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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432329/affinity-biosensors-using-recombinant-native-membrane-proteins-displayed-on-exosomes-application-to-botulinum-neurotoxin-b-receptor
#1
Richard Desplantes, Christian Lévêque, Benjamin Muller, Manuela Lotierzo, Géraldine Ferracci, Michel Popoff, Michael Seagar, Robert Mamoun, Oussama El Far
The development of simple molecular assays with membrane protein receptors in a native conformation still represents a challenging task. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles which, due to their stability and small size, are suited for analysis in various assay formats. Here, we describe a novel approach to sort recombinant fully native and functional membrane proteins to exosomes using a targeting peptide. Specific binding of high affinity ligands to the potassium channel Kv1.2, the G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4, and the botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B) receptor, indicated their correct assembly and outside out orientation in exosomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431598/apraclonidine-in-the-treatment-of-ptosis
#2
Subhashie Wijemanne, Dhanya Vijayakumar, Joseph Jankovic
Transient ptosis is a known complication of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection due to inadvertent migration of toxin into the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Currently there is no treatment available for BoNT induced ptosis. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a topical ophthalmic solution with selective alpha-2 and weak alpha-1 receptor agonist activity that has the ability to elevate the eye lid. Apraclonidine has been used as a diagnostic test in Horner's syndrome. We evaluated the effects apraclonidine in a cohort of BoNT induced ptosis and a patient with Horner syndrome...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410268/long-term-anti-itch-effect-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-trpv1-and-trpa1-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-mice
#3
Lei-Fang Cao, Meng Si, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Xiao-Yan Peng, Ya-Qin Qin, Teng-Teng Liu, Yan Zhou, Tong Liu, Wei-Feng Luo
Itch is a common symptom in patients with skin and systemic diseases, but the effective treatment is limited. Here, we evaluated the anti-itch effects of the botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) using acute and chronic dry skin itch mouse models, which were induced by compound 48/80, chloroquine, and a mixture of acetone-diethylether-water treatment, respectively. Pretreatment of intradermal BoNT/A exerted long-term inhibitory effects on compound 48/80-induced and chloroquine-induced acute itch on days 1, 3, 7, and 14, but not on day 21, in mice...
April 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405508/antigen-receptor-redirected-t-cells-derived-from-hematopoietic-precursor-cells-lack-expression-of-the-endogenous-tcr-cd3-receptor-and-exhibit-specific-antitumor-capacities
#4
Yasmine Van Caeneghem, Stijn De Munter, Paola Tieppo, Glenn Goetgeluk, Karin Weening, Greet Verstichel, Sarah Bonte, Tom Taghon, Georges Leclercq, Tessa Kerre, Reno Debets, David Vermijlen, Hinrich Abken, Bart Vandekerckhove
Recent clinical studies indicate that adoptive T-cell therapy and especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a very potent and potentially curative treatment for B-lineage hematologic malignancies. Currently, autologous peripheral blood T cells are used for adoptive T-cell therapy. Adoptive T cells derived from healthy allogeneic donors may have several advantages; however, the expected occurrence of graft versus host disease (GvHD) as a consequence of the diverse allogeneic T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire expressed by these cells compromises this approach...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396495/clonal-selection-and-asymmetric-distribution-of-human-leukemia-in-murine-xenografts-revealed-by-cellular-barcoding
#5
Mirjam E Belderbos, Taco Koster, Bertien Ausema, Sabrina Jacobs, Sharlaine Sowdagar, Erik Zwart, Eveline de Bont, Gerald de Haan, Leonid V Bystrykh
Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of human leukemia is thought to drive leukemia progression through a Darwinian process of selection and evolution of increasingly malignant clones. However, the lack of markers to uniquely identify individual leukemia clones precludes high resolution tracing of their clonal dynamics. Here, we employ cellular barcoding to analyze the clonal behavior of patient-derived leukemia-propagating cells (LPCs) in murine xenografts. Using a leukemic cell line and diagnostic bone marrow cells from six patients with B-progenitor cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), we demonstrate that patient-derived xenografts were highly polyclonal, consisting of tens to hundreds of LPC clones...
April 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394862/the-facial-platysma-and-its-underappreciated-role-in-lower-face-dynamics-and-contour
#6
Ada R T de Almeida, Alessandra Romiti, Jean D A Carruthers
BACKGROUND: The platysma is a superficial muscle involved in important features of the aging neck. Vertical bands, horizontal lines, and loss of lower face contour are effectively treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). However, its pars facialis, mandibularis, and modiolaris have been underappreciated. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the role of BoNT-A treatment of the upper platysma and its impact on lower face dynamics and contour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases treated by an injection pattern encompassing the facial platysma components, aiming to block the lower face as a whole complex...
