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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320080/interlaboratory-trial-for-the-measurement-of-total-cobalt-in-equine-urine-and-plasma-by-icp-ms
#1
Marie-Agnes Popot, Emmie N M Ho, Natali Stojiljkovic, Florian Bagilet, Pierre Remy, Pascal Maciejewski, Benoit Loup, George H M Chan, Sabine Hargrave, Rick M Arthur, Charlie Russo, James White, Pamela Hincks, Clive Pearce, George Ganio, Paul Zahra, David Batty, Mark Jarrett, Lydia Brooks, Lise-Anne Prescott, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, Terence S M Wan
Cobalt is an essential mineral micronutrient and is regularly present in equine nutritional and feed supplements. Therefore, cobalt is naturally present at low concentrations in biological samples. The administration of cobalt chloride is considered to be blood doping and is thus prohibited. In order to control the misuse of cobalt, it was mandatory to establish an international threshold for cobalt in plasma and/or in urine. To achieve this goal an international collaboration, consisting of an interlaboratory comparison, between 5 laboratories for the urine study and 8 laboratories for the plasma study has been undertaken...
March 20, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320034/variations-in-infant-cyp2b6-genotype-associated-with-the-need-for-pharmacological-treatment-for-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-in-infants-of-methadone-maintained-opioid-dependent-mothers
#2
Helen Mactier, Poppy McLaughlin, Cheryl Gillis, Michael David Osselton
Background Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants of methadone-maintained opioid-dependent (MMOD) mothers cannot be predicted in individual cases. We investigated whether variation in infant genotype is associated with severity of NAS. Methods This is a pilot observational cohort study of 21 MMOD mothers and their newborns. Infant buccal swabs were obtained soon after delivery, together with a maternal blood sample for the determination of maternal plasma methadone concentration. Genomic variation in five opioid-related genes (ABCB1, COMT, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and OPRM1) was ascertained from infant buccal swabs and related to need for pharmacological treatment of NAS...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319852/pterostilbene-a-dimethylated-analog-of-resveratrol-promotes-energy-metabolism-in-obese-rats
#3
Koji Nagao, Tomoyuki Jinnouchi, Shunichi Kai, Teruyoshi Yanagita
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a dimethylated analog of resveratrol and has been reported to exert various pharmacological effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pterostilbene on the pathogenesis of obesity and energy metabolism in obese rats. Pterostilbene significantly activates silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in vitro. At 4 weeks a 0.5% pterostilbene diet markedly suppressed the abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation in obese rats...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319770/mechanisms-and-effects-of-arsanilic-acid-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-communities-during-pig-manure-digestion
#4
Wei Sun, Xun Qian, Jie Gu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Li Zhang, Ai-Yun Guo
High concentrations of residual arsanilic acid occur in pig manure due to its use in feed to promote growth and control diseases. This study compared the effects of arsanilic acid at three concentrations (0, 325, and 650mg/kg dry pig manure) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the microbial community during anaerobic digestion. Addition of 650mg/kg arsanilic acid enhanced the absolute abundances of tetC, sul2, ermB, and gyrA more than twofold in the digestion product. Redundancy analysis indicated that the change in the microbial community structure was the main driver of variation in the ARGs profile...
March 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319397/a-scalable-platform-for-structured-and-hybrid-soft-nanocolloids-by-continuous-precipitation-in-a-confined-environment
#5
Victoria E Lee, Chris Sosa, Rui Liu, Robert K Prud'homme, Rodney D Priestley
Geometrically-structured polymer nanocolloids, including Janus nanocolloids, have been widely investigated for their unique properties, which are derived from their anisotropy. Controlled surface decoration with inorganic nanoparticles could induce another level of functionality into structured nanocolloids that could enable applications in fields ranging from re-writeable electronics to biphasic catalysis. Here, we demonstrate Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), as a one-step and scalable process platform to manufacture hybrid polymer-inorganic nanocolloids in which one phase is selectively decorated with a metal nanocatalyst by tuning the molecular interactions between the feed ingredients during the process...
