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Forensic DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353346/singleplex-quantitative-real-time-pcr-for-the-assessment-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-quantity-and-quality
#1
Corey Goodwin, Denice Higgins, Shanan S Tobe, Jeremy Austin, Andrew Wotherspoon, Michelle E Gahan, Dennis McNevin
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can provide a means for forensic identity testing when genotyping of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) targets is not possible due to degradation or lack of template. For degraded samples, an indication of the quantity and quality of mtDNA is essential to allow selection of appropriately sized targets for hypervariable region (HVR) analysis, which may conserve sample and resources. Three human-specific mtDNA targets of increasing length (86, 190 and 452 base pairs) were amplified by singleplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), capable of providing an index of mtDNA degradation from fragment length information...
January 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352750/histomorphological-analysis-of-the-variability-of-the-human-skeleton-forensic-implications
#2
Marco Cummaudo, Annalisa Cappella, Miranda Biraghi, Caterina Raffone, Nicholas Màrquez-Grant, Cristina Cattaneo
One of the fundamental questions in forensic medicine and anthropology is whether or not a bone or bone fragment is human. Surprisingly at times for the extreme degradation of the bone (charred, old), DNA cannot be successfully performed and one must turn to other methods. Histological analysis at times can be proposed. However, the variability of a single human skeleton has never been tested. Forty-nine thin sections of long, flat, irregular and short bones were obtained from a well-preserved medieval adult human skeleton...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332557/evaluation-of-a-victim-centered-trauma-informed-victim-notification-protocol-for-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#3
Rebecca Campbell, Jessica Shaw, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing, which raises complex issues regarding how victims ought to be notified about what happened to their kits. In this project, we evaluated a victim-centered, trauma-informed victim notification protocol that was implemented in Detroit, Michigan. Most victims (84%) did not have a strong negative emotional reaction to notification, and most (57%) decided to reengage with the criminal justice system...
April 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331680/estimating-error-rates-for-firearm-evidence-identifications-in-forensic-science
#4
John Song, Theodore V Vorburger, Wei Chu, James Yen, Johannes A Soons, Daniel B Ott, Nien Fan Zhang
Estimating error rates for firearm evidence identification is a fundamental challenge in forensic science. This paper describes the recently developed congruent matching cells (CMC) method for image comparisons, its application to firearm evidence identification, and its usage and initial tests for error rate estimation. The CMC method divides compared topography images into correlation cells. Four identification parameters are defined for quantifying both the topography similarity of the correlated cell pairs and the pattern congruency of the registered cell locations...
December 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331679/molecular-identification-of-forensically-important-calliphoridae-and-sarcophagidae-species-using-its2-nucleotide-sequences
#5
Ji Hye Park, Yu-Hoon Kim, Chan Seon Ham, Sang Eon Shin, Hyun Ju Lee, Kwang Soo Ko, Jinhyuk Choi, Gi Hoon Son, Seong Hwan Park
The application of insect evidence to forensic investigations is mainly based on the estimation of postmortem interval and the identification of insect species from samples that are collected from the crime scene. Due to the limited number of expert taxonomists, species identification is one of the major barriers for crime scene investigators to utilize forensic entomology. Therefore, the molecular identification of species, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, has been suggested as an alternative strategy...
January 3, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330875/performance-of-the-early-access-ampliseq%C3%A2-mitochondrial-panel-with-degraded-dna-samples-using-the-ion-torrent%C3%A2-platform
#6
Ka Tak Wai, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn
The Early Access AmpliSeq™ Mitochondrial Panel amplifies whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic and kinship identifications, using Ion Torrent™ technology. There is currently limited information on its performance with degraded DNA, a common occurrence in forensic samples. This study evaluated the performance of the Panel with DNA samples degraded in vitro, to mimic conditions commonly found in forensic investigations. Purified DNA from five individuals was heat-treated at five time points each (125°C for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes; total n = 25)...
