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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141611/are-paraspinous-intramuscular-injections-of-botulinum-toxin-a-bont-a-efficient-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain-a-randomised-double-blinded-crossover-trial
#1
Mélanie Cogné, Hervé Petit, Alexandre Creuzé, Dominique Liguoro, Mathieu de Seze
BACKGROUND: Treatment for patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP) is a public health issue. Intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) have shown an analgesic effect on LBP in two previous randomized controlled studies. The objective of the study was to verify the efficacy of paravertebral injections of BoNT-A in patients with LBP. METHODS: Patients were included in this phase 3 randomized double-blinded trial comparing the efficacy of BoNT-A versus placebo in a crossover study on LBP...
November 15, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140753/a-mutated-recombinant-subunit-vaccine-protects-mice-and-guinea-pigs-against-botulinum-type-a-intoxication
#2
Chi Ho Yu, Dong Hyun Song, Jun Young Choi, Hae Eun Joe, Woo Hyeon Jeong, Gyeung Haeng Hur, Young Kee Shin, Seong Tae Jeong
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxins to mammals. A toxoid vaccine was previously used for prevention of botulinum intoxication; however, this vaccine is no longer available. Currently, no approved botulinum vaccines are available from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recently, a recombinant host cell receptor-binding subunit created for use as a potential vaccine completed phase 2 clinical trials. The current study designed a vaccine candidate against BoNT type A (BoNT/A) using a structural design...
November 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123067/genomic-history-of-the-seventh-pandemic-of-cholera-in-africa
#3
François-Xavier Weill, Daryl Domman, Elisabeth Njamkepo, Cheryl Tarr, Jean Rauzier, Nizar Fawal, Karen H Keddy, Henrik Salje, Sandra Moore, Asish K Mukhopadhyay, Raymond Bercion, Francisco J Luquero, Antoinette Ngandjio, Mireille Dosso, Elena Monakhova, Benoit Garin, Christiane Bouchier, Carlo Pazzani, Ankur Mutreja, Roland Grunow, Fati Sidikou, Laurence Bonte, Sébastien Breurec, Maria Damian, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Guillaume Sapriel, Anne-Laure Page, Monzer Hamze, Myriam Henkens, Goutam Chowdhury, Martin Mengel, Jean-Louis Koeck, Jean-Michel Fournier, Gordon Dougan, Patrick A D Grimont, Julian Parkhill, Kathryn E Holt, Renaud Piarroux, Thandavarayan Ramamurthy, Marie-Laure Quilici, Nicholas R Thomson
The seventh cholera pandemic has heavily affected Africa, although the origin and continental spread of the disease remain undefined. We used genomic data from 1070 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates, across 45 African countries and over a 49-year period, to show that past epidemics were attributable to a single expanded lineage. This lineage was introduced at least 11 times since 1970, into two main regions, West Africa and East/Southern Africa, causing epidemics that lasted up to 28 years. The last five introductions into Africa, all from Asia, involved multidrug-resistant sublineages that replaced antibiotic-susceptible sublineages after 2000...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122969/single-ca-2-transients-versus-oscillatory-ca-2-signalling-limitations-and-benefits
#4
Minerva Ferrer-Buitrago, Davina Bonte, Petra De Sutter, Luc Leybaert, Bjorn Heindryckx
Oocyte activation is a calcium (Ca(2+)) dependent process that has been investigated in depth, in particular regarding its impact in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Following a standard model of signal transduction, Ca(2+) drives the meiotic progression upon fertilization in all species studied to date. However, Ca(2+) changes during oocyte activation are species specific and they can be classified in two modalities based on the pattern defined by the Ca(2+) signature: a single Ca(2+) transient (e.g...
November 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117291/does-botulinum-toxin-injection-into-masseter-muscles-affect-subcutaneous-thickness
#5
Gunwoo Park, Young-Chan Choi, Jung-Hee Bae, Seong-Taek Kim
Background: Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is widely used to treat masseter muscle hypertrophy. Changes in the muscle thickness have been found in many studies, but there has been no report on changes in the thickness from the skin surface to the masseter muscle. Objectives: We aimed to use ultrasonography to measure not only changes in the muscle thickness but also changes in subcutaneous thickness. Methods: This study enrolled 20 volunteer patients: 10 were assigned to an experimental group (injected with each side 25 U of botulinum toxin into both masseter muscles) and 10 to a control group (injected with normal saline)...
