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Viral myocarditis

Miao Yu, Qi Long, Huan-Huan Li, Wei Liang, Yu-Hua Liao, Jing Yuan, Xiang Cheng
Myocardial injuries in viral myocarditis (VMC) are caused by viral infection and related autoimmune disorders. Recent studies suggest that IL-9 mediated both antimicrobial immune and autoimmune responses in addition to allergic diseases. However, the role of IL-9 in viral infection and VMC remains controversial and uncertain. In this study, we infected Balb/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and found that IL-9 was enriched in the blood and hearts of VMC mice on days 5 and 7 after virus infection. Most of IL-9 was secreted by CD8(+) T cells on day 5 and CD4(+) T cells on day 7 in the myocardium...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiran He, Bo Gao, Lei Zhou, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis, which is mainly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), affects about 5%-20% of the world population and still lacks efficient treatments. Green tea, a tonic and healthful beverage that was originated in ancient China, has been receiving considerable attention for its protective effect on cardiovascular diseases in recent years. In present investigation, we aimed to explore the effect of Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on CVB3-induced myocarditis and its underlying mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Xin-Yue Cheng, Yu-Huan Li, Sheng Tang, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiang Wang, Sheng-Gang Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang, Ying-Hong Li, Dan-Qing Song
Twenty-eight new 12N-benzenesulfonyl matrinic butane and halogenated 12N-sulfonyl matrinic butane/ethane derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-coxsakievirus activities against CVB3 taking compound 1 as the lead. SAR analysis indicated the introduction of a fluoro atom on the 1'-position might be helpful for keeping potency. Among them, compound 8a exhibited potential activities against all CVBs with IC50 ranging from 0.69 to 5.14 μM, suggesting a broad-spectrum anti-coxsackievirus B feature...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Job Verdonschot, Mark Hazebroek, Jort Merken, Yannick Debing, Robert Dennert, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Stephane Heymans
Over the last decade, parvovirus B19 (B19V) has frequently been linked to the pathogenesis of myocarditis (MC) and its progression towards dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The exact role of the presence of B19V and its load remains controversial, as this virus is also found in the heart of healthy subjects. Moreover, the prognostic relevance of B19V prevalence in endomyocardial biopsies still remains unclear. As a result, it is unclear whether the presence of B19V should be treated. This review provides an overview of recent literature investigating the presence of B19V and its pathophysiological relevance in MC and DCM, as well as in normal hearts...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Xiao-Qiang Li, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Xue-Ying Wang, Yan-Hua Xie, Qian Yang, Xin-Xin Liu, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Wei Cao, Si-Wang Wang
The chemical property of cinnamaldehyde is unstable in vivo, although early experiments have shown its obvious therapeutic effects on viral myocarditis (VMC). To overcome this problem, we used cinnamaldehyde as a leading compound to synthesize derivatives. Five derivatives of cinnamaldehyde were synthesized: 4-methylcinnamaldehyde (1), 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (2), 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3), α-bromo-4-methylcinnamaldehyde (4), and α-bromo-4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (5). Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells infected by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) were used to evaluate their antiviral and cytotoxic effects...
October 17, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Goran Davidović, Stefan Simović, Slobodanka Mitrović, Violeta Irić-Ćupić, Vladimir Miloradović
A 19-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with a diagnosis of suspected acute pericarditis and acute coronary syndrome. The initial diagnostics at our clinic revealed fulminant myocarditis. Twenty-four hours after admission, the patient's condition deteriorated, and he required mechanical ventilation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, the patient died. Clinical course, postmortem pathohistological findings and virus serology indicated that an H1N1 viral caused fulminant myocarditis and was the primary manifestation...
May 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Haibin Jin, Xiaoming Guo
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis, which is often caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is a serious clinical disorder characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Valproic acid (VPA) is described as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory diseases. However, the role and the detailed mechanism of VPA in viral myocarditis remain unclear. METHODS: Experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis was induced in mice by intraperitoneally (i...
October 10, 2016: Virology Journal
Tuanjie Wang, Jian Zhang, Aiju Xiao, Weiqing Liu, Yun Shang, Jindou An
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is characterized as an inflammatory process of the myocardium and can be fatal in infants and children. Melittin is a major polypeptide in honey bee venom that has been traditionally used against inflammation. However, its effect on VMC and the underlying molecular mechanism has not been reported. In this study, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with CVB3 to build a VMC model and treated with melittin. The results showed that melittin increased the mice's body weight and inhibited CVB3 replication...
September 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
E Stephenson, K Savvatis, S A Mohiddin, F M Marelli-Berg
T-cell-mediated immunity has been linked not only to a variety of heart diseases, including classic inflammatory diseases such as myocarditis and post-myocardial infarction (Dressler's) syndrome, but also to conditions without an obvious inflammatory component such as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and hypertensive cardiomyopathy. It has been recently proposed that in all these conditions, the heart becomes the focus of T-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation following ischaemic or infectious injury. For example, in acute myocarditis, an inflammatory disease of heart muscle, T-cell responses are thought to arise as a consequence of a viral infection...