January 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328966/cementum-as-a-source-of-dna-in-challenging-forensic-cases
#7
Hussam Mansour, Oliver Krebs, Jan Peter Sperhake, Christa Augustin, Till Koehne, Michael Amling, Klaus Püschel
Each forensic case is characterized by its own uniqueness. Deficient forensic cases require additional sources of human identifiers to assure the identity. We report on two different cases illustrating the role of teeth in answering challenging forensic questions. The first case involves identification of an adipocere male found in a car submersed in water for approximately 2 years. The second scenario, which involves paternity DNA testing of an exhumed body, was performed approximately 2.8 years post-mortem...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306795/a-retrospective-study-of-sexual-offences-in-zambia
#8
Innocent Makasa, Laura Jane Heathfield
Zambia has recently reported high incidences of sexual abuse against women and children. Zambian law categorises sexual offences into rape, defilement, incest and others, with defilement constituting the majority of the reported cases (>89%). Between 2010 and 2012, convictions of defilement cases were achieved in only 13% of cases reported to the police. DNA evidence has shown prominence in resolving crimes, specifically as an identification tool in sexual offences. Currently there is no empirical evidence describing the role of forensic evidence in sexual crimes in Zambia; as such a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate this between 2007 and 2014 (n = 1154)...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305242/allelic-and-haplotype-diversity-of-12-x-strs-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#9
Mohamed A Almarri, Reem A Lootah
X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) are used to complement autosomal and Y-STRs in complex kinship testing, and can be of potential value when determining trace female DNA in male background. We analyzed extracted and directly-amplified samples of 501 males from the United Arab Emirates and report the forensic statistical parameters of 12 X-STRs and haplotypes of the four previously defined linkage groups using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. Combined PDM, PDF, MEC Desmarais Trio and MEC Desmarais Duo based on allele (and haplotype) frequencies were 0...
December 29, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304396/forensic-parameters-of-the-x-str-decaplex-system-in-mexican-populations
#10
C Mariscal Ramos, G Martínez-Cortes, B Ramos-González, H Rangel-Villalobos
We studied the X-STR decaplex system in 529 DNA female samples of Mexican populations from five geographic regions. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were estimated in each region and in the pooled Mexican population. Genotype distribution by locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in each Mexican population sample. Similarly, linkage equilibrium was demonstrated between pair of loci. Pairwise comparisons and genetic distances between Mexican, Iberoamerican and one African populations were estimated and graphically represented...
December 29, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301114/neither-femur-nor-tooth-petrous-bone-for-identifying-archaeological-bone-samples-via-forensic-approach
#11
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301113/factors-associated-with-trace-evidence-analyses-and-dna-findings-among-police-reported-cases-of-rape
#12
Camilla Forr, Berit Schei, Lise Eilin Stene, Kari Ormstad, Cecilie Therese Hagemann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between victim, suspect and assault characteristics and (1) forensic analysis of trace evidence, (2) detection of spermatozoa and (3) DNA match in police-reported cases of rape/attempted rape. In addition, we explored whether DNA findings were associated with legal outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on police-reported rapes and attempted rapes of women  ≥16 years of age in Sør-Trøndelag Police District throughout 1997-2010...
December 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298306/dna-recovery-from-wild-chimpanzee-tools
#13
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Lydia Luncz, Joanna Osborn, Yingying Li, Beatrice H Hahn, Michael Haslam
Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289820/simple-and-rapid-identification-of-saliva-by-detection-of-oral-streptococci-using-direct-polymerase-chain-reaction-combined-with-an-immunochromatographic-strip
#14
Jee Won Lee, Ju Yeon Jung, Si-Keun Lim
In this paper, we describe the development of a novel method to detect oral bacteria by combining direct polymerase chain reaction (direct PCR) with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS), enabling the identification of saliva in forensic samples. Direct PCR was first used to directly amplify specific oral bacterial sequences (from Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus salivarius) from swab samples, circumventing the need for tedious sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction and purification...
