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Phenytoin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535865/intraperitoneal-administration-of-ethanol-as-a-means-of-euthanasia-for-neonatal-mice-mus-musculus
#1
Cecilia de Souza Dyer, Angela K Brice, James O Marx
The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitoneal injection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups (C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528211/intravenous-levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-for-status-epilepticus-and-cluster-seizures-a-prospective-randomized-study
#2
Arunodaya R Gujjar, Ramachandiran Nandhagopal, Poovathoor C Jacob, Abdulhakeem Al-Hashim, Khalfan Al-Amrani, Shyam S Ganguly, Abdullah Al-Asmi
PURPOSE: Status Epilepticus (SE) is a common medical emergency carrying a high morbidity and mortality. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant effective against varied seizures. Few prospective studies have addressed its use in SE. We aimed to examine the efficacy of intravenous LEV in controlling SE and cluster attacks of seizures (CS), in comparison with IV phenytoin (DPH), using a prospective, randomized study design. METHOD: Adult patients with SE or CS, following an initial dose of IV benzodiazepine to control ongoing seizure, were randomized to receive either medication...
May 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524224/-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infancy-how-do-we-treat-them-does-the-aetiology-influence-the-response-to-treatment
#3
S Roldan
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to treatments is a common feature of Ohtahara, Aicardi, West and Dravet syndromes, as well as malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. AIMS: To update the therapeutic management and to analyse whether the aetiology somehow determines the treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Convulsive seizures in the first year of life may be due to a potentially treatable aetiology, which makes it essential to carry out a complete evaluation so as to be able to begin, as early as possible, the most suitable and the non-specific symptomatic treatments to control the seizures, which prevents or minimises their deleterious effects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523600/sodium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#4
Martin J Brodie
Sodium channel blockers have been the mainstay of the pharmacological management of focal and generalised tonic-clonic seizures for more than 70 years. The focus of this paper will be on phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine acetate. All these antiepileptic drugs have similar efficacy and share similar dose-dependent, adverse effect profiles, although phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are more likely to cause idiosyncratic reactions than the others...
May 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521116/efficacy-of-anticonvulsant-substances-in-the-6hz-seizure-test-comparison-of-two-rodent-species
#5
Elise Esneault, Guillaume Peyon, Vincent Castagné
Usually performed in the mouse, the 6Hz seizure test is used for screening potential new anticonvulsant substances against complex partial seizures. Nevertheless, advanced models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are more often performed in rats, so that possible species-related differences may complicate the development of anticonvulsant substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the 6Hz test in the rat. We first compared the effects of increasing current intensities for inducing seizures in the mouse and in the rat...
May 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508174/preclinical-comparison-of-mechanistically-different-antiseizure-antinociceptive-and-or-antidepressant-drugs-in-a-battery-of-rodent-models-of-nociceptive-and-neuropathic-pain
#6
Misty D Smith, Jose H Woodhead, Laura J Handy, Timothy H Pruess, Fabiola Vanegas, Erin Grussendorf, Joel Grussendorf, Karen White, Karolina K Bulaj, Reisa K Krumin, Megan Hunt, Karen S Wilcox
The series of experiments herein evaluated prototype drugs representing different mechanisms of antiseizure, antinociceptive or antidepressant action in a battery of preclinical pain models in adult male CF#1 mice (formalin, writhing, and tail flick) and Sprague Dawley rats partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). In the formalin assay, phenytoin (PHT, 6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (VPA, 300 mg/kg), amitriptyline (AMI, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg), gabapentin (GBP, 30 and 70 mg/kg), tiagabine (TGB, 5 and 15 mg/kg), and acetominophen (APAP, 250 and 500 mg/kg) reduced both phases of the formalin response to ≤ 25% of vehicle-treated mice...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503166/inhibition-of-ectopic-arginine-vasopressin-production-by-phenytoin-in-the-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-line-lu-165
#7
Takahiro Ohta, Mitsuo Mita, Shigeru Hishinuma, Reiko Ishii-Nozawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Masaru Shoji
Phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV channel) antagonist, reportedly inhibits arginine vasopressin (AVP) release from an isolated rat neurohypophysis. So far, it is uncertain whether phenytoin has a direct action on ectopic AVP-producing neuroendocrine tumors. We studied the effect of phenytoin on the release of copeptin, the C-terminal fragment of pro-AVP, and expression of AVP gene in the human small cell lung cancer cell line Lu-165. Cells were maintained in RPMI1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and were used within the fifth passage...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502217/hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-inhibits-afterdischarge-and-increases-gaba-a-receptor-expression-in-amygdala-kindled-pharmacoresistant-epileptic-rats
#8
Guofeng Wu, Likun Wang, Zhen Hong, Siying Ren, Feng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. METHODS: A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats)...
