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Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jorge C Kattah
Background: Previous series of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) identified numerous etiologies, but surprisingly, a cause in a significant number of cases remains unknown. In an effort to understand possible etiology and management strategies, a global effort is currently in progress. Here, I contribute my 10-year experience with both acute and chronic BVL during the 2007-2017 decade. Methods: This is a retrospective review of the charts and EMR of patients diagnosed with BVL in the last 10 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Z Siddiqui, K Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Abhishek De, Murlidhar Rajagopalan, Aarti Sarda, Sudip Das, Projna Biswas
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, is also known as drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome and by various other names. It is now recognised as one of the severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCAR) and can be potentially life-threatening. Historically, it was most frequently linked with phenytoin and was initially described as phenytoin hypersensitivity syndrome. However, it was later found to be caused by various other medications. Anticonvulsants and sulfonamides are the most common offender...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
February 27, 2018: Cell
Militiadis A Makrygiannakis, Eleftherios G Kaklamanos, Athanasios E Athanasiou
Background: As the taking of any medication may theoretically affect the complex pathways responsible for periodontal tissue homeostasis and the events leading to orthodontic tooth movement, it is considered important for the orthodontist to be able to identify prospective patients' history and patterns of pharmaceutical consumption. Objective: To systematically investigate and appraise the quality of the available evidence regarding the effect of commonly prescribed medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Sapan Kumar Behera, Saibal Das, Alphienes Stanley Xavier, Sandhiya Selvarajan
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious and potentially fatal adverse effect to therapeutic medications. The incidence of this condition varies among different ethnicities because of the difference in the genetic makeup. Though fever, rash and eosinophilia are essential features for the diagnosis of this syndrome, these vary from patient to patient along with the involvement of various organs such as liver, kidney, lungs, pancreas, etc. Some of the atypical features are dysphagia, agranulocytosis, and chylous ascites...
March 15, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Kazumi Sugihara
 In recent years, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have emerged as significant pollutants of aquatic environments and have been detected at levels in the range of ng/L to μg/L. The source of PPCPs is humans and livestock that have been administered pharmaceuticals and subsequently excreted them via urine and feces. Unlike agricultural chemicals, the environmental dynamics of PPCPs is not examined and they would undergo structural transformation by environmental factors, e.g., sunlight, microorganisms and treatments in sewage treatment plants (STPs)...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Anne von Mässenhausen, Wulf Tonnus, Nina Himmerkus, Simon Parmentier, Danish Saleh, Diego Rodriquez, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Rosalind L Ang, Joel M Weinberg, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Adrian Zierleyn, Jan Ulrich Becker, Blandine Baratte, Nathalie Desban, Stéphane Bach, Ina Maria Schiessl, Shoko Nogusa, Siddharth Balachandran, Hans Joachim Anders, Adrian T Ting, Markus Bleich, Alexei Degterev, Karl Kunzelmann, Stefan R Bornstein, Douglas R Green, Christian Hugo, Andreas Linkermann
Receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1/3) have best been described for their role in mediating a regulated form of necrosis, referred to as necroptosis. During this process, RIPK3 phosphorylates mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) to cause plasma membrane rupture. RIPK3-deficient mice have recently been demonstrated to be protected in a series of disease models, but direct evidence for activation of necroptosis in vivo is still limited. Here, we sought to further examine the activation of necroptosis in kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and from TNFα-induced severe inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), two models of RIPK3-dependent injury...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mila Lovrić, Ivana Čajić, Željka Petelin Gadže, Iva Klarica Domjanović, Nada Božina
AIM: To estimate the effect size of concomitant antiepileptic therapy on the concentrations of lamotrigine, a drug often prescribed in combination with other antiepileptic drugs (AED), which can act as enzyme inducers or inhibitors. METHODS: A total of 304 patients with epilepsy, aged 18-70 years, were divided into a lamotrigine monotherapy group and groups receiving lamotrigine with AEDs that act as enzyme inducers, enzyme inhibitors, or both. We compared lamotrigine monotherapy serum concentrations with those where lamotrigine was administered with a metabolic inhibitor valproate, metabolic inducers carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, or topiramate, and both an inducer and an inhibitor...
