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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054065/investigating-desorption-during-ethanol-elution-to-improve-the-quality-and-antioxidant-activity-of-xylo-oligosaccharides-from-corn-stalk
#1
Jie Zhang, Yue-Hai Wang, Quan-Yuan Wei, Xiao-Jia Du, Yong-Shui Qu
As the most representative of lignocellulosic materials, corn stalk (CS) will be a great candidate to produce xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Owing to the high impurity content of the XOS produced by directly enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan extracted from CS, subsequent refining steps are essential. The present study was aimed to investigate desorption during ethanol elution to improve the quality and antioxidant activity of XOS from CS. The desorption was systematically investigated after optimizing the elution conditions...
October 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054064/continuous-hydrogen-and-methane-production-from-agave-tequilana-bagasse-hydrolysate-by-sequential-process-to-maximize-energy-recovery-efficiency
#2
Virginia Montiel Corona, Elías Razo-Flores
Continuous H2 and CH4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H2/L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053931/removal-of-cu-ii-in-water-by-polymer-enhanced-ultrafiltration-influence-of-polymer-nature-and-ph
#3
Olga D Kochkodan, Viktor M Kochkodan, Virender K Sharma
This study presents an efficient removal of Cu(II) in water using the polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) method. Polymer of different molecular weight (MW) (polyethyleneimine (PEI), sodium lignosulfonates (SLS) and dextrans) were investigated to evaluate efficiency in removal of Cu(II) in water by the PEUF method. The decomposition of Cu(II)-polymer complex was also evaluated in order to reuse polymers. Cu(II) complexation depends on the MW of chelating polymer and the pH of feed solution. It was found that the Cu(II) rejection increased with the polymer dosage with high removal of Cu(II) when using PEI and SLS at a 10:20 (mg/mg) ratio ([Cu(II)]:[polymer])...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053872/resveratrol-alleviates-heat-stress-induced-impairment-of-intestinal-morphology-microflora-and-barrier-integrity-in-broilers
#4
C Zhang, X H Zhao, L Yang, X Y Chen, R S Jiang, S H Jin, Z Y Geng
This study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on intestinal morphology, microfloras, and barrier integrity of broilers subjected to heat stress. Two-hundred-seventy 21-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. The 3 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were exposed to thermoneutral condition (22 ± 1°C), and the heat stress group and heat stress + resveratrol (400 mg/kg) group, in which birds were exposed to cyclic heat stress (33 ± 1°C for 10 h/d from 0800 to 1800 h and 22 ± 1°C for the remaining time...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053870/effects-of-hydroxychloride-and-sulfate-form-of-zinc-and-manganese-supplementation-on-superoxide-dismutase-activity-and-immune-responses-post-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-poultry-fed-marginally-lower-doses-of-zinc-and-manganese
#5
V Perez, R Shanmugasundaram, M Sifri, T M Parr, R K Selvaraj
Effects of hydroxychloride (OHCl) and sulfate form of zinc and manganese supplementation on immune responses of birds fed marginally lower levels of zinc and manganese during an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection were studied. In experiment I, 30-week-old layer birds were fed 50 mg/kg Zn+45 mg/kg Mn or 100 mg/kg Zn+90 mg/kg Mn in sulfate or OHCl form and injected with 0 or 500 μg/kg LPS in a 2 (50 mg Zn+45 mg Mn and 100 mg Zn+90 mg Mn) X 2 (sulfate and OHCl) X 2 (0 and 500 μg LPS) factorial setup of treatments for 10 weeks...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053869/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-fumonisins-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-broiler-chickens
#6
B Grenier, H E Schwartz-Zimmermann, C Gruber-Dorninger, I Dohnal, M Aleschko, G Schatzmayr, W D Moll, T J Applegate