December 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284931/are-tooth-prints-a-hard-tissue-equivalence-of-finger-print-in-mass-disaster-a-rationalized-review
#15
REVIEW
Shaik Kamal Sha, B Vengal Rao, M Sirisha Rao, K V Halini Kumari, Sudarshan Kumar Chinna, Divya Sahu
Personal identification methods may not be efficient when bodies are decomposed, burned, in cases of mass disasters when soft tissue cannot provide reliable information or has been lost. Various methods currently employed in forensic odontology for personal identification include comparing with antemortem dental charts, rugoscopy, denture labeling, DNA analysis from dental pulp, bite mark analysis, etc., Recently, there is growing interest in the study of enamel rod end patterns. These enamel rod end patterns are termed as "Tooth prints" and the study of these prints is known as "Ameloglyphics" (amelo: Enamel, Glyphics: Carvings)...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283004/elimination-of-contaminating-amplified-short-tandem-repeat-products-by-autoclaving-and-ultraviolet-irradiation
#16
Jun Ohta, Atsunori Tanaka
DNA contamination can result in false interpretation of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA typing. Proper decontamination is particularly required in forensic DNA laboratories where probative value of the evidence may be affected. The aim of this study was to establish an effective DNA decontamination procedure for amplified STR products focusing on laboratory-related contamination. We verified the effectiveness of thermally and temporally extended autoclaving and ultraviolet irradiation for the elimination of contaminating amplified STR products...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279961/assessment-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-detected-on-commercial-panel-using-mps-system-with-artificial-mixture-samples
#17
Sohee Cho, Moon Young Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Soong Deok Lee
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is a potential genetic marker for forensic mtDNA analysis as well as phylogenic studies. Frequency of mtDNA heteroplasmy has been investigated in different populations through massively parallel sequencing (MPS) analysis, revealing various levels of frequency based on different MPS systems. For accurate heteroplasmy identification, it is essential to explore reliable detection threshold on various MPS systems. In addition, software solutions and pipelines need to be evaluated to analyze data effectively...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275559/-forensic-investigation-in-han-population-by-sifa%C3%A2-23-plex-kit-%C3%AF-beta-version%C3%AF
#18
W H Gong, S H Xue, Y Zhang, R X Zhu, Z M Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of SiFa™ 23 Plex Kit (beta version) and its population genetics of STR loci in Han population. METHODS: Genotyping was performed for 1 000 unrelated healthy Han individuals by the kit. The efficiency of the kit was tested, and the frequency data and population genetics parameter information of STR loci were analysed statistically. RESULTS: The minimum amplification system could be 6.25 μL. In 25 μL standard reaction system, a satisfied genotyping profiles could be obtained with the DNA content as low as 125 pg...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275090/lessons-from-a-study-of-dna-contaminations-from-police-services-and-forensic-laboratories-in-switzerland
#19
Patrick Basset, Vincent Castella
In Switzerland, the DNA profiles of police officers collecting crime scene traces as well as forensic genetic laboratories employees are stored in the staff index of the national DNA database to detect potential contaminations. Our study aimed at making a national inventory of contaminations to better understand their origin and to make recommendations in order to decrease their occurrence. For this purpose, a retrospective questionnaire was sent to both police services and forensic genetic laboratories for each case where there was a contamination...
December 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248957/ancestry-inference-of-96-population-samples-using-microhaplotypes
#20
Ozlem Bulbul, Andrew J Pakstis, Usha Soundararajan, Cemal Gurkan, Jane E Brissenden, Janet M Roscoe, Baigalmaa Evsanaa, Ariunaa Togtokh, Peristera Paschou, Elena L Grigorenko, David Gurwitz, Sharon Wootton, Robert Lagace, Joseph Chang, William C Speed, Kenneth K Kidd
Microhaplotypes have become a new type of forensic marker with a great ability to identify and deconvolute mixtures because massively parallel sequencing (MPS) allows the alleles (haplotypes) of the multi-SNP loci to be determined directly for an individual. As originally defined, a microhaplotype locus is a short segment of DNA with two or more SNPs defining three or more haplotypes. The length is short enough, less than about 300 bp, that the read length of current MPS technology can produce a phase-known sequence of each chromosome of an individual...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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