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Viral myocarditis

Ge Li-Sha, Liu Li, Zhou De-Pu, Shi Zhe-Wei, Gu Xiaohong, Chen Guang-Yi, Li Jia, Lin Jia-Feng, Chu Maoping, Li Yue-Chun
This study was designed to explore the effects of ivabradine on cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a murine model of chronic viral myocarditis (CVMC). Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Coxsackievirus B3 at days 1, 14, and 28, respectively. On day 42, the mice were gavaged with ivabradine for 30 days until the 72nd day. The heart of infected mice was dilated and a large number of interstitial fibroblasts infiltrated into the myocardium on day 42. Compared with the untreated CVMC mice, mice treated with ivabradine showed a significant reduction in heart rate and less impairment of left ventricular function on day 72...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mark N Belkin, Nir Uriel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. These patients are at an increased risk for heart disease, specifically HIV-associated cardiomyopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, HIV-associated cardiomyopathy was predominantly noted as systolic dysfunction, but diastolic dysfunction has become more common with increased use of HAART...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Peter Moritz Becher, Svenja Hinrichs, Nina Fluschnik, Jan K Hennigs, Karin Klingel, Stefan Blankenberg, Dirk Westermann, Diana Lindner
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Although optimal medical care and treatment is widely available, the prognosis of patients with HF is still poor. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important compartments of the innate immunity. Current studies have identified TLRs as critical mediators in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of TLRs and interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) in different experimental HF models including viral myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac hypertrophy...
2018: PloS One
Hui Tang, Hua Pei, Qianfeng Xia, Yimei Tang, Ji Huang, Jie Huang, Fang Pei
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis (VMC). However, the role of IL-17A polymorphisms in susceptibility to VMC has not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to explore the association between IL-17A variants as well as serum IL-17 levels with VMC. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2275913, rs3819025, and rs3748067) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 236 VMC patients and 259 controls from China...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle mainly caused by viral infection. Due to the diverse clinical presentation of myocarditis, accurate diagnosis demands simultaneous histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular biological workup of endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) as defined by the position statement of the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology on myocarditis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endomyocardial biopsy-based analysis of viral transcriptional activity, mRNA expression, epigenetics and region-specific protein expression analysis via imaging mass spectrometry have led to the identification of novel potential diagnostic criteria, markers with prognostic value and therapeutic targets for the treatment of viral myocarditis, opening new avenues for novel therapies, including cell therapies, as well as the use of established treatment options, be it from other indications...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Weihui Gou, Zhen Zhang, Chunfeng Yang, Yumei Li
Macrophage polarization plays a crucial role in regulating myocardial inflammation and injuries of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis (VM). It has been reported that miR-223 is a potent regulator of inflammatory responses that involved in macrophage polarization. However, the functional roles of miR-223 in CVB3-induced VM still remain unknown. Here, we found that miR-223 expression was significantly down-regulated in heart tissues and heart-infiltrating macrophages of CVB3-infected mice. Up-regulation of miR-223 in vivo protected the mice against CVB3-induced myocardial injuries characterized by the increased body weight and survival, enhanced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS), relieved inflammation, depressed creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels, reduced production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 as well as increased IL-10...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Manabu Yamada, Katsuhiko Fukai, Kazuki Morioka, Tatsuya Nishi, Reiko Yamazoe, Rie Kitano, Nobuaki Shimada, Kazuo Yoshida, Toru Kanno, Kenichi Sakamoto, Makoto Yamakawa
We examined the histological distribution of the lesions and the viral antigen associated with the virus and virus RNA in multisystemic organs in the early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010 infection in pigs. Characteristic lesions commonly observed in pigs with FMD arise following inoculation with 106 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50 /ml of FMDV O/JPN/2010 in pigs at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) by a natural infectious route. However, none of the six pigs inoculated with 103 TCID50 /ml of FMDV O/JPN/2010 showed any evidence of infection up to 6 dpi...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Zhao-Peng Dong, Qian Wang, Zhen-Jie Zhang, Michael J Carr, Dong Li, Wei-Feng Shi
Globally, coxsackievirus B4 (CV-B4) has been continuously isolated and evidence suggests an association with the development of pancreatitis and type I diabetes. In addition, CV-B4 is also associated with myocarditis and severe central nervous system (CNS) complications, which remain poorly studied and understood. In the present study, we established an Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mouse model of CV-B4 infection and examined whether CV-B4 infection resulted in a predisposition to myocarditis and CNS infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
N Ling, C-L Li, Z-Z Wang, H-N Zhang, H Xu, X-J An
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the heart rate variability in children with myocarditis presenting with ventricular arrhythmias. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study compared the characteristics of heart rate variability (HRV) among 67 children with viral myocarditis (VMC), presenting with (n=35) and without (n=32) ventricular arrhythmias and a control group of 30 healthy children. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the HRV time-domain indicators of children with VMC were significantly lower (p<0...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
E A Kogan, O V Blagova, N M Faizullina, A V Nedostup, V A Sulimov
AIM: to investigate the myocardial expression of some structural proteins and markers of cellular proliferation and innate immunity for assessing their possible diagnostic and prognostic role in patients with chronic myocarditis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 23 patients (16 men; mean age, 52.0±12.4 years (range, 27 to 73) with various forms of noncoronarogenic myocardial injury who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (n=4), intraoperative left ventricular biopsy (n=17) or autopsy (n=2)...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Jennifer Kuntz, Bradley Crane, Sheila Weinmann, Allison L Naleway
Reports of myocarditis and pericarditis following smallpox vaccination in adults suggested a need to assess inflammatory cardiac disease risk among adults who receive live viral vaccinations. From 1996 through 2007, among 416,629 vaccinated adults in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, we identified one probable pericarditis case and no cases of myocarditis in the 42 days following a live viral vaccination. Our self-controlled risk interval analysis found that, based on one case identified during the risk interval and 10 cases during the control interval, there is no increased risk of myopericarditis in the 42 days following vaccination (IRR, 0...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Nannan Zhou, Yan Yue, Sidong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis is a widespread cardiac disease associated with inflammation and myocardial injury and is predominantly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection in humans as well as in mice. CVB3-induced myocarditis shows sexually dimorphic sensitivity and is more prevalent in male mice. Our previous studies showed that natural killer (NK) cells played an indispensable role in CVB3-induced myocarditis, and female mice exhibited less pathological cardiac interferon gamma (IFN-γ)+ NK cell infiltration than did male mice...