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ning Dong, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Coxsackievirus (CVB3) infection is the most common cause of viral myocarditis (VMC) characterized by viral infection and myocardial inflammation. ADAR1, the interferon (IFN)-inducible adenosine deaminase acting on RNA, has been reported to be functional in various viruses. Recent studies have demonstrated that ADAR1 holds an antiviral role or promotes viral replication depending on virus type. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether or not ADAR1 affects CVB3-induced VMC...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Nicole Ettischer-Schmid, Andrea Normann, Martina Sauter, Lisa Kraft, Hubert Kalbacher, Reinhard Kandolf, Bertram Flehmig, Karin Klingel
Human enteroviruses, e.g. coxsackieviruses, induce a variety of severe acute and chronic forms of disease, including myocarditis, meningitis and diabetes mellitus type 1. To visualize enterovirus infection with a diagnostic intent, many studies have applied a commercially available antibody (anti-CVB5 VP1, clone 5-D8/1, Dako, Hamburg, Germany) that identifies VP1 of different enteroviral serotypes. Many antibodies, however, have been found to bind non-specifically to proteins of cardiomyocytes and in the interstitial space, resulting in non-specific staining in immunohistochemistry...
August 27, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Yun-Gyeong Lee, Jung-Ho Park, Eun-Seok Jeon, Jin-Hee Kim, Byung-Kwan Lim
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the main cause of acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Plant extract is considered as useful materials to develop new antiviral drug. We select the candidate plant extract, which showed anti-inflammatory effect previously. We examined the antiviral effects by using a HeLa cell survival assay. Among these extracts, we chose the Amomi Cardamomi (Amomi) extract, which showed strong antiviral effect and preserved cell survival in CVB3 infection. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the ability of Amomi extract to inhibit CVB3 infection and replication...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jon Persichino, Roger Garrison, Rajagopal Krishnan, Made Sutjita
BACKGROUND: Coxsackie B is a viral pathogen that presents with various invasive diseases in adults. Historically, the majority of adult cases with pericarditis or myocarditis have been attributed to coxsackievirus B. The presentation of this viral infection causing effusive-constrictive pericarditis, hepatitis or pancreatitis is rare. This case report is the first to describe a patient with concomitant effusive-constrictive pericarditis, hepatitis and pancreatitis from possible coxsackievirus B infection...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
U Grabmaier, G Kania, J Kreiner, J Grabmeier, A Uhl, B C Huber, K Lackermair, N Herbach, A Todica, U Eriksson, L T Weckbach, S Brunner
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)...
2016: PloS One
Matteo Pozzi, Carlo Banfi, Daniel Grinberg, Catherine Koffel, Karim Bendjelid, Jacques Robin, Raphaël Giraud, Jean François Obadia
Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria. Different triggers could be advocated as possible etiologies of myocarditis such as viral and non-viral infections, medications, systemic autoimmune diseases and toxic reactions. The spectrum of clinical presentations of myocarditis is broad and varies from subclinical asymptomatic courses to refractory cardiogenic shock. The prognosis of patients with myocarditis depends mainly on the severity of clinical presentation...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Moacyr Magno Palmeira, Hellen Yuki Umemura Ribeiro, Yan Garcia Lira, Fernando Octávio Machado Jucá Neto, Ivone Aline da Silva Rodrigues, Letícia Nazareth Fernandes da Paz, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro
BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications constitute a rare clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This virus is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of myocarditis and cardiac insufficiency due to primary CMV infection. Serological tests by using ELISA method showed positive results for the virus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old man with no prior comorbidities presenting with dyspnoea, fever, and oedema was admitted to the cardiac emergency service...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Gary Tse, Jie M Yeo, Yin Wah Chan, Eric T H Lai Lai, Bryan P Yan
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an unsolved problem in the twenty-first century. It is often due to rapid onset, ventricular arrhythmias caused by a number of different clinical conditions. A proportion of SCD patients have identifiable diseases such as cardiomyopathies, but for others, the causes are unknown. Viral myocarditis is becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to unexplained mortality, and is thought to be a major cause of SCD in the first two decades of life. Myocardial inflammation, ion channel dysfunction, electrophysiological, and structural remodeling may play important roles in generating life-threatening arrhythmias...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Angela K Peter, William H Bradford, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Chieh-Ju Chao, Kirk L Peterson, Kirk U Knowlton
OBJECTIVES: To address the question as to whether echocardiographic and/or microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis can be utilized to assess the extent of Coxsackie B virus (CVB) induced myocarditis in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction in the mouse. BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis is a significant clinical problem with associated inflammation of the myocardium and myocardial injury. Murine models of myocarditis are commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, but methods for imaging the mouse myocardium have been limited to echocardiographic assessment of ventricular dysfunction and, to a lesser extent, MRI imaging...
2016: PloS One
Prisca Tshimanga, Benoît Daron, Nesrine Farhat, Brigitte Desprechins, Marc Gewillig, Marie-Christine Seghaye
In childhood, chest pain occurring at exercise is a common complaint. A cardiac etiology for it is exceptionally found, explaining that most children do not undergo systematic cardiological investigation. However, chest pain at exercise may manifest as the unique symptom of a viral myocarditis. Recognizing this form of myocardial injury, however, might help to avoid clinical deterioration by providing adequate care. In this paper, we report on two children presenting with the unique clinical symptom of chest pain related to physical activity and in whom laboratory and cardiac investigations suggested transient myocardial damage related to myocarditis...
April 26, 2016: Clinics and Practice
R A Leme, T E S Oliveira, A F Alfieri, S A Headley, A A Alfieri
This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6)...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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