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Phenytoine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641582/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-for-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-protocol-convulsive-status-epilepticus-paediatric-trial-consept-a-predict-study
#1
Stuart R Dalziel, Jeremy Furyk, Megan Bonisch, Ed Oakley, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Cynthia Sharpe, Simon Harvey, Andrew Davidson, Simon Craig, Natalie Phillips, Shane George, Arjun Rao, Nicholas Cheng, Michael Zhang, Kam Sinn, Amit Kochar, Christine Brabyn, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641169/association-between-switching-antiepileptic-drug-products-and-healthcare-utilization-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Kwan, André Palmini
AIMS: There is ongoing concern whether switching between different antiepileptic drug (AED) products may compromise patient care. We systematically reviewed changes in healthcare utilization following AED switch. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1980-October 2016) for studies that assessed the effect of AED switching in patients with epilepsy on outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalization and hospital stay duration. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles met the inclusion criteria...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640738/evaluation-of-the-effect-and-mechanism-of-action-of-local-phenytoin-in-treatment-of-vitiligo
#3
Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Mohammed Abdelwahed Gaber, Nada Farag Elnaidany, Ayat Elnagar
There are many theories explaining vitiligo such as genetic, autoimmune, neural, free radicals, biochemical, intrinsic defect, melanocytorrhagy and convergent theories. Phenytoin is a widely used anticonvulsant, which is used in cutaneous medicine for treatment of ulcers and epidermolysis bullosa. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of topical phenytoin gel in treatment of vitiligo patients and explaining the underlying mechanism using immunohistochemistry for evaluation of HMB45, CD4 and CD8...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638280/anticonvulsant-hypersensitivity-syndrome-after-phenytoin-administration-in-an-adolescent-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Malik Ghannam, Shaden Mansour, Aya Nabulsi, Qusay Abdoh
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity is a rare adverse drug reaction (ADR) associated with anti-epileptic medications. Phenytoin is one of the commonly used drugs for treatment of epilepsy that encounters a hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction can be ranged from mild cutaneous rash to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) or drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) that includes fever, rash, eosinophilia and involvement of multiple internal organs. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15 year old middle eastern female patient from Gaza strip with free past medical and allergic history...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634141/one-step-preparation-of-spherical-drug-particles-by-contamination-free-dry-milling-technique-with-corn-starch-beads
#5
Toshiyuki Niwa, Maria Yoshida, Naoko Hayashi, Keita Kondo
The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632869/phenytoin-toxicity
#6
Arjun Gupta, Christina Yek, Robert S Hendler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629473/emergency-treatment-with-levetiracetam-or-phenytoin-in-status-epilepticus-in-children-the-eclipse-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Mark D Lyttle, Carrol Gamble, Shrouk Messahel, Helen Hickey, Anand Iyer, Kerry Woolfall, Amy Humphreys, Naomi E A Bacon, Louise Roper, Franz E Babl, Stuart R Dalziel, Mary Ryan, Richard E Appleton
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening neurological emergency in childhood. These children are also at risk of significant morbidity, with acute and chronic impact on the family and the health and social care systems. The current recommended first-choice, second-line treatment in children aged 6 months and above is intravenous phenytoin (fosphenytoin in the USA), although there is a lack of evidence for its use and it is associated with significant side effects...
June 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604172/opioids-combined-with-antidepressants-or-antiepileptic-drugs-for-cancer-pain-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Chris M Kane, Matthew R Mulvey, Sophie Wright, Cheryl Craigs, Judy M Wright, Michael I Bennett
BACKGROUND: Combining antidepressant or antiepileptic drugs with opioids has resulted in increased pain relief when used for neuropathic pain in non-cancer conditions. However, evidence to support their effectiveness in cancer pain is lacking. AIM: To determine if there is additional benefit when opioids are combined with antidepressant or antiepileptic drugs for cancer pain. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Randomised control trials comparing opioid analgesia in combination with antidepressant or antiepileptic drugs versus opioid monotherapy were sought...
June 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598192/evaluation-of-a-human-neural-stem-cell-culture-method-for-prediction-of-the-neurotoxicity-of-anti-epileptics
#9
Abdal-Jabbar Al-Rubai, Peter Wigmore, Margaret K Pratten
Human neural stem cells have been proposed as an in vitro model to predict neurotoxicity. In this study, the potential of in vitro cultures of human-derived neurospheres to predict the effects of various anti-epileptic drugs (sodium valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine and phenobarbitone) was evaluated. In general, these drugs had no significant effects on cell viability, total cellular protein, and neuronal process length at low doses, but at high doses these parameters were reduced significantly. Therapeutic doses of sodium valproate and phenytoin had a clear effect on neurosphere size and cell migration, with a significant reduction in both parameters when compared with the control group...