May 14, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497312/phenytoin-neuroprotection-or-neurotoxicity
#9
REVIEW
Jan M Keppel Hesselink, David J Kopsky
Phenytoin is an 80-year young molecule and new indications are still emerging. The neuroprotective potential of phenytoin has been evaluated for decades. Recently, a positive phase II trial supported its further development in the treatment of optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis. In 1942, however, peripheral neuritis was first reported to be an adverse event of phenytoin, and since then a small but steady stream of publications discussed peripheral polyneuropathy as being a possible adverse event of phenytoin...
May 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491780/complexity-of-ranolazine-and-phenytoin-use-in-an-infant-with-long-qt-syndrome-type-3
#10
Reina Bianca Tan, Sujata Chakravarti, Melissa Busovsky-McNeal, Abigail Walsh, Frank Cecchin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: HeartRhythm Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481700/pediatric-status-epilepticus-improved-management-with-new-drug-therapies
#11
Alberto Verrotti, Michela Ambrosi, Piero Pavone, Pasquale Striano
Status Epilepticus (SE) is the most common neurological emergency of childhood. It requires prompt administration of appropriately selected anti-seizure medications. Areas covered: Following a distinction between estabilished and emergent drugs, we present pharmacological treatment options and their clinical utility in children, with a short mention on alternatives to drug treatment. We also propose an algorithm for the management of pediatric SE. For this review a Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was performed...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476759/hla-a-24-02-as-a-common-risk-factor-for-antiepileptic-drug-induced-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#12
Yi-Wu Shi, Fu-Li Min, Dong Zhou, Bin Qin, Juan Wang, Fa-Yun Hu, Ying-Kit Cheung, Jin-Hua Zhou, Xiang-Shu Hu, Jue-Qian Zhou, Lie-Min Zhou, Zhong-Zheng Zheng, Jie Pan, Na He, Zhi-Sheng Liu, Yun-Qi Hou, Kheng-Seang Lim, Yang-Mei Ou, Amy Hui-Ping Khor, Ching-Ching Ng, Bi-Jun Mao, Xiao-Rong Liu, Bing-Mei Li, Yao-Yun Kuan, Yong-Hong Yi, Xue-Lian He, Xiao-Yan Deng, Tao Su, Patrick Kwan, Wei-Ping Liao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci in aromatic antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to detect HLA loci involved in aromatic antiepileptic drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a southern Han Chinese population. Between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2015, 91 cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by aromatic antiepileptic drugs and 322 matched drug-tolerant controls were enrolled from 8 centers...
May 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472982/comparative-safety-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-congenital-malformations-and-prenatal-outcomes
#13
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Elise Cogo, Patricia Rios, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with epilepsy frequently experience seizures related to pregnancy complications and are often prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to manage their symptoms. However, less is known about the comparative safety of AED exposure in utero. We aimed to compare the risk of congenital malformations (CMs) and prenatal outcomes of AEDs in infants/children who were exposed to AEDs in utero through a systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis...