April 6, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389376/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-cleaved-snap25-is-confined-to-primary-motor-neurons-and-localized-on-the-plasma-membrane-following-intramuscular-toxin-injection
#7
Brian B Cai, Joseph Francis, Mitchell F Brin, Ron S Broide
The mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) is well characterized, but some published evidence suggests the potential for neuronal retrograde transport and cell-to-cell transfer (transcytosis) under certain experimental conditions. The present study evaluated the potential for these processes using a highly selective antibody for the BoNT/A-cleaved substrate (SNAP25197) combined with 3-dimensional imaging. SNAP25197 was characterized in a rat motor neuron (MN) pathway following toxin intramuscular injections at various doses to determine whether SNAP25197 is confined to MNs or also found in neighboring cells or nerve fibers within spinal cord (SC)...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388720/new-uses-of-abobotulinumtoxina-in-aesthetics
#8
Joel Schlessinger, Erin Gilbert, Joel L Cohen, Joely Kaufman
BotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) is now widely established for the main approved indication of reducing glabellar lines, and is also widely used off-label to improve the appearance of wrinkles and lines in other parts of the face. The number of aesthetic procedures continues to increase as the patient population becomes more diverse, in particular with increasing numbers of people of color and men. Further developments in treatment may continue to expand the audience for BoNT-A by making procedures more comfortable and by delivering a more natural, less static appearance...
May 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388719/the-practical-use-of-abobotulinumtoxina-in-aesthetics
#9
Michael A C Kane, Gary Monheit
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been approved for aesthetic use since 2002. Since then, clinical studies and expert use have informed our understanding of how BoNT exerts its clinical effect and the practical use of this product across a number of aesthetic applications. This review discusses the clinical properties and characteristics of abobotulinumtoxinA, which patients are suitable for its use, and how it can be utilized to treat facial rhytides.
May 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388718/abobotulinumtoxina-a-25-year-history
#10
Gary D Monheit, Andy Pickett
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Alan Scott showed that intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin (BoNT) corrected nonaccommodative strabismus without resorting to surgery. The UK doctors who trained with Scott soon realized the significant potential offered by BoNT type A as a therapeutic option for several difficult-to-treat diseases. This led to a collaboration between these pioneering clinicians and the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research at Porton Down, United Kingdom, and, in turn, to the development and commercialization of abobotulinumtoxinA as Dysport (Dystonia/Porton Down; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd...
May 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388717/key-parameters-for-the-use-of-abobotulinumtoxina-in-aesthetics-onset-and-duration
#11
Mark Nestor, Glynis Ablon, Andy Pickett
Time to onset of response and duration of response are key measures of botulinum toxin efficacy that have a considerable influence on patient satisfaction with aesthetic treatment. However, there is no overall accepted definition of efficacy for aesthetic uses of botulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Mechanical methods of assessment do not lend themselves to clinical practice and clinicians rely instead on assessment scales such as the Frontalis Activity Measurement Standard, Frontalis Rating Scale, Wrinkle Severity Scale, and Subject Global Assessment Scale, but not all of these have been fully validated...
May 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385185/antibody-responses-to-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-of-toxin-treated-spastic-equinus-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-two-injection-schedules
#12
Minako Oshima, Philip Deitiker, Tandy Hastings-Ison, K Roger Aoki, H Kerr Graham, M Zouhair Atassi
We have conducted a 26-month-long comparative study involving young patients (2-6years old) with a clinical diagnosis of spastic equinus secondary to cerebral palsy who have been treated with BoNT/A (BOTOX®, Allergan) tri-annually or annually. Serum samples were obtained to determine the presence or absence of blocking antibodies (Abs) by a mouse protection assay (MPA) and levels of anti-BoNT/A Abs by radioimmune assay (RIA). HLA DQ alleles were typed using blood samples to determine the possible association of certain HLA type(s) with the disease or with the Ab status...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382110/botulinum-toxin-in-the-management-of-chronic-migraine-clinical-evidence-and-experience
#13
REVIEW
Claus M Escher, Lejla Paracka, Dirk Dressler, Katja Kollewe
Chronic migraine (CM) is a severely disabling neurological condition characterized by episodes of pulsating unilateral or bilateral headache. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox(®)) for the prophylactic treatment of CM in 2010. It has been shown that onabotulinumtoxinA is effective in the reduction of headache frequency and severity in patients with CM. Treatment is well tolerated by the patients. This review reports on the history of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in CM and presents the current clinical evidence for the use of onabotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of CM...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374597/-foodborne-botulism-a-re-emerging-public-health-challenge
#14
R Mezencev, C Klement