February 28, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
Takumi Asada, Naoki Yoshihara, Yasushi Ochiai, Shin-Ichiro Kimura, Yasunori Iwao, Shigeru Itai
Water-soluble polymers with high viscosity are frequently used in the design of sustained-release formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs to enable complete release of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. Tablets containing matrix granules with a water-soluble polymer are preferred because tablets are easier to handle and the multiple drug-release units of the matrix granules decreases the influences of the physiological environment on the drug. However, matrix granules with a particle size of over 800 μm sometimes cause a content uniformity problem in the tableting process because of the large particle size...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
M Crettenand, A O Rossetti, T Buclin, U Winterfeld
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the passage of various antiepileptic drugs into breast milk and its consequences for the infant is limited. Faced with this uncertainty, breastfeeding is often discouraged for these patients. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the available data regarding antiepileptic drugs during breastfeeding, to compare these data with information provided by the summary of product characteristics (SmPCs), and to provide recommendations for the use of these drugs in breastfeeding women...
February 27, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Jesse Fishman, Linda Kalilani, Yan Song, Elyse Swallow, Imane Wild
BACKGROUND: Unexpected breakthrough seizures resulting from suboptimal antiepileptic drug (AED) dosing during the titration period, as well as adverse events resulting from rapid AED titration, may influence the titration schedule and significantly increase health care resource use (HRU) and health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between AEDs, HRU, and costs during AED titration and maintenance. METHODS: Practicing neurologists were recruited from a nationwide panel to provide up to 3 patient records each for this retrospective medical chart review...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Eita Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market or restricted to avoid unexpected adverse outcomes. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious issue for drug development. Among DILIs, idiosyncratic DILIs have been a serious problem in drug development and clinical uses. Idiosyncratic DILI is most often unrelated to pharmacological effects or the dosing amount of a drug. The number of drugs that cause idiosyncratic DILI continue to grow in part because no practical preclinical tests have emerged that can identify drug candidates with the potential for developing idiosyncratic DILIs...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Karen S Ho, Leah M Markham, Hope Twede, Amanda Lortz, Lenora M Olson, Xiaoming Sheng, Cindy Weng, E Robert Wassman, Tara Newcomb, E Robert Wassman, John C Carey, Agatino Battaglia
Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged...
February 22, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ben Lawton, Tessa Davis, Henry Goldstein, Andrew Tagg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the last 2 years, algorithms for the optimal management of status epilepticus have changed, as the medical community has recognized the need to terminate seizures in status in a timely manner. Recent research has evaluated the different choices of benzodiazepine and has given consideration to second-line treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a move to examine alternatives to phenytoin (such as levetiracetam and lacosamide) as second-line agents...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Tariq Zaman, Ingo Helbig, Ivana Babić Božović, Suzanne D DeBrosse, A Christina Bergqvist, Kimberly Wallis, Livija Medne, Aleš Maver, Borut Peterlin, Katherine L Helbig, Xiaohong Zhang, Ethan M Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-gated sodium (Na+ ) channels underlie action potential generation and propagation and hence are central to the regulation of excitability in the nervous system. Mutations in the genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN8A, encoding the Na+ channel pore-forming (α) subunits Nav1.1, 1.2, and 1.6, respectively, and SCN1B, encoding the accessory subunit β1 , are established causes of genetic epilepsies. SCN3A, encoding Nav1.3, is known to be highly expressed in brain, but has not previously been linked to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Lisa Gillinder, Alexander Lehn, Helen Brown, Sasha Dionisio
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine qualitative outcomes of presentations with acute recurrent seizures or status epilepticus to the emergency department of our institution after the introduction of a new seizure management protocol METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis on two cohorts of patients for all presentation to the emergency department of our institution. Presentations were reviewed from January to July pre protocol introduction and the same period post protocol...
February 20, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Thomas V Kodankandath, Salman Farooq, Wled Wazni, John-Andrew Cox, Christopher Southwood, Gregory Rozansky, Vijay Johnson, John R Lynch
Introduction: Seizures are a well-known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and occur most commonly in the immediate posthemorrhagic period. Most commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for seizure prophylaxis in aSAH include phenytoin and levetiracetam. There is no reliable data available on the safety and efficacy of restricting AED prophylaxis only till the aneurysm is secured. Methods: We retrospectively chart reviewed patients admitted to our neurosciences intensive care unit (NICU) with aSAH during the past two years...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
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