value of 1%...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239526/weight-loss-in-the-early-stage-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#6
Ayako Tsuge, Satoshi Kaneko, Reika Wate, Mitsuaki Oki, Masato Nagashima, Shinya Asayama, Masataka Nakamura, Kengo Fujita, Akemi Saito, Norihiro Takenouchi, Hirofumi Kusaka
OBJECTIVES: To clarify whether weight change in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is caused by the disease itself or secondarily by other factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 51 patients with PD and 14 patients with PSP, especially during the early stage of their diseases. All patients were independent in terms of their activities of daily living and did not have any feeding difficulty...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239492/performance-of-clarias-gariepinus-fed-dried-brewer-s-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-slurry-in-replacement-for-soybean-meal
#7
Shola Gabriel Solomon, Gabriel Arome Ataguba, Gabriel Enemona Itodo
Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239473/fine-scale-foraging-movements-by-fish-eating-killer-whales-orcinus-orca-relate-to-the-vertical-distributions-and-escape-responses-of-salmonid-prey-oncorhynchus-spp
#8
Brianna M Wright, John K B Ford, Graeme M Ellis, Volker B Deecke, Ari Daniel Shapiro, Brian C Battaile, Andrew W Trites
BACKGROUND: We sought to quantitatively describe the fine-scale foraging behavior of northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca), a population of fish-eating killer whales that feeds almost exclusively on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). To reconstruct the underwater movements of these specialist predators, we deployed 34 biologging Dtags on 32 individuals and collected high-resolution, three-dimensional accelerometry and acoustic data. We used the resulting dive paths to compare killer whale foraging behavior to the distributions of different salmonid prey species...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239221/behavioural-and-hormonal-stress-responses-to-social-separation-in-ravens-corvus-corax
#9
Alexandru M Munteanu, Martina Stocker, Mareike Stöwe, Jorg J M Massen, Thomas Bugnyar
Social life is profitable, but it facilitates conflicts over resources and creates interdependence between individuals. Separating highly social animals triggers intense reactions aimed at re-establishing lost connections. Less is known, however, about behavioural and physiological responses to separation in socially facultative species, where individuals temporarily form groups and may subsequently leave them. Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) gather in large numbers at feeding and roosting sites, but otherwise spend time seemingly solitary or in small subgroups...
February 2017: Ethology: Formerly Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238895/hispanic-mothers-views-of-the-fathers-role-in-promoting-healthy-behaviors-at-home-focus-group-findings
#10
Karina R Lora, Marshall Cheney, Paul Branscum
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity prevention interventions rarely take into account the unique role of fathers in promoting healthy home environments. OBJECTIVE: To use qualitative methodology to examine the views of Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 to 5 years regarding fathers' roles in promoting healthy behaviors at home. DESIGN: Nine focus groups were conducted in Spanish with Hispanic mothers of preschool-aged children (N=55) from October to December 2015...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238891/appetite-suppressing-effect-of-spinacia-oleracea-in-rats-involvement-of-the-short-term-satiety-signal-cholecystokinin
#11
Vandana Panda, Priyanka Shinde
Spinacia oleracea (spinach) is a green leafy vegetable rich in antioxidant phyto-constituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids are known to prevent weight gain by inducing satiety. The present study evaluates the appetite suppressing effect of a flavonoid rich extract of the spinach leaf (SOE) in rats. HPTLC of SOE was performed for detecting flavonoids. Rats were administered SOE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p. o) and fluoxetine (6 mg/kg i...
February 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238779/daily-activity-rhythms-and-the-stress-related-response-in-the-wedge-sole-dicologoglossa-cuneata-moreau-1881
#12
E De la Roca, B Sánchez, J M López, M A Herves, A Canalejo, M Herrera
To gain further insights on the wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau, 1881) physiology and behavior, we evaluated its daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms and compared three different feeding strategies: self-feeding (SF), diurnal feeding schedule (DS) and nocturnal feeding schedule (NS). 450 fish divided into three groups (three replicates each), were kept during 65days. SF had free access to self-feeders whereas DS and NS were fed four times a day. Physiological stress parameters as plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, proteins and triglycerides were determined...
February 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238709/occludin-expression-and-regulation-in-small-follicles-of-the-layer-and-broiler-breeder-hen
#13
C S Stephens, P A Johnson
Synchronized yolk accumulation and follicle development are essential for egg production in oviparous species. In birds, yolk is incorporated into the oocyte by an avian specific yolk receptor (LR8), and it has been suggested that occludin (OCLN), a tight junction protein, mediates transfer of yolk material to the oocyte surface. OCLN may be a key regulator of yolk accumulation and follicle growth, however, the expression and regulation of OCLN in granulosa cells during various stages of follicle development is unknown...