May 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595534/a-review-of-levetiracetam-in-neonates
#10
Amit Agrawal, Anita Banergee
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and are associated with various neurological sequelae. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the management of neonatal seizures and currently used drugs such as phenobarbital, and phenytoin have limited efficacy and potential toxicities. Newer second line anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, has been used in refractory neonatal seizures despite limited data and off-label use...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588366/neurocognitive-effect-of-nootropic-drug-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Nishant R Tiwari, Rakesh R Tiwari, Rohan S Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584772/kaposi-s-varicelliform-eruption-in-phenytoin-induced-erythroderma
#12
Kikkeri N Naveen, D Joshika Bhandary, M D Chandan, S B Athaniker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584608/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy
#13
Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Jyoti Burad, Asma Al-Belushi, Arun Gujjar
We present a case of a 38-year-old woman who was at eight weeks of gestation and was admitted to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital with refractory status epilepticus (SE). She presented with a two-day history of fever and a depressed level of consciousness that was followed with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. She progressed to refractory SE that required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Autoimmune workup was suggestive of Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) as suggested by the high levels of thyroid antibodies...
May 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575767/lacosamide-and-concomitant-use-of-antiepileptic-and-other-medications-in-a-us-population-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Linda Kalilani, Chao Lu, Bosny Pierre-Louis, Michael Gold
Information on the use of lacosamide and concomitant antiepileptic and non-antiepileptic drugs (non-AEDs) is available from clinical trials and observational studies with small sample sizes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted to gain insight into the use of lacosamide in a large number of patients with epilepsy in real-life clinical practice with less restrictive selection criteria compared with clinical trial participants. The Truven Health MarketScan (Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental) database was used to identify patients with a prior diagnosis of epilepsy with at least one prescription claim for lacosamide between June 2009 and September 2013 and continuous health insurance enrolment with medical and pharmacy coverage during the 1-year pre-index baseline period...
May 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571526/trpa1-channels-mediate-hgf-response-to-phenytoin
#15
M J López-González, E Luis, O Fajardo, V Meseguer, K Gers-Barlag, S Niñerola, F Viana
Drug-induced gingival enlargement (GE) is a frequent adverse effect observed in patients treated with anticonvulsant, immunosuppressant, and some antihypertensive medications-the antiepileptic phenytoin being the main drug associated with GE due to its high incidence (around 50%). The molecular mechanisms behind drug-induced gingival overgrowth are still unknown. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we demonstrate that the calcium-permeable ion channels TRPA1, TRPV1, and its capsaicin-insensitive isoform TRPV1b are expressed in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), the most abundant cellular type in periodontal tissue...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551543/justicia-spicigera-schltdl-and-kaempferitrin-as-potential-anticonvulsant-natural-products
#16
Ma Eva González-Trujano, Fabiola Domínguez, Gimena Pérez-Ortega, Miguel Aguillón, David Martínez-Vargas, Salvador Almazán-Alvarado, Adrián Martínez
Justicia spicigera Schltdl. is a vegetal species traditionally used to control epilepsy, but scientific evidence is required to reinforce this activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant-like activity of J. spicigera aqueous extract (JsAE) and a bioactive compound. JsAE was assessed in a dose-response manner (30, 100 and 1000mg/kg, i.p.) using the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice in comparison to ethosuximide (ETX, reference drug 100mg/kg, i...
May 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535865/intraperitoneal-administration-of-ethanol-as-a-means-of-euthanasia-for-neonatal-mice-mus-musculus
#17
Cecilia de Souza Dyer, Angela K Brice, James O Marx
The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitoneal injection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups (C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528211/intravenous-levetiracetam-vs-phenytoin-for-status-epilepticus-and-cluster-seizures-a-prospective-randomized-study
#18
Arunodaya R Gujjar, Ramachandiran Nandhagopal, Poovathoor C Jacob, Abdulhakeem Al-Hashim, Khalfan Al-Amrani, Shyam S Ganguly, Abdullah Al-Asmi
PURPOSE: Status Epilepticus (SE) is a common medical emergency carrying a high morbidity and mortality. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a novel anticonvulsant effective against varied seizures. Few prospective studies have addressed its use in SE. We aimed to examine the efficacy of intravenous LEV in controlling SE and cluster attacks of seizures (CS), in comparison with IV phenytoin (DPH), using a prospective, randomized study design. METHOD: Adult patients with SE or CS, following an initial dose of IV benzodiazepine to control ongoing seizure, were randomized to receive either medication...
July 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524224/-epileptic-encephalopathies-in-infancy-how-do-we-treat-them-does-the-aetiology-influence-the-response-to-treatment
#19
S Roldan
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to treatments is a common feature of Ohtahara, Aicardi, West and Dravet syndromes, as well as malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. AIMS: To update the therapeutic management and to analyse whether the aetiology somehow determines the treatment. DEVELOPMENT: Convulsive seizures in the first year of life may be due to a potentially treatable aetiology, which makes it essential to carry out a complete evaluation so as to be able to begin, as early as possible, the most suitable and the non-specific symptomatic treatments to control the seizures, which prevents or minimises their deleterious effects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523600/sodium-channel-blockers-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#20
Martin J Brodie
Sodium channel blockers have been the mainstay of the pharmacological management of focal and generalised tonic-clonic seizures for more than 70 years. The focus of this paper will be on phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine acetate. All these antiepileptic drugs have similar efficacy and share similar dose-dependent, adverse effect profiles, although phenytoin, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are more likely to cause idiosyncratic reactions than the others...
May 18, 2017: CNS Drugs
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