Fumonisins (FB) are among the most frequently detected mycotoxins in feedstuffs and finished feed, and recent data suggest that the functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in poultry species might be compromised at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg, close to field incidences and below the US and EU guidelines. Strategies are therefore necessary to reduce the exposure of poultry to FB. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87, commercial name FUMzyme®) to cleave the tricarballylic acid side chains of FB, leading to the formation of non-toxic hydrolyzed fumonisins in the GIT of broiler chickens...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053866/impact-of-litter-salmonella-status-during-feed-withdrawal-on-salmonella-recovery-from-the-broiler-crop-and-ceca
#7
R J Buhr, D V Bourassa, A Hinton, B D Fairchild, C W Ritz
Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053856/propolis-supplementation-attenuates-the-negative-effects-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-paraquat-injection-on-productive-performance-and-immune-function-in-turkey-poults
#8
Ahmed O Abass, Nancy N Kamel, Walaa H Khalifa, G F Gouda, M A F El-Manylawi, Gamal M K Mehaisen, Magdi M Mashaly
Paraquat (PQ) is used as a herbicide in agriculture and causes oxidative and inflammatory damage to animal tissues. The current study was conducted to investigate the positive effects of dietary propolis (PR), as a potent naturally produced antioxidant, on growth performance and immune function of turkey poults exposed to oxidative stress induced by PQ injection. Native male turkey poults (n = 120, 49-d-old) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: poults received a basal diet with a daily subcutaneous PQ injection of 5 mg/kg BW for 7 consecutive days (PQ group), an experimental diet containing 1 g/kg PR with a daily subcutaneous PQ injection for 7 days (PR+PQ group), or received the experimental PR diet with a daily subcutaneous injection of 0...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053854/dietary-betaine-supplementation-increases-adrenal-expression-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-yolk-deposition-of-corticosterone-in-laying-hens
#9
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053847/effect-of-low-incubation-temperature-and-low-ambient-temperature-until-21-days-of-age-on-performance-and-body-temperature-in-fast-growing-chickens
#10
D Nyuiadzi, A Travel, B Méda, C Berri, L A Guilloteau, V Coustham, Y Wang, J K Tona, A Collin
Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis was previously reported to decrease the occurrence of ascites and to potentially improve cold tolerance of broilers. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of the interaction of cold incubation temperatures and cool ambient temperatures until 21 d of age on performance and body temperature. Ross 308 eggs were incubated either under control conditions I0 (37.6°C) or with cyclic cold stimulations I1 (6 h/d at 36.6°C from d 10 to 18 of incubation) or with 2 cold stimulations I2 (30 min at 15°C) at d 18 and 19 of incubation...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053842/differential-expression-of-water-channel-and-noncoding-rna-biogenesis-related-genes-in-three-lines-of-chickens-under-a-short-term-water-restriction
#11
S Orlowski, J Flees, N Anthony, S Dridi
Genetic selection for high growth rate has resulted in tremendous changes not only in feed efficiency, but also in water consumption between modern broilers and their ancestor jungle fowl (JF). However molecular mechanisms involved in water homeostasis are still not well defined. This study aimed, therefore, to determine the effect of short-term water restriction on the expression of water channel- and noncoding RNA biogenesis-related genes in the kidney and whole blood of JF, broiler population from the 1990s (RB1995), and modern broiler population developed in 2015 (ARB2015)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053839/laying-hens-behave-differently-in-artificially-and-naturally-sourced-ammoniated-environments
#12
B B Pokharel, V M Dos Santos, D Wood, B Van Heyst, A Harlander-Matauschek
Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053834/effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zinc-glycine-chelate-and-zinc-sulfate-on-cytokine-and-immunoglobulin-gene-expression-profiles-in-chicken-intestinal-tissue
#13
L Jarosz, A Marek, Z Gradzki, M Kwiecien, B Zylinska, B Kaczmarek
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic and organic forms of Zn on the expression of cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β) and immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) in the tissues of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) of broiler chickens. In the experiment, 90 broiler chickens were divided into 4 experimental groups and a control group, with 18 birds each. The birds received Zn supplements in inorganic form with and without phytase (ZnSO4 and ZnSO4 + F), and in organic form with glycine, with and without phytase (Zn-Gly and Zn-Gly + F)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053831/effect-of-dietary-fiber-levels-on-performance-gizzard-development-intestinal-morphology-and-nutrient-utilization-in-meat-ducks-from-1-to-21-days-of-age