Human foodborne botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) of serotypes A, B, E, and rarely also serotype F, produced in contaminated food by anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum group I, group II, or by toxigenic strains of C. butyricum and C. baratii. BoNT-producing Clostridia are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and, under suitable conditions, they can enter the food chain, proliferate and produce BoNT in a variety of foods. In the past, the risk of foodborne botulism was primarily associated with homemade canned foods; however, the epidemiological importance of commercial and restaurant food is increasing nowadays...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369715/robustness-of-metacommunities-with-omnivory-to-habitat-destruction-disentangling-patch-fragmentation-from-patch-loss
#15
Jinbao Liao, Daniel Bearup, Yeqiao Wang, Ivan Nijs, Dries Bonte, Yuanheng Li, Ulrich Brose, Shaopeng Wang, Bernd Blasius
Habitat destruction, characterized by patch loss and fragmentation, is a major driving force of species extinction, and understanding its mechanisms has become a central issue in biodiversity conservation. Numerous studies have explored the effect of patch loss on food web dynamics, but ignored the critical role of patch fragmentation. Here we develop an extended patch-dynamic model for a tri-trophic omnivory system with trophic-dependent dispersal in fragmented landscapes. We found that species display different vulnerabilities to both patch loss and fragmentation, depending on their dispersal range and trophic position...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368456/interference-between-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-rhinovirus-infection-in-infancy
#16
Niek B Achten, Pingsheng Wu, Louis Bont, Maarten O Blanken, Tebeb Gebretsadik, James D Chappell, Li Wang, Chang Yu, Emma K Larkin, Kecia N Carroll, Larry J Anderson, Martin L Moore, Chantel D Sloan, Tina V Hartert
Background.: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) are the most common viruses associated with acute respiratory tract infections in infancy. Viral interference is important in understanding respiratory viral circulation and the impact of vaccines. Methods.: To study viral interference, we evaluated cases of RSV and HRV codetection by polymerase chain reaction in 2 prospective birth cohort studies (the Infant Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infections and Asthma Following RSV Exposure [INSPIRE] study and the Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative [TCRI]) and a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial (MAKI), using adjusted multivariable regression analyses...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363980/a-presynaptic-group-iii-mglur-recruits-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-snare-interactions-to-inhibit-synaptic-transmission-by-cone-photoreceptors-in-the-vertebrate-retina
#17
Matthew J Van Hook, Norbert Babai, Zack Zurawski, Yun Young Yim, Heidi E Hamm, Wallace B Thoreson
G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) interact with presynaptic proteins and regulate neurotransmitter release downstream of Ca(2+) influx. To accomplish their roles in sensory signaling, photoreceptor synapses employ specialized presynaptic proteins that support neurotransmission at active zone structures known as ribbons. While several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) influence synaptic transmission at ribbon synapses of cones and other retinal neurons, it is unknown whether Gβγ contributes to these effects...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363953/avathrin-a-novel-thrombin-inhibitor-derived-from-a-multi-copy-precursor-in-the-salivary-glands-of-the-ixodid-tick-amblyomma-variegatum
#18
Janaki Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Cho Yeow Koh, Maria Kazimirova, Ladislav Roller, Chacko Jobichen, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan, Jun Mizuguchi, Sadaaki Iwanaga, Patricia A Nuttall, Mark Y Chan, R Manjunatha Kini
Tick saliva is a rich source of antihemostatic compounds. We amplified a cDNA from the salivary glands of the tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum) using primers based on the variegin sequence, which we previously identified as a novel thrombin inhibitor from the same tick species. The transcript encodes a precursor protein comprising a signal peptide and 5 repeats of variegin-like sequences that could be processed into multiple short peptides. These peptides share 31 to 34% identity with variegin. Here, we structurally and functionally characterized one of these peptides named "avathrin...
March 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359137/an-ultrasensitive-gold-nanoparticle-based-lateral-flow-test-for-the-detection-of-active-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a
#19
Jing Liu, Shan Gao, Lin Kang, Bin Ji, Wenwen Xin, Jingjing Kang, Ping Li, Jie Gao, Hanbin Wang, Jinglin Wang, Hao Yang
Botulism is a severe and potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by several botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia spp. In China, the majority of the cases caused by botulism were from less-developed rural areas. Here, we designed specific substrate peptides and reconfigured gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow test strip (LFTS) to develop an endopeptidase-based lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of botulism. We performed this lateral flow assay on botulinum neurotoxin-spiked human serum samples. The as-prepared LFTS had excellent performance in the detection of botulinum neurotoxin using only 1 μL of simulated serum, and its sensitivity and specificity were comparable to that of mouse lethality assay...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357706/the-burden-and-long-term-respiratory-morbidity-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-early-childhood
#20
REVIEW
Brigitte Fauroux, Eric A F Simões, Paul A Checchia, Bosco Paes, Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Louis Bont, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. The objective of this fifth publication was to determine the long-term respiratory morbidity associated with RSV lower respiratory tract infection (RSV LRTI) in early life. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
March 29, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
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