June 21, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116170/injection-of-high-dose-botulinum-toxin-a-leads-to-impaired-skeletal-muscle-function-and-damage-of-the-fibrilar-and-non-fibrilar-structures
#6
Jessica Pingel, Mikkel Schou Nielsen, Torsten Lauridsen, Kristian Rix, Martin Bech, Tine Alkjaer, Ida Torp Andersen, Jens Bo Nielsen, R Feidenhansl
Botulinum-toxin A (BoNT/A) is used for a wide range of conditions. Intramuscular administration of BoNT/A inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction from presynaptic motor neurons causing muscle-paralysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high dose intramuscular BoNT/A injections (6 UI = 60 pg) on muscle tissue. The gait pattern of the rats was significantly affected 3 weeks after BoNT/A injection. The ankle joint rotated externally, the rats became flat footed, and the stride length decreased after BoNT/A injection...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114581/building-block-architecture-of-botulinum-toxin-complex-conformational-changes-provide-insights-into-the-hemagglutination-ability-of-the-complex
#7
Tomonori Suzuki, Yoshimasa Sagane, Takashi Matsumoto, Kimiko Hasegawa, Akihito Yamano, Koichi Niwa, Toshihiro Watanabe
Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Previously, we provided evidence for the "building-block" model of botulinum toxin complex (TC). In this model, a single BoNT is associated with a single nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), yielding M-TC; three HA-70 molecules are attached and form M-TC/HA-70, and one to three "arms" of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer (two HA-33 and one HA-17) further bind to M-TC/HA-70 via HA-17 and HA-70 binding, yielding one-, two-, and three-arm L-TC. Of all TCs, only the three-arm L-TC caused hemagglutination...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114239/botulinumtoxin-improves-both-generic-and-disease-specific-quality-of-life-in-cervical-dystonia
#8
Daniel Weiss, Leonhard Hieber, Justine Sturm, Axel Börtlein, Ingo Mayr, Matthias Appy, Benedicta Kühnler, Joachim Buchthal, Christian Dippon, Guy Arnold, Tobias Wächter
Botulinumtoxin injection (BoNT) into affected muscles is effective to improve motor symptoms of cervical dystonia (CD) by reducing muscle contraction and involuntary dystonic movement and posturing. However, the understanding of the effect on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and patient referral under HR-QoL aspects is incomplete. In this open-label clinical prospective observational study, we characterized the outcomes in CD (n = 159) from botulinumtoxin on both generic HR-QoL (EuroQol; EQ-5D-5L) and disease-specific HR-QoL [craniocervical dystonia questionnaire (CDQ-24)]...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112955/salmonella-typhimurium-dt193-and-dt99-are-present-in-great-and-blue-tits-in-flanders-belgium
#9
R Boonyarittichaikij, E Verbrugghe, D Dekeukeleire, R De Beelde, L O Rouffaer, R Haesendonck, D Strubbe, W Mattheus, S Bertrand, F Pasmans, D Bonte, K Verheyen, L Lens, A Martel
Endemic infections with the common avian pathogen Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) may incur a significant cost on the host population. In this study, we determined the potential of endemic Salmonella infections to reduce the reproductive success of blue (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great (Parus major) tits by correlating eggshell infection with reproductive parameters. The fifth egg of each clutch was collected from nest boxes in 19 deciduous forest fragments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111426/when-movement-disorders-hurt-addressing-pain-in-hyperkinetic-disorders
#10
Maja Relja, Vladimir Miletić
Pain is an important nonmotor symptom in movement disorders. Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by involuntary, sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal movements, postures or both. Contrary to common views the nonmotor symptoms are present in dystonia patients. Pain is a prevailing feature of cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of focal dystonia. The mechanism of pain in CD remains mostly unknown, but there are growing evidence that it could not be only the consequence of muscle hyperactivity...