May 5, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470115/characterization-of-free-phenytoin-concentrations-in-end-stage-renal-disease-using-the-winter-tozer-equation
#14
Vincent V Soriano, Eljim P Tesoro, Sean P Kane
BACKGROUND: The Winter-Tozer (WT) equation has been shown to reliably predict free phenytoin levels in healthy patients. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), phenytoin-albumin binding is altered and, thus, affects interpretation of total serum levels. Although an ESRD WT equation was historically proposed for this population, there is a lack of data evaluating its accuracy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the ESRD WT equation in predicting free serum phenytoin concentration in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD)...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467333/bedsores-successfully-treated-with-topical-phenytoin
#15
Francesco Inchingolo, Dino Vermesan, Alessio D Inchingolo, Giuseppina Malcangi, Luigi Santacroce, Salvatore Scacco, Vincenzo Benagiano, Francesco Girolamo, Raffaele Cagiano, Monica Caprio, Lucia Longo, Antonia Abbianante, Angelo M Inchingolo, Gianna Di Palma, Angelo Tarullo, Maria Tattoli
Phenytoin is normally used in epilepsy treatment. One of the side effect affecting a significative part of the treated patients is the gingival overgrowth. It could surely be a correlation between this stimulatory effect and the assessment of phenytoin in wound healing. In fact, some studies of the literature have shown that topical phenytoin promotes healing of traumatic wounds, burns and ulcers by decubitus or stasis (diabetic or venous) and we emphasize, in vitiligo, a particular attention into repigmentation...
April 28, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460320/the-efficacy-of-different-kinds-of-intravenously-applied-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-status-epilepticus-how-can-it-be-determined
#16
Juliane Redecker, Matthias Wittstock, Johannes Rösche
We explored the influence of four different efficacy criteria on the results of observational studies concerning the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and its subtypes. We compared and contrasted the results of four different efficacy criteria for the effectiveness of phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. Criterion 1=the last antiepileptic drug (AED) administered before SE termination. Criterion 2=the last drug introduced into the antiepileptic therapy within 72h before the cessation of SE and without changes in dosage or number of the co-medication...
April 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458439/chronic-administration-of-phenytoin-and-pleomorphic-adenoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Vikas Maharshi, Pravesh Nagar
Adverse drug effects that are uncommon or appear only on chronic administration of a drug may not be detected in clinical trials. This explains the need of strict post-marketing vigilance on drug use. Phenytoin administration has been shown in the literature to be associated with development of neoplasia (benign/malignant). In our knowledge current work represents the first case of pleomorphic-adenoma of sub-mandibular salivary gland developed following chronic phenytoin use. A 40 year old male having a history of head trauma twenty years back, had been on tablet phenytoin 100 mg thrice daily since then...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449218/development-and-pharmacologic-characterization-of-the-rat-6-hz-model-of-partial-seizures
#18
Cameron S Metcalf, Peter J West, Kyle E Thomson, Sharon F Edwards, Misty D Smith, H S White, Karen S Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: The mouse 6 Hz model of psychomotor seizures is a well-established and commonly used preclinical model for antiseizure drug (ASD) discovery. Despite its widespread use both in the identification and differentiation of novel ASDs in mice, a corresponding assay in rats has not been developed. We established a method for 6 Hz seizure induction in rats, with seizure behaviors similar to those observed in mice including head nod, jaw clonus, and forelimb clonus. METHODS: A convulsive current that elicits these seizure behaviors in 97% of rats (CC97 ) was determined using a Probit analysis...
April 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439951/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-hypotension-after-intravenous-fosphenytoin-administration
#19
H K Kim, I G Hwang, I-S Koh, D W Kim
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Fosphenytoin (FOS) administered intravenously offers several benefits over intravenously administered phenytoin, including a faster infusion rate, decreased pain and irritation at the infusion site, and fewer cardiovascular complications. However, some studies suggest that the intravenous administration of FOS in some patients may also induce adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we investigated the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced hypotension following an intravenous infusion of a FOS loading dose...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433619/lack-of-pathogenic-mutations-in-sos1-gene-in-phenytoin-induced-gingival-overgrowth-patients
#20
Katia Margiotti, Giulia Pascolini, Federica Consoli, Valentina Guida, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Antonio Pizzuti, Alessandro De Luca
OBJECTIVE: Gingival overgrowth is a side effect associated with some distinct classes of drugs, such as anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. One of the main drugs associated with gingival overgrowth is the antiepileptic phenytoin, which affects gingival tissues by altering extracellular matrix metabolism. It has been shown that mutation of human SOS1 gene is responsible for a rare hereditary gingival fibromatosis type 1, a benign gingival overgrowth. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible contribution of SOS1 mutation to gingival overgrowth-related phenotype...
April 5, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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