February 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238640/effects-of-loading-rate-and-temperature-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-food-waste-and-waste-activated-sludge-in-a-high-frequency-feeding-system-looking-in-particular-at-stability-and-efficiency
#14
Qian Li, Hao Li, Gaojun Wang, Xiaochang Wang
A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a high feeding frequency (HFF) of once every 15min was employed in order to ease the loading shock frequently occurred in digester with a low feeding frequency. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on the co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge was evaluated in a 302-day long-term experiment. Due to the high hydrolysis rate, the maximum CH4 yield in a thermophilic reactor was 407mL CH4/gVSadded, a value that was significantly higher than the 350mL CH4/gVSadded that occurred in a mesophilic reactor...
February 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238639/enhanced-performance-of-denitrifying-sulfide-removal-process-at-high-carbon-to-nitrogen-ratios-under-micro-aerobic-condition
#15
Chuan Chen, Ruo-Chen Zhang, Xi-Jun Xu, Ning Fang, Ai-Jie Wang, Nan-Qi Ren, Duu-Jong Lee
The success of denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) processes, which simultaneously degrade sulfide, nitrate and organic carbon in the same reactor, counts on synergetic growths of autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Feeding wastewaters at high C/N ratio would stimulate overgrowth of heterotrophic bacteria in the DSR reactor so deteriorating the growth of autotrophic denitrifiers. The DSR tests at C/N=1.26:1, 2:1 or 3:1 and S/N =5:6 or 5:8 under anaerobic (control) or micro-aerobic conditions were conducted...
February 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238618/metabolic-demands-and-replenishment-of-muscle-glycogen-after-a-rugby-league-match-simulation-protocol
#16
Warren J Bradley, Marcus P Hannon, Victoria Benford, James C Morehen, Craig Twist, Sam Shepherd, Matthew Cocks, Samuel G Impey, Robert G Cooper, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
OBJECTIVES: The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. DESIGN: Fifteen (mean±SD: age 20.9±2.9 year, body-mass 87.3±14.1kg, height 177.4±6.0cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6gkgday-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238222/calcium-and-phosphorus-supplementation-of-human-milk-for-preterm-infants
#17
REVIEW
Jane E Harding, Jess Wilson, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet the estimated needs of preterm infants for adequate growth. Supplementation of human milk with calcium and phosphorus may improve growth and development of preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism of preterm infants without significant adverse effects...
February 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238072/gill-damage-and-neurotoxicity-of-ammonia-nitrogen-on-the-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum
#18
Ming Cong, Huifeng Wu, Haiping Yang, Jianmin Zhao, Jiasen Lv
Ammonia nitrogen has been a potential menace to aquatic animals along the coastline of China. Presently, the toxicological effects of ammonia nitrogen were mainly concentrated on fishes, while little attention has been paid to molluscs. In this study, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum was used as the target animal to investigate the toxic effects of ammonia nitrogen. Our results showed that ammonia exposure could significantly reduce the integrity of lysosomes in a dose-dependent manner. Metabolite analysis revealed that exposure doses and duration time of ammonia nitrogen could affect the variation profiles of gill metabolites...
February 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238069/novel-5-ht3-receptor-antagonist-qcm-4-attenuates-depressive-like-phenotype-associated-with-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#19
Yeshwant Kurhe, R Mahesh, Thangaraj Devadoss
RATIONALE: Depression associated with obesity remains an interesting area to study the biological mechanisms and novel therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigates the effect of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist 3-methoxy-N-p-tolylquinoxalin-2-carboxamide (QCM-4) on several pathogenic markers of depression associated with obesity such as plasma insulin resistance, hippocampal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT) concentrations, hippocampal neuronal damage, and p53 protein expression in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 25, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238065/cuprizone-containing-pellets-are-less-potent-to-induce-consistent-demyelination-in-the-corpus-callosum-of-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Tanja Hochstrasser, Gianna Lisa Exner, Stella Nyamoya, Christoph Schmitz, Markus Kipp
The chopper chelator cuprizone serves as a valuable chemical tool to induce consistent and reproducible demyelination in the central nervous system. However, the daily preparation of fresh cuprizone powder mixed in finely ground rodent chow might well be a particular health problem. Alternative methods, such as the fabrication of cuprizone-containing pellets, are available. The effectiveness of this method is, however, not known. In the present study, we compared whether intoxication of C57BL/6 mice with 0...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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