March 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#6
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319177/radiological-features-of-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumors-in-intra-abdominal-and-retroperitoneal-regions-a-series-of-18-cases
#7
Xiaoping Yi, Wenguang Liu, Youming Zhang, Desheng Xiao, Hongling Yin, Xueying Long, Li Li, Hongyan Zai, Minfeng Chen, Wenzheng Li, Lunquan Sun
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the imaging and clinicopathological features of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) arising in intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal regions. METHODS: Eighteen patients with histopathologically proven intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal PNET were enrolled; computed tomography was performed for all cases, and magnetic resonance imaging was performed for a single case. Typical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings, including morphology, texture and enhancement features, as well as clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis data were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319154/effectiveness-of-community-based-complementary-food-supplement-yingyangbao-distribution-in-children-aged-6-23-months-in-poor-areas-in-china
#8
Jie Wang, Suying Chang, Liyun Zhao, Wentao Yu, Jian Zhang, Qingqing Man, Li He, Yifan Duan, Hui Wang, Robert Scherpbier, Shi-An Yin
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319123/saccharomyces-boulardii-and-bacillus-subtilis-b10-modulate-tlrs-and-cytokines-expression-patterns-in-jejunum-and-ileum-of-broilers
#9
Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Sun Yajing, Muhammad Asif Arain, Li Weifen, Li Ping, Dost Muhammad Bloch, Liu Wenhua
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319012/the-expanding-world-of-human-leishmaniasis
#10
James A Cotton
New Leishmania isolates form a novel group of human parasites related to Leishmania enrietti, with cases in Ghana, Thailand, and Martinique; other relatives infect Australian and South American wildlife. These parasites apparently cause both cutaneous and visceral disease, and may have evolved a novel transmission mechanism exploiting blood-feeding midges.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318789/transport-of-microplastics-by-two-collembolan-species
#11
Stefanie Maaß, Daniel Daphi, Anika Lehmann, Matthias C Rillig
Plastics, despite their great benefits, have become a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, with microplastic particles having come into focus most recently. Microplastic effects have been intensely studied in aquatic, especially marine systems; however, there is lack of studies focusing on effects on soil and its biota. A basic question is if and how surface-deposited microplastic particles are transported into the soil. We here wished to test if soil microarthropods, using Collembola, can transport these particles over distances of centimeters within days in a highly controlled experimental set-up...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318749/experience-and-outcomes-of-micrografting-for-major-paediatric-burns
#12
H Rode, R Martinez, D Potgieter, S Adams, A D Rogers
BACKGROUND: The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery...
March 15, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318688/impact-of-phenylketonuria-type-meal-on-appetite-thermic-effect-of-feeding-and-postprandial-fat-oxidation
#13
Hani Alfheeaid, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Ana-Maria Năstase, Mie Elhauge, Barbara Cochrane, Dalia Malkova
BACKGROUND: Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318599/perinatal-risk-factors-for-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jianghu Zhu, Tingting Zhu, Zhenlang Lin, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common surgical cause of nonbilious vomiting in infancy. The etiology of IHPS is not completely understood. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between perinatal factors and IHPS onset. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published in English before December 2016. The combined odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318598/pediatric-eating-assessment-tool-10-as-an-indicator-to-predict-aspiration-in-children-with-esophageal-atresia
#15
Tutku Soyer, Sule Yalcin, Selen Serel Arslan, Numan Demir, Feridun Cahit Tanyel
AIM: Airway aspiration is a common problem in children with esophageal atresia (EA). Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool-10 (pEAT-10) is a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate dysphagia symptoms in children. A prospective study was performed to evaluate the validity of pEAT-10 to predict aspiration in children with EA. METHODS: Patients with EA were evaluated for age, sex, type of atresia, presence of associated anomalies, type of esophageal repair, time of definitive treatment, and the beginning of oral feeding...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318587/technical-note-mining-data-from-on-farm-electronic-equipment-to-identify-the-time-dairy-cows-spend-away-from-the-pen
#16
A J Thompson, D M Weary, M A G von Keyserlingk
The electronic equipment used on farms can be creatively co-opted to collect data for which it was not originally designed. In the current study, we describe 2 novel algorithms that harvest data from electronic feeding equipment and data loggers used to record standing and lying behavior, to estimate the time that dairy cows spend away from their pen to be milked. Our 2 objectives were to (1) measure the ability of the first algorithm to estimate the time cows spend away from the pen as a group and (2) determine the capability of a second algorithm to estimate the time it takes for individual cows to return to their pen after being milked...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318584/short-communication-early-modification-of-the-circadian-organization-of-cow-activity-in-relation-to-disease-or-estrus
#17
Isabelle Veissier, Marie-Madeleine Mialon, Karen Helle Sloth
Biological rhythms are an essential regulator of life. There is evidence that circadian rhythm of activity is disrupted under chronic stress in animals and humans, and it may also be less marked during diseases. Here we investigated whether a detectable circadian rhythm of activity exists in dairy cows in commercial settings using a real-time positioning system. We used CowView (GEA Farm Technologies) to regularly record the individual positions of 350 cows in a Danish dairy farm over 5 mo and to infer the cows' activity (resting, feeding, in alley)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318583/effects-of-feeding-hull-less-barley-on-production-performance-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-nutrient-digestibility-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
Y Yang, G Ferreira, C L Teets, B A Corl, W E Thomason, C A Griffey
The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#19
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318577/effect-of-dietary-mineral-phosphorus-and-phytate-on-in-situ-ruminal-phytate-disappearance-from-different-concentrates-in-dairy-cows
#20
E Haese, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The first objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary composition on the in situ disappearance of phytate (InsP6) from wheat, corn, soybean meal, and rapeseed meal [solvent-extracted, without (RSM) or with (hRSM) heat treatment] in the rumen of dairy cows. The second objective was to assess the primary degradation products of InsP6 in the rumen. Three diets differing in phosphorus and InsP6 concentration (basal diet = 0.38% P in dry matter; high-P diet = 0.56% P; high-InsP6 diet = 0.39% P) were fed to 3 ruminally fistulated lactating Jersey cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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