August 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111119/direct-central-nervous-system-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin
#11
Matteo Caleo, Laura Restani
Local intramuscular injections of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) are effective in the treatment of focal dystonias, muscle spasms, and spasticity. However, not all clinical effects of BoNT/A may be explained by its action at peripheral nerve terminals. For example, the therapeutic benefit may exceed the duration of the peripheral neuroparalysis induced by the neurotoxin. In cellular and animal models, evidence demonstrates retrograde transport of catalytically active BoNT/A in projection neurons. This process of long-range trafficking is followed by transcytosis and action at second-order synapses...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#12
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110415/structural-and-functional-studies-of-differentially-o-glycosylated-analogs-of-a-thrombin-inhibitory-peptide-variegin
#13
Pidathala R V Shabareesh, Ashish Kumar, Dinakar M Salunke, Kanwal J Kaur
Variegin is a 32-amino acid long thrombin inhibitory peptide isolated from the salivary gland extract of tropical bont tick Amblyomma variegatum. It was identified to be O-glycosylated on its Thr-14 side chain, and this glycosylated form was 14-fold more potent than that of its non-glycosylated form. However, as the identity of this glycosylation remained elusive, the mechanistic details underlying its functional impact are not yet known. In this report, we synthesized four different O-glycosylated analogs of variegin bearing physiologically relevant sugars on its Thr-14...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099066/chemodenervation-of-the-larynx
#14
REVIEW
Rachel Kaye, Andrew Blitzer
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has existed for thousands of years; however, it was not medically utilized until investigations into its therapeutic use began in sincerity during the late 1970s and 1980s. This, coupled with the reclassification of spasmodic dysphonia as a focal dystonia, led to the use of chemodenervation for this disorder, which has since become a refined technique. Indeed, due to its safety and efficacy, BoNT has been investigated in multiple neurolaryngology disorders, including spasmodic dysphonia, vocal tremor, and muscle tension dysphonia...
November 2, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093524/development-of-a-multiplex-endopep-ms-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-botulinum-toxins-a-b-and-e
#15
Osnat Rosen, Liron Feldberg, Tamar Shamai Yamin, Eyal Dor, Ada Barnea, Avi Weissberg, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. The Endopep-MS assay permits rapid detection and serotypic differential diagnosis of BoNTs. The serotype-specific nature of this assay requires that each serum sample be aliquoted and individually tested, which in addition to the limited volume of clinical samples, especially in infants, points to the need for a multiplex assay. However, previous attempts to develop such an assay have been challenging, mainly due to inhibition of BoNT/A activity by the BoNT/E peptide substrate...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089183/corrigendum-to-graph-analysis-of-eeg-resting-state-functional-networks-in-dyslexic-readers-clin-neurophysiol-127-9-2016-3165-3175
#16
G Fraga González, M J W Van der Molen, G Žarić, M Bonte, J Tijms, L Blomert, C J Stam, M W Van der Molen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084148/neurophysiological-measures-of-efficacy-and-safety-for-botulinum-toxin-injection-in-facial-and-bulbar-muscles-special-considerations
#17
REVIEW
Mohammad Alimohammadi, Anna Rostedt Punga
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections into facial and bulbar muscles are widely and increasingly used as medical treatments for cervical and facial dystonia, facial hemispasm, correction of facial palsy, hyperhidrosis, as well as cosmetic treatment of glabellar lines associated with grief and anger. Although BoNT treatment is generally considered safe, the diffusion of the toxin to surrounding muscles may result in complications, including difficulties swallowing, in a dose-dependent manner. The sensitivity of clinical examination for detecting adverse events after BoNT treatment is limited...
October 30, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074396/translocation-and-dissemination-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-from-the-intestinal-tract
#18
Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease degradation. BoNT trafficking from the digestive tract to the target neurons is still a matter of debate. BoNTs use different strategies to pass through the intestinal barrier including passage of BoNT complexes containing hemagglutinins (HAs) via M cells, HA-dependent perturbation of E-cadherin intercellular junctions between enterocytes and paracellular passage of BoNT complexes, and transcytosis of BoNT free of NAPs through certain intestinal epithelial cells...
October 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066869/treatment-satisfaction-with-botulinum-toxin-a-comparison-between-blepharospasm-and-cervical-dystonia
#19
Bernd Leplow, Anna Eggebrecht, Johannes Pohl
BACKGROUND: Differential effects of botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment in cervical dystonia (CD) and blepharospasm (BSP) treatment satisfaction and emotional responses to a life with a disabling condition were investigated. Special interest was drawn to the course within a BoNT treatment cycle and the effects of subjective well-being vs perceived intensity of motor symptoms and quality of life. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed among 372 CD patients and 125 BSP patients, recruited from 13 BoNT centers throughout Germany...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#20
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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