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Phenytoine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054049/individual-variability-in-clinical-effect-and-tolerability-of-opioid-analgesics-importance-of-drug-interactions-and-pharmacogenetics
#1
REVIEW
Vigdis Solhaug, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. AIM: To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice...
October 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033630/impact-of-topiramate-on-rat-phrenic-nerve-hemidiaphragm-preparations
#2
Cem İsmail Küçükali, Erdem Tüzün, Asiye Nurten
INTRODUCTION: Topiramate has a negative modulatory effect on voltage-gated ion channels involved in neuromuscular junction transmission. To investigate the potential impact of topiramate on muscle contraction, phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were used as a neuromuscular junction model. METHODS: Phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations were isolated from rats and were mounted in oxygenated Krebs solution. Preparations were stimulated in the presence of topiramate and phenytoin with a rectangular pulse at 0...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030176/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-disposition-and-drug-drug-interactions-for-valproic-acid-and-divalproex
#3
Todd M Conner, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Manjunath P Pai, Hasan B Alam, Duxin Sun, Ronald C Reed, Tao Zhang
Valproic acid (VPA) is an older first-line antiepileptic drug with a complex pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, currently under investigation for several novel neurologic and non-neurologic indications. Our study objective was to design and validate a mechanistic model of VPA disposition in adults and children; and evaluate its predictive performance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study expands upon existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for VPA by incorporating UGT enzyme kinetics and an advanced dissolution, absorption, and metabolism (ADAM) model for extended-release (ER) formulation...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030037/solid-phase-extraction-based-on-porous-magnetic-graphene-oxide-%C3%AE-cyclodextrine-composite-coupled-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-determination-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-plasma-samples
#4
Jingyi Zhang, Donghao Liu, Xiaoyan Meng, Yi Shi, Ruya Wang, Deli Xiao, Hua He
In this study, a novel solid phase extraction based on porous magnetic graphene oxide-cyclodextrin polymers (MGO-CD) was developed with aromatic linker and used for the simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of trace antiepileptic drugs in plasma. The characteristics of MGO-CD were assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas (BET), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029947/a-neurological-emergency-trolley-reduces-turnaround-time-for-high-risk-medications-in-a-general-intensive-care-unit
#5
Henry Ajzenberg, Paula Newman, Gail-Anne Harris, Marnie Cranston, J Gordon Boyd
OBJECTIVES: To reduce medication turnaround times during neurological emergencies, a multidisciplinary team developed a neurological emergency crash trolley in our intensive care unit. This trolley includes phenytoin, hypertonic saline and mannitol, as well as other equipment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the cart reduced turnaround times for these medications. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, medication delivery times for two year epochs before and after its implementation were compared...
October 10, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029667/prediction-accuracy-of-winter-tozer-equations-to-estimate-free-phenytoin-concentrations-in-non-critically-ill-hospitalized-patients
#6
Ayesha M Khan, Marketa Marvanova
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the standard and revised Winter-Tozer (WT) equations of predicting free phenytoin (PHT) concentrations in non-critically ill, hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Single-center, large urban community hospital. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Patients with free PHT levels obtained during the study period were reviewed. Thirty-nine non-critically ill, hospitalized adults met the inclusion criteria...
August 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027197/the-risk-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-new-users-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#7
Noel Frey, Michael Bodmer, Andreas Bircher, Stephan Rüegg, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
OBJECTIVE: Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). However, evidence for newer AED is sparse. We quantified risks of SJS/TEN in association with use of all AEDs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: In a matched case-control study of 480 previously validated SJS/TEN cases (1995-2013) we used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and calculated absolute risks of SJS/TEN within separate cohorts of new users of 28 AEDs...
