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Coxsackievirus, poliovirus, picornavirus

Cristina M Dorobantu, Lucian Albulescu, Heyrhyoung Lyoo, Mirjam van Kampen, Raffaele De Francesco, Volker Lohmann, Christian Harak, Hilde M van der Schaar, Jeroen R P M Strating, Alexander E Gorbalenya, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate "replication organelles" (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner...
May 2016: MSphere
Amary Fall, Ndongo Dia, Ousmane Kébé, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Davy E Kiori, El Hadj Abdoul Khadir Cissé, Sara Sy, Deborah Goudiaby, Vincent Richard, Ousmane Madiagne Diop, Mbayame Ndiaye Niang
Different viruses have been identified as etiologic agents of respiratory tract infections, including severe cases. Among these, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are recognized as leading causes. The present study describes the molecular epidemiology of HRVs and HEVs in Senegal over a 3-year surveillance period. From January 2012 to December 2014, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs specimen were collected from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for HRV and HEV detection using the RV16 kit...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cristina M Dorobantu, Lucian Albulescu, Christian Harak, Qian Feng, Mirjam van Kampen, Jeroen R P M Strating, Alexander E Gorbalenya, Volker Lohmann, Hilde M van der Schaar, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Cardioviruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and the human Saffold virus, are small non-enveloped viruses belonging to the Picornaviridae, a large family of positive-sense RNA [(+)RNA] viruses. All (+)RNA viruses remodel intracellular membranes into unique structures for viral genome replication. Accumulating evidence suggests that picornaviruses from different genera use different strategies to generate viral replication organelles (ROs). For instance, enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus) rely on the Golgi-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB), while cardioviruses replicate independently of the kinase...
September 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Julienne M Jagdeo, Antoine Dufour, Gabriel Fung, Honglin Luo, Oded Kleifeld, Christopher M Overall, Eric Jan
UNLABELLED: Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteinM(hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing...
July 2015: Journal of Virology
Lonneke van der Linden, Laia Vives-Adrián, Barbara Selisko, Cristina Ferrer-Orta, Xinran Liu, Kjerstin Lanke, Rachel Ulferts, Armando M De Palma, Federica Tanchis, Nesya Goris, David Lefebvre, Kris De Clercq, Pieter Leyssen, Céline Lacroix, Gerhard Pürstinger, Bruno Coutard, Bruno Canard, David D Boehr, Jamie J Arnold, Craig E Cameron, Nuria Verdaguer, Johan Neyts, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. Nucleoside-based inhibitors have broad-spectrum activity but often exhibit off-target effects. Most non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) target surface cavities, which are structurally more flexible than the nucleotide-binding pocket, and hence have a more narrow spectrum of activity and are more prone to resistance development...
March 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Matthew F Cusick, Jane E Libbey, Robert S Fujinami
Viruses, such as HIV, hepatitis A, poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 and foot-and-mouth disease virus, use a variety of mechanisms to suppress the human immune system in order to evade clearance by the host. Therefore, investigating how a few changes in the viral genome of a nonlethal virus can lead to an alteration in disease, from survivable to immunosuppression and death, would provide valuable information into viral pathogenesis. In addition, we propose that gaining a better insight into how these viruses suppress an antiviral immune response could lead to viral-based therapeutics to combat specifc autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Type 1 diabetes...
May 1, 2014: Future Virology
Barbara Holmblat, Sophie Jégouic, Claire Muslin, Bruno Blondel, Marie-Line Joffret, Francis Delpeyroux
Most of the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have been shown to be recombinants between the type 2 poliovirus (PV) strain of the oral polio vaccine (Sabin 2) and another species C human enterovirus (HEV-C), such as type 17 coxsackie A virus (CA17) in particular. We studied intertypic genetic exchanges between PV and non-PV HEV-C by developing a recombination model, making it possible to rescue defective type 2 PV RNA genomes with a short deletion at the 3' end by the cotransfection of cells with defective or infectious CA17 RNAs...
2014: MBio
Qian Feng, Martijn A Langereis, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
The family Picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis A virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornavirus infections activate a cytosolic RNA sensor, MDA5, which in turn, induces a type I interferon response, a crucial component of antiviral immunity. Moreover, picornaviruses activate the formation of stress granules (SGs), large aggregates of preassembled mRNPs (messenger ribonucleoprotein particles) to temporarily store these molecules upon cellular stress...
October 2014: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Burk Jubelt, Howard L Lipton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Lauren A Ford Siltz, Ekaterina G Viktorova, Ben Zhang, Diana Kouiavskaia, Eugenia Dragunsky, Konstantin Chumakov, Lyle Isaacs, George A Belov
UNLABELLED: Few drugs targeting picornaviruses are available, making the discovery of antivirals a high priority. Here, we identified and characterized three compounds from a library of kinase inhibitors that block replication of poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3, and encephalomyocarditis virus. Using an in vitro translation-replication system, we showed that these drugs inhibit different stages of the poliovirus life cycle. A4(1) inhibited both the formation and functioning of the replication complexes, while E5(1) and E7(2) were most effective during the formation but not the functioning step...
October 2014: Journal of Virology
Miao Wang, Zeqian Gao, Li Pan, Yongguang Zhang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a subtype of short, endogenous, and non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. The miRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanism is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses. Picornaviridae is a large family of RNA viruses, which includes a number of causative agents of many human and animal diseases viz., poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)...
2014: RNA Biology
Scott M Robinson, Ginger Tsueng, Jon Sin, Vrushali Mangale, Shahad Rahawi, Laura L McIntyre, Wesley Williams, Nelson Kha, Casey Cruz, Bryan M Hancock, David P Nguyen, M Richard Sayen, Brett J Hilton, Kelly S Doran, Anca M Segall, Roland Wolkowicz, Christopher T Cornell, J Lindsay Whitton, Roberta A Gottlieb, Ralph Feuer
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the picornavirus family and enterovirus genus, causes viral myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis in humans. We genetically engineered a unique molecular marker, "fluorescent timer" protein, within our infectious CVB3 clone and isolated a high-titer recombinant viral stock (Timer-CVB3) following transfection in HeLa cells. "Fluorescent timer" protein undergoes slow conversion of fluorescence from green to red over time, and Timer-CVB3 can be utilized to track virus infection and dissemination in real time...
April 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Andrea L Cathcart, Bert L Semler
During infection by picornaviruses, the cellular environment is modified to favour virus replication. This includes the modification of specific host proteins, including the recently discovered viral proteinase cleavage of mRNA decay factor AU-rich binding factor 1