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Phenytoin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230619/population-pharmacokinetics-of-topiramate-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-using-routinely-monitored-data
#1
Masato Takeuchi, Ikuko Yano, Satoko Ito, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Shota Yamamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Akio Ikeda, Kazuo Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. METHODS: Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229367/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-by-rapamycin-decreases-p-glycoprotein-expression-and-spontaneous-seizures-in-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#2
Xiaosa Chi, Cheng Huang, Rui Li, Wei Wang, Mengqian Wu, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been demonstrated to mediate multidrug resistance in various tumors by inducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression. Here, we investigated the correlation between the mTOR pathway and P-gp expression in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Temporal cortex specimens were obtained from patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and age-matched controls who underwent surgeries at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between June 2014 and May 2015. We established a rat model of epilepsy kindled by coriaria lactone (CL) and screened pharmacoresistant rats (non-responders) using phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225210/prophylactic-drug-management-for-febrile-seizures-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Martin Offringa, Richard Newton, Martinus A Cozijnsen, Sarah J Nevitt
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate primarily the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures; but also to evaluate any other drug intervention where there was a sound biological rationale for its use...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225152/topical-phenytoin-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#4
REVIEW
Xiang Yong Hao, Hong Ling Li, He Su, Hui Cai, Tian Kang Guo, Ruifeng Liu, Lei Jiang, Yan Fei Shen
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223849/review-about-gabapentin-misuse-interactions-contraindications-and-side-effects
#5
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208879/carbamazepine-induced-life-threatening-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-agranulocytosis-the-maiden-case
#6
A Avinash, V Mohanbabu Amberkar, Sushil Kiran Kunder, Sharath Madhyastha, K Meenakumari
Stevens-Johnson syndrome is one of the few dermatological emergencies in clinical practice. The syndrome is often secondary to the usage of drugs, of which allopurinol, penicillins, sulfa drugs, ibuprofen, sodium valproate, phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine are commonly implicated. Agranulocytosis is the existence of a clinically significant reduction in neutrophil count. This condition is a serious threat to the patient, as he/she is at a greater risk of contracting bacterial or fungal infections, which may prove to be fatal...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205474/utility-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-surgical-management-of-drug-extravasation-a-case-report
#7
Yet Yen Yan, Tein Jin Tan
We report a case of phenytoin extravasation complicated by eschar formation. Pre-operative MRI study showed a large non-enhancing area over the dorsum of the imaged right wrist and hand corresponding with the site of phenytoin extravasation and raising the suspicion of subcutaneous tissue necrosis. The MRI findings correlated well with the intra-operative findings. We believe that pre-operative MRI in drug extravasation cases can characterise the type of soft tissue injury and define the extent of injury. This helps the surgeon in the surgical approach and treatment options...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202425/levetiracetam-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-a-patient-with-status-epilepticus
#8
Jonguk Kim, Jung-Won Shin
Levetiracetam has broad-spectrum activity in epilepsy. In contrast to phenytoin, levetiracetam has an ideal pharmacokinetic profile without any severe haemodynamic side effects and therefore intravenous loading of levetiracetam is commonly used in adult patients with status epilepticus, especially those who have medical problems. However, levetiracetam-induced serious adverse effects, such as thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia, have been reported in the literature. Here, we describe a case of status epilepticus after cardiac arrest treated with levetiracetam in which severe thrombocytopenia developed and was successfully managed by discontinuation of levetiracetam...
February 15, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181622/a-framework-for-multi-scale-simulation-of-crystal-growth-in-the-presence-of-polymers
#9
Taraknath Mandal, Wenjun Huang, Jodi M Mecca, Ashley Getchell, William W Porter, Ronald G Larson
We present a multi-scale simulation method for modeling crystal growth in the presence of polymer excipients. The method includes a coarse-grained (CG) model for small molecules of known crystal structure whose force field is obtained using structural properties from atomistic simulations. This CG model is capable of stabilizing the molecular crystal structure and capturing the crystal growth from the melt for a wide range of small organic molecules, as demonstrated by application of our method to the molecules isoniazid, urea, sulfamethoxazole, prilocaine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin...
February 9, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179720/using-team-based-learning-to-teach-a-hybrid-pharmacokinetics-course-online-and-in-class
#10
Ann Snyder Franklin, Susan Markowsky, Justin De Leo, Sven Normann, Erik Black
Objective. To compare the effectiveness of face-to-face and online team-based learning (TBL) to teach phenytoin pharmacokinetics. Design. A TBL format was used to teach an online cohort of 222 pharmacy students and two face-to-face cohorts (Tampa and Las Vegas) of pharmacy students. Students in all cohorts completed individual and team readiness tests (iRATs and tRATs), and a self-assessment survey to determine teamwork and content understanding. Knowledge retention questions also were added to the final examination...