October 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026345/tolerated-drugs-in-subjects-with-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-scars-induced-by-anticonvulsants-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Fabrizio De Luca, Laura Michelina Losappio, Corrado Mirone, Jan Walter Schroeder, Antonella Citterio, Maria Gloria Aversano, Joseph Scibilia, Elide Anna Pastorello
BACKGROUND: Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome represents a rare but potentially fatal kind of adverse drug reaction. This clinical picture often hampers the flexibility with which alternative anticonvulsants or even other classes of drugs are prescribed in these patients, negatively affecting the efficacy of treatment and the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse a group of six patients with severe cutaneous drug reactions induced by anticonvulsants and to report which alternative antiepileptic drugs and which drugs of other classes were tolerated...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993152/phenytoin-repositioned-in-wound-healing-clinical-experience-spanning-60-years
#9
REVIEW
Jan M Keppel Hesselink
Drug repositioning is hot, and much development time and money can be spared if one selects an old drug and explores the efficacy and safety in a new indication. Phenytoin is studied and repositioned in many disorders after the initial indication epilepsy (from 1937). Its repositioning in depression was put in the spotlight by the Wall Street icon Jack Dreyfus, already in the 1970s. Innovations in the field of phenytoin still appear to be possible for a number of indications such as wound healing, bipolar disorder and aggression, and via a topical formulation for neuropathic pain...
October 6, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988516/quinine-and-carbenoxolone-enhance-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-some-classical-antiepileptic-drugs
#10
Javier Franco-Pérez, Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Cesar Rodríguez-Balderas, Nelly Castro, Paola Ballesteros-Zebadua
Objective Quinine (QUIN) and carbenoxolone (CNX) elicit anticonvulsant effects typically characterized by the reduction of the epileptiform activity as well as changes in behavioral parameters related to seizures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of these molecules on the anticonvulsant activity of some classical antiepileptic drugs. Methods Male Wistar rats were used. Valproate (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), or carbamazepine (CBZ) was administered at sub-therapeutic doses for intraperitoneal via...
October 8, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987539/statistical-investigation-of-the-full-concentration-range-of-fasted-and-fed-simulated-intestinal-fluid-on-the-equilibrium-solubility-of-oral-drugs
#11
Jeremy Perrier, Zhou Zhou, Claire Dunn, Ibrahim Khadra, Clive G Wilson, Gavin Halbert
Upon oral administration the solubility of a drug in intestinal fluid is a key property influencing bioavailability. It is also recognised that simple aqueous solubility does not reflect intestinal solubility and to optimise in vitro investigations simulated intestinal media systems have been developed. Simulated intestinal media which can mimic either the fasted or fed state consists of multiple components each of which either singly or in combination may influence drug solubility, a property that can be investigated by a statistical design of experiment technique...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981445/comparison-of-honey-and-phenytoin-pht-cream-effects-on-intensity-of-pain-and-episiotomy-wound-healing-in-nulliparous-women
#12
Mohadesseh Lavaf, Masoumeh Simbar, Faraz Mojab, Hamid Alavi Majd, Mansoureh Samimi
Background This study investigates and compares the effect of phenytoin and honey cream on intensity of pain and episiotomy wound healing in nulliparous women. Methods This research was conducted by double-blinded randomized clinical trial method on 120 nulliparous women in three groups of phenytoin, honey and placebo. After delivery and episiotomy, mothers used a knuckle of the prescribed creams on their episiotomy area, every night until 10-night. Evaluation of wound healing using REEDA scale and pain intensity with numerical rating scale of pain took place within the first 24 h and after 7 and 14 days of delivery...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977209/the-use-of-aromatase-inhibitors-in-boys-with-short-stature-what-to-know-before-prescribing
#13
REVIEW
Alessandra Linardi, Durval Damiani, Carlos A Longui
Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP19A1 isoform) able to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The aromatase gene mutations highlighted the action of estrogen as one of the main regulators of bone maturation and closure of bone plate. The use of aromatase inhibitors (AI) in boys with short stature has showed its capability to improve the predicted final height. Anastrozole (ANZ) and letrozole (LTZ) are nonsteroidal inhibitors able to bind reversibly to the heme group of cytochrome P450. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic profile of both drugs, discussing possible drug interactions between ANZ and LTZ with other drugs...
