keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Forensic DNA

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088090/degradation-in-forensic-trace-dna-samples-explored-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#1
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Robert Lyle, Thore Egeland, Peter Gill
Routine forensic analysis using STRs will fail if the DNA is too degraded. The DNA degradation process in biological stain material is not well understood. In this study we sequenced old semen and blood stains by massively parallel sequencing. The sequence data coverage was used to measure degradation across the genome. The results supported the contention that degradation is uniform across the genome, showing no evidence of regions with increased or decreased resistance towards degradation. Thus the lack of genetic regions robust to degradation removes the possibility of using such regions to further optimize analysis performance for degraded DNA...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078776/performance-of-the-forenseq-tm-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-highly-degraded-samples
#2
Paolo Fattorini, Carlo Previderé, Ilaria Carboni, Giorgio Marrubini, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Pierangela Grignani, Barbara Bertoglio, Paolo Vatta, Ugo Ricci
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the emerging technology in forensic genomics laboratories. It offers higher resolution to address most problems of human identification, greater efficiency and potential ability to interrogate very challenging forensic casework samples. In the present study, a trial set of DNA samples was artificially degraded, by progressive aqueous hydrolysis, and analyzed together with the corresponding unmodified DNA sample and control sample 2800M, to test the performance and reliability of the ForenSeq(TM) DNA Signature Prep kit using the MiSeq Sequencer (Illumina)...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078444/mps-analysis-of-the-mtdna-hypervariable-regions-on-the-miseq-with-improved-enrichment
#3
Mitchell M Holland, Laura A Wilson, Sarah Copeland, Gloria Dimick, Charity A Holland, Robert Bever, Jennifer A McElhoe
The non-coding displacement (D) loop of the human mitochondrial (mt) genome contains two hypervariable regions known as HVR1 and HVR2 that are most often analyzed by forensic DNA laboratories. The massively parallel sequencing (MPS) protocol from Illumina (Human mtDNA D-Loop Hypervariable Region protocol) utilizes four sets of established PCR primer pairs for the initial amplification (enrichment) step that span the hypervariable regions. Transposase adapted (TA) sequences are attached to the 5'-end of each primer, allowing for effective library preparation prior to analysis on the MiSeq, and AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase is the enzyme recommended for amplification...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073087/a-nearest-neighbour-approach-by-genetic-distance-to-the-assignment-of-individual-trees-to-geographic-origin
#4
Bernd Degen, Céline Blanc-Jolivet, Katrin Stierand, Elizabeth Gillet
During the past decade, the use of DNA for forensic applications has been extensively implemented for plant and animal species, as well as in humans. Tracing back the geographical origin of an individual usually requires genetic assignment analysis. These approaches are based on reference samples that are grouped into populations or other aggregates and intend to identify the most likely group of origin. Often this grouping does not have a biological but rather a historical or political justification, such as "country of origin"...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070706/analysis-of-12-x-str-loci-in-the-population-of-south-croatia
#5
Gordan Mršić, Petar Ozretić, Josip Crnjac, Siniša Merkaš, Ivana Račić, Sara Rožić, Viktorija Sukser, Maja Popović, Marina Korolija
The aim of the study was to assess forensic pertinence of 12 short tandem repeats (STRs) on X-chromosome in south Croatia population. Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kit was used to co-amplify 12 STR loci belonging to four linkage groups (LGs) on X-chromosome in 99 male and 98 female DNA samples of unrelated donors. PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Population genetic and forensic parameters were calculated by the Arlequin and POPTREE2 software, and an on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068530/a-new-view-on-the-european-feline-population-from-mtdna-analysis-in-polish-domestic-cats