January 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Teresa Frey, Nofil Arain
Pediatric myocarditis is a common pediatric illness most commonly secondary to a preceding viral infection. It is a leading cause of acquired heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac transplantation in pediatrics. Due to the variability in presentation, the diagnosis is often unrecognized until later in the disease course. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with respiratory distress, since this is the most common presentation. Imagining modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have become a useful diagnostic tool in recent years; however, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard diagnostic test...
January 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Mirnalini Sharma, Baijayantimala Mishra, Uma Nahar Saikia, Ajay Bahl, R K Ratho
Background & objectives: Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of human Enterovirus group, is the most common cause of viral myocarditis. Coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor (CAR) is identified as a key determinant for the entry of CVB in the target cells. Thus, blockade of receptor by RNA interference (RNAi) may inhibit the entry and pathogenesis of CVB in cardiac cells. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of CAR small dsRNA (siRNA) on coxsackieviral load and CAR expression in coxsackievirus-infected cardiomyocytes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Charles E Alex, Steven V Kubiski, Linlin Li, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Raymund F Wack, Megan A McCarthy, Joseph B Pesavento, Eric Delwart, Patricia A Pesavento
Aleutian mink disease virus is the type species in the genus Amdoparvovirus, and in mink and other Mustelidae can cause either subclinical disease or fatal chronic immune stimulation and immune complex disease. The authors describe a novel amdoparvovirus in the endangered red panda ( Ailurus fulgens), discovered using viral metagenomics. The authors analyzed the prevalence, tissue distribution, and disease association by PCR, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy, and histology in a group of 6 red pandas from a single zoological collection...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Adrian T Huber, Marine Bravetti, Jérôme Lamy, Tania Bacoyannis, Charles Roux, Alain de Cesare, Aude Rigolet, Olivier Benveniste, Yves Allenbach, Mathieu Kerneis, Philippe Cluzel, Nadjia Kachenoura, Alban Redheuil
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a group of autoimmune diseases with systemic myositis which may involve the myocardium. Cardiac involvement in IIM, although often subclinical, may mimic clinical manifestations of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Our aim was to investigate the usefulness of the combined analysis of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping parameters measured both in the myocardium and in the thoracic skeletal muscles to differentiate AVM from IIM cardiac involvement...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Olli H Laitinen, Emma Svedin, Sebastian Kapell, Minna M Hankaniemi, Pär G Larsson, Erna Domsgen, Virginia M Stone, Juha A E Määttä, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
Enteroviruses (EVs), such as the Coxsackie B-viruses (CVBs), are common human pathogens, which can cause severe disease including meningitis, myocarditis and neonatal sepsis. EVs encode two proteases (2Apro and 3Cpro), which perform the proteolytic cleavage of the CVB polyprotein and also cleave host cell proteins to facilitate viral replication. The 2Apro cause direct damage to the infected heart and tools to investigate 2Apro and 3Cpro expression may contribute new knowledge on virus-induced pathologies. Here, we developed new antibodies to CVB-encoded 2Apro and 3Cpro; Two monoclonal 2Apro antibodies and one 3Cpro antibody were produced...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Fangqiang Song, Fanpo Kong, Hongqing Zhang, Yongqin Zhou, Ming Li
Inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated in the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis (AVM). Ulinastantin (UTI), an inhibitor of serine protease widely used in treatment of pancreatitis and various inflammatory disorders, displays cardioprotective properties in experimental animals. Although the specific mechanism through which UTI regulates cardiac function is not well explored, evidence suggests that UTI might activate nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. In this study, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in mediating UTI's cardioprotection in a mouse model of AVM...
January 30, 2018: Inflammation
Yu Wang, Cheng-Xi Wei, Li-Qun Shao, Ming Zhao
Background: Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that modulate many target genes. Viral myocarditis is common cardiomyopathy, however, there is an absence of effective therapeutic strategies for viral myocarditis (VMC). The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in miRNAs expression in VMC mice. Methods: Atrial myocytes were infected coxsackievirus B3 and miRNAs microarray was performed. miRNAs target predicted and the bioinformatics analysis was carried out by gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis...
January 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Yaping Wang, Liangliang Jia, Jian Shen, Yidong Wang, Zurong Fu, Sheng-An Su, Zhejun Cai, Jian-An Wang, Meixiang Xiang
Cathepsin B (CatB) is a cysteine proteolytic enzyme widely expressed in various cells and mainly located in the lysosomes. It contributes to the pathogenesis and development of many diseases. However, the role of CatB in viral myocarditis (VMC) has never been elucidated. Here we generated the VMC model by intraperitoneal injection of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) into mice. At day 7 and day 28, we found CatB was significantly activated in hearts from VMC mice. Compared with the wild-type mice receiving equal amount of CVB3, genetic ablation of CatB (Ctsb-/-) significantly improved survival, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, decreased serum level of cardiac troponin I, and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction, without altering virus titers in hearts...
January 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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