July 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973247/association-between-use-of-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-with-and-without-concurrent-medications-and-risk-of-major-bleeding-in-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Shang-Hung Chang, I-Jun Chou, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Meng-Jiun Chiou, Ming-Shien Wen, Chi-Tai Kuo, Lai-Chu See, Chang-Fu Kuo
Importance: Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are commonly prescribed with other medications that share metabolic pathways that may increase major bleeding risk. Objective: To assess the association between use of NOACs with and without concurrent medications and risk of major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database and including 91 330 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who received at least 1 NOAC prescription of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2016, with final follow-up on December 31, 2016...
October 3, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971387/evaluation-of-anti-epileptic-effect-of-new-indole-derivatives-by-estimation-of-biogenic-amines-concentrations-in-rat-brain
#15
Konda Swathi, Manda Sarangapani
The new heterocyclic compounds are used to treat epilepsy. In the present work new indole derivatives i.e. 5-[2(3)-di alkyl amino alkoxy] Indole 2,3-di-one derivatives are synthesized and characterized and these compounds was subjected to acute toxicity and then screened for antiepileptic activity on Maximal Electroshock (MES) seizures model in albino wistar rats. In that study 5-[2-dimethyl amino ethoxy] Indole 2,3 dione and 5-[2-dimethyl amino ethoxy] Indole 2-one,3-semicarbazone(IVa) showed good antiepileptic activity and less neurotoxicity compared to phenytoin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#16
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961159/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-expression-and-function-of-abc-transporters-and-their-interactions-with-abcc2
#17
Gurpreet Kaur Grewal, Samiksha Kukal, Neha Kanojia, Krateeka Madan, Luciano Saso, Ritushree Kukreti
ABC transporters have a significant role in drug disposition and response and various studies have implicated their involvement in epilepsy pharmacoresistance. Since genetic studies till now are inconclusive, we thought of investigating the role of xenobiotics as transcriptional modulators of ABC transporters. Here, we investigated the effect of six antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) viz. phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate and levetiracetam, on the expression and function of ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2 and ABCG2 in Caco2 and HepG2 cell lines through real time PCR, western blot and functional activity assays...
September 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957723/behavioral-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-rats-are-the-effects-on-mood-and-behavior-detectable-in-open-field-test
#18
Eva Zimcikova, Julius Simko, Iva Karesova, Jan Kremlacek, Jana Malakova
PURPOSE: Behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are common including both positive and negative effects on mood, anxiety, depression, and psychosis. We aimed to evaluate behavioral patterns in rats after administration of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin, topiramate, carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, and zonisamide. METHODS: The open-field test was performed and locomotion, rearing, grooming, central latency and defecation were recorded over a 5min interval for each rat (8 rats in each group receiving AED and 16 controls)...
September 20, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956451/topical-phenytoin-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-design-and-development
#19
Amira Motawea, Thanaa Borg, Abd El-Gawad H Abd El-Gawad
Phenytoin (PHT) is an antiepileptic drug that was reported to exhibit high wound healing activity. Nevertheless, its limited solubility, bioavailability, and inefficient distribution during topical administration limit its use. Therefore, this study aims to develop, characterize nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and evaluate their potential in topical delivery of PHT to improve the drug entrapment efficiency and sustained release. The NLCs were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method using 2(3) factorial design...
September 28, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946193/anticonvulsant-activity-organotypic-hippocampal-neuroprotection-assay-and-in-silico-sodium-channel-blocking-potential-of-2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole-derived-semicarbazones
#20
Rati Kailash Prasad Tripathi, Senthil Raja Ayyannan
Epilepsy is one of the dreadful neurodegenerative disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Currently available antiepileptic drugs are still associated with enormous side effects resulting in search of newer, more effective and safer agents. In view of this, we have investigated anticonvulsant activity of 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole derived semicarbazones (7-32) in various in-vivo animal seizure models viz. maximal electroshock (MES), subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) and 6Hz psychomotor seizure model...
September 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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