December 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177134/the-influence-of-combination-use-of-cyp450-inducers-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-voriconazole-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
T-Y Li, W Liu, K Chen, S-Y Liang, F Liu
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal agent and is extensively metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP450); therefore, special precautions need to be taken when co-administered with a known CYP450 inducer, which may lead to treatment failure. The influence of some CYP450 inducers on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole has been described in previous studies, but a systematic review was lacking. In this study, we carried out a systematic review to assess the influence of CYP450 inducers on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of voriconazole...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176298/what-does-the-u-s-medicare-administrative-claims-database-tell-us-about-initial-antiepileptic-drug-treatment-for-older-adults-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#12
Roy C Martin, Edward Faught, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Joshua Richman, Ellen Funkhouser, Kendra Piper, Lucia Juarez, Chen Dai, Maria Pisu
OBJECTIVE: Disparities in epilepsy treatment are not uncommon; therefore, we examined population-based estimates of initial antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in new-onset epilepsy among racial/ethnic minority groups of older US Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare administrative claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries augmented for minority representation. New-onset epilepsy cases in 2009 had ≥1 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) 345...
February 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166164/phenytoin-induced-chorea-a-case-report
#13
Dalvir Gill, Mitchell Lyons, Fatme Allam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166108/short-term-vision-loss-following-whipple-surgery-a-case-report
#14
Lakshman Gollapalli, Aashish J Kumar, Kunal Sood, Rudram Muppuri
Occipital seizures may result in visual deficits and may be an ictal or postictal phenomenon. A 71-year-old woman underwent pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). During recovery in the postanesthesia care unit, the patient complained of blindness. Upon transfer to the intensive care unit, an electroencephalogram indicated bilateral occipital and hemispheric seizure activity. The patient was treated with antiseizure medication, and vision normalized within 3 days. Subtherapeutic concentration of free phenytoin was confirmed...
February 3, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160766/phenytoin-induced-gingival-overgrowth-caused-by-death-receptor-pathway-malfunction
#15
Reiri Takeuchi, Hiroko Matsumoto, Kazumune Arikawa, Chieko Taguchi, Ryuji Nakayama, Ikuo Nasu, Koichi Hiratsuka
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the role of phenytoin (PHT) in death receptor-induced apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts to clarify the mechanism of PHT-induced gingival overgrowth. METHODS: Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured to semi-confluence and treated with PHT (0.025, 0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 μM) for 48 h, and then the apoptotic cell numbers were relatively determined by absorptiometry. After 24 h of 0.25 μM PHT treatment, caspase activity was measured by absorptiometry, apoptotic and cell cycle phase distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry, expression levels of apoptotic genes were quantified by real-time qPCR, and expression of apoptotic proteins was detected by western blot analysis...
February 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144627/phenytoin-responsive-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-a-tandem-duplication-involving-fgf12
#16
Rui-Ming Shi, Tomoko Kobayashi, Atsuo Kikuchi, Ryo Sato, Mitsugu Uematsu, Kumiko An, Shigeo Kure
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142242/computational-modeling-of-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-acetate-succinate-hpmcas-and-phenytoin-interactions-a-systematic-coarse-graining-approach
#17
Wenjun Huang, Taraknath Mandal, Ronald G Larson
We present coarse-grained (CG) force fields for Hydroxypropyl-Methylcellulose Acetate Succinate (HPMCAS) polymers and the drug molecule phenytoin using a bead/stiff spring model, with each bead representing a HPMCAS monomer or monomer side group (hydroxypropyl acetate, acetate, or succinate), or a single phenytoin ring. We obtain the bonded and non-bonded interaction parameters in our CG model using the RDFs from atomistic simulations of short HPMCAS model oligomers (20-mer) and atomistic simulations of phenytoin molecules...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119481/lacosamide-inhibition-of-nav1-7-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-slow-binding-to-fast-inactivated-states
#18
Sooyeon Jo, Bruce P Bean
Lacosamide is an antiseizure agent targeting voltage-dependent sodium channels. Previous experiments have suggested that lacosamide is unusual in binding selectively to the slow-inactivated state of sodium channels, in contrast to drugs like carbamazepine and phenytoin that bind tightly to fast-inactivated states. We examined the state-dependent effects of lacosamide, using heterologously-expressed human Nav1.7 sodium channels. Lacosamide induced a reversible shift in the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation studied with 100 ms prepulses, suggesting binding to fast-inactivated states...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118749/warfarin-interaction-with-hepatic-cytochrome-p-450-enzyme-inducing-anticonvulsants
#19
Nathan P Clark, Kim Hoang, Thomas Delate, John R Horn, Daniel M Witt
BACKGROUND: Initiation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-inducing anticonvulsant medications during warfarin therapy may decrease anticoagulant effect and necessitate frequent warfarin dose adjustments to maintain therapeutic response measured by the international normalized ratio (INR). Clinical information regarding interactions between warfarin and these medications is limited. This study investigated warfarin dose and INR response following CYP-inducing anticonvulsant initiation among chronic warfarin users...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104975/antiepileptic-drugs-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-a-case-series
#20
Bhavi S Trivedi, Nishita H Darji, Supriya D Malhotra, Pankaj R Patel
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute life-threatening mucocutaneous reaction, characterized by extensive necrosis and detachment of the epidermis from the skin. The overall incidence of SJS is seen in five cases per million people per year. SJS is typically caused by drugs and is a kind of idiosyncratic reaction. Adverse drug reactions such an SJS have a remarkable effect on patient's safety issues. We encountered nine cases of antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced SJS, specifically with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin...
December 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
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