#14
H Y Han, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, Y H Luo, J P Wang, Q F Zeng
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary fiber levels on growth performance, gizzard development, intestinal morphology, and nutrient utilization in Cherry Valley meat ducks. In total, 720 1-day-old ducklings were fed with starter diets (120 ducklings, 8 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing 6 levels of crude fiber (CF, 1.46, 3.09, 4.15, 6.18, 7.52, and 9.03%, based on analysis) for 21 d. Then, on d 22, ducks fed all of the starter diets were transferred to a grower diet (containing 4% CF) to examine the residual effect of starter dietary fiber levels until 35 d...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053822/characterization-of-indigenous-chicken-production-systems-in-rwanda
#15
J Mahoro, T K Muasya, F Mbuza, R Habimana, A K Kahi
Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053819/changes-in-immune-and-metabolic-gut-response-in-broilers-fed-%C3%AE-mannanase-in-%C3%AE-mannan-containing-diets
#16
R J Arsenault, J T Lee, R Latham, B Carter, M H Kogut
β-galactomannans found in soy-based broiler feed are known to cause physiological effects that are hypothesized to be related to gut inflammation. Previous studies have shown that the incorporation of β-mannanase in the diet or as a supplement results in improvements to certain performance parameters related to gut health and feed conversion. Using kinome analysis, we characterized the mechanism of β-galactomannan activity and supplementation with β-mannanase on the gut of commercial broilers to understand the mode of action...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053812/efficacy-of-feed-additives-to-reduce-the-effect-of-naturally-occurring-mycotoxins-fed-to-turkey-hen-poults-reared-to-6-weeks-of-age
#17
J E N Tilley, J L Grimes, M D Koci, R A Ali, C R Stark, P K Nighot, T F Middleton, A C Fahrenholz
Corn with naturally occurring aflatoxin (AF), wheat with naturally occurring doxynivalenol (DON), and barley with naturally occurring zearalenone (ZEA) were used to make rations for feeding turkey hen poults to 6 weeks of age. Control rations with equal amounts of corn, wheat, and barley were also fed. The control rations did contain some DON while both sets of rations contained ZEA. Within each grain source, there were 4 treatments: the control ration plus 3 rations each with a different feed additive which were evaluated for the potential to lessen potential mycotoxin effects on bird performance and physiology...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053811/effects-of-the-supplemental-chromium-form-on-performance-and-oxidative-stress-in-broilers-exposed-to-heat-stress
#18
N Sahin, A Hayirli, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, F Akdemir, J R Komorowski, K Sahin
This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the organic complex form of supplemental chromium (Cr) on performance, oxidative stress markers, and serum profile in broilers exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 1,200 10-day-old boilers (Ross-308) was divided into one of the 6 treatments (2 environmental temperatures x 3 diets with different Cr forms). The birds were kept in temperature-controlled rooms at either 22 ± 2°C 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN group) or 34 ± 2°C for 8 h/d, 08:00 to 17:00 h, followed by 22°C for 16 h (HS group) and fed either a basal diet (C) or the basal diet supplemented with Cr (200 μg/kg) through 1...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053741/the-importance-of-propolis-in-alleviating-the-negative-physiological-effects-of-heat-stress-in-quail-chicks
#19
Gamal M K Mehaisen, Rania M Ibrahim, Adel A Desoky, Hosam M Safaa, Osama A El-Sayed, Ahmed O Abass
Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053729/the-influence-of-the-selection-of-macronutrients-coupled-with-dietary-energy-density-on-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#20
Sonia Y Liu, Peter V Chrystal, Aaron J Cowieson, Ha H Truong, Amy F Moss, Peter H Selle
A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period...
2017: PloS One
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