#6
Iwona Głażewska, Tomasz Kijewski
Domestic cats from Eastern Europe have been poorly represented in studies on mitochondrial DNA diversity for forensic purposes until now. The aim of the present study was to contribute to closing this gap. The genetic structure and the origin of a cat population in Poland were examined against the background of human migrations over the centuries. One hundred and eighty-one cats from animal shelters in seven cities were genotyped. Twenty-one mtDNA haplotypes were found, with only one haplotype present in each of the populations, at an average frequency of 63...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063583/analysis-of-fingerprint-samples-testing-various-conditions-for-forensic-dna-identification
#7
Lana Ostojic, Elisa Wurmbach
Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete)...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063581/results-of-an-inter-and-intra-laboratory-exercise-on-the-assessment-of-complex-autosomal-dna-profiles
#8
Corina C G Benschop, Edward Connolly, Ricky Ansell, Bas Kokshoorn
The interpretation of complex DNA profiles may differ between laboratories and reporting officers, which can lead to discrepancies in the final reports. In this study, we assessed the intra and inter laboratory variation in DNA mixture interpretation for three European ISO17025-accredited laboratories. To this aim, 26 reporting officers analyzed five sets of DNA profiles. Three main aspects were considered: 1) whether the mixed DNA profiles met the criteria for comparison to a reference profile, 2) the actual result of the comparison between references and DNA profiling data and 3) whether the weight of the DNA evidence could be assessed...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052096/sex-determination-from-fragmented-and-degenerated-dna-by-amplified-product-length-polymorphism-bidirectional-snp-analysis-of-amelogenin-and-sry-genes
#9
Kotoka Masuyama, Hideki Shojo, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Shota Inokuchi, Noboru Adachi
Sex determination is important in archeology and anthropology for the study of past societies, cultures, and human activities. Sex determination is also one of the most important components of individual identification in criminal investigations. We developed a new method of sex determination by detecting a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the amelogenin gene using amplified product-length polymorphisms in combination with sex-determining region Y analysis. We particularly focused on the most common types of postmortem DNA damage in ancient and forensic samples: fragmentation and nucleotide modification resulting from deamination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051148/tissue-microarray-analysis-applied-to-bone-diagenesis
#10
Rafael Barrios Mello, Maria Regina Regis Silva, Maria Teresa Seixas Alves, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Rafaella Arrabaca Francisco, Rafael Dias Astolphi, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura
Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044459/species-level-identification-of-the-blowfly-chrysomya-megacephala-and-other-diptera-in-china-by-dna-barcoding
#11
Deyi Qiu, Charles E Cook, Qiaoyun Yue, Jia Hu, Xiaoya Wei, Jian Chen, Dexing Liu, Keliang Wu
The blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, or oriental latrine fly, is the most common human-associated fly of the oriental and Australasian regions. Chrysomya megacephala is of particular interest for its use in forensic entomology and because it is a disease vector. The larvae are economically important as feed for livestock and in traditional Chinese medicine. Identification of adults is straightforward, but larvae and fragments of adults are difficult to identify. We collected C. megacephala, its allies Chrysomya pinguis and Protophormia terraenovae, as well as flies from 11 other species from 52 locations around China, then sequenced 658 base pairs of the COI barcode region from 645 flies of all 14 species, including 208 C...
October 14, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040630/pace-probabilistic-assessment-for-contributor-estimation-a-machine-learning-based-assessment-of-the-number-of-contributors-in-dna-mixtures
#12
Michael A Marciano, Jonathan D Adelman
The deconvolution of DNA mixtures remains one of the most critical challenges in the field of forensic DNA analysis. In addition, of all the data features required to perform such deconvolution, the number of contributors in the sample is widely considered the most important, and, if incorrectly chosen, the most likely to negatively influence the mixture interpretation of a DNA profile. Unfortunately, most current approaches to mixture deconvolution require the assumption that the number of contributors is known by the analyst, an assumption that can prove to be especially faulty when faced with increasingly complex mixtures of 3 or more contributors...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033530/mini-snapshot-multiplex-assays-authenticate-elephant-ivory-and-simultaneously-identify-the-species-origin
#13
Thitika Kitpipit, Kantima Thongjued, Kitichaya Penchart, Kanita Ouithavon, Wilaiwan Chotigeat
Illegal trading of ivory is mainly responsible for the dramatic decline in elephant populations. Thailand is one of the largest laundering hotspots for African ivory, as the domestic Asian elephant ivory can be legally traded. So, to help combat ivory poaching and smuggling, an efficient method is needed to identify the elephant species from its ivory and ivory products. In this study, a mini-SNaPshot(®) multiplex assay was developed and fully validated for the identification of confiscated ivory and low DNA template ivory products...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#14
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025791/high-resolution-melt-curve-analysis-based-on-methylation-status-for-human-semen-identification
#15
Caitlyn Fachet, Lawrence Quarino, K Joy Karnas
A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex(®) 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018424/evaluation-of-forensic-dna-traces-when-propositions-of-interest-relate-to-activities-analysis-and-discussion-of-recurrent-concerns
#16
REVIEW
Alex Biedermann, Christophe Champod, Graham Jackson, Peter Gill, Duncan Taylor, John Butler, Niels Morling, Tacha Hicks, Joelle Vuille, Franco Taroni
When forensic scientists evaluate and report on the probative strength of single DNA traces, they commonly rely on only one number, expressing the rarity of the DNA profile in the population of interest. This is so because the focus is on propositions regarding the source of the recovered trace material, such as "the person of interest is the source of the crime stain." In particular, when the alternative proposition is "an unknown person is the source of the crime stain," one is directed to think about the rarity of the profile...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012376/importance-sampling-allows-hd-true-tests-of-highly-discriminating-dna-profiles
#17
Duncan Taylor, James M Curran, John Buckleton
Hd true testing is a way of assessing the performance of a model, or DNA profile interpretation system. These tests involve simulating DNA profiles of non-donors to a DNA mixture and calculating a likelihood ratio (LR) with one proposition postulating their contribution and the alternative postulating their non-contribution. Following Turing it is possible to predict that "The average LR for the Hd true tests should be one"[1]. This suggests a way of validating softwares. During discussions on the ISFG software validation guidelines [2] it was argued by some that this prediction had not been sufficiently examined experimentally to serve as a criterion for validation...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008628/analysis-of-four-pcr-snapshot-multiplex-assays-analyzing-52-snpforid-markers
#18
Goodwin Will, Alimat Sharizah
The SNPforID consortium identified a panel of 52 SNPs forensic analysis that has been used by several laboratories worldwide. The original analysis of the 52 SNPs was based on a single multiplex reaction followed by two single-base-extension (SBE) reactions each of which was analyzed using capillary electrophoresis. The SBE assays were designed for high throughput genetic analyzers and were difficult to use on the single capillary ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer and the latest generation 3500 Genetic Analyzer, as sensitivity on the 310 was low and separation of products on the 3500 with POP-7™ was poor...
December 23, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997969/studying-the-microbiome-omics-made-accessible
#19
Paul W O'Toole, Burkhardt Flemer
The term microbiome refers to the collection of microbes or microbial genes in a specified location or clinical sample. Identifying micro-organisms has historically relied upon bacteriological culture, which is time consuming and difficult to effectively implement. The recent adaptation of culture-independent techniques for profiling microbial communities, allied with next-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing, allows clinician scientists to determine the entire microbial content of a specimen to a forensic level of detail within 48 hours...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995319/prediction-of-biogeographical-ancestry-from-genotype-a-comparison-of-classifiers
#20
Elaine Y Y Cheung, Michelle Elizabeth Gahan, Dennis McNevin
DNA can provide forensic intelligence regarding a donor's biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and other externally visible characteristics (EVCs). A number of algorithms have been proposed to assign individual human genotypes to a BGA using ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels. This study compares the BGA assignment accuracy of the population clustering program STRUCTURE and three generic classification approaches including a Bayesian algorithm, genetic distance, and multinomial logistic regression (MLR). A selection of 142 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from existing marker panels (SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex, Seldin, and Kidd's AIM panels) to assess BGA classification at the continental level for Africans, Europeans, East Asians, and Amerindians...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
keyword
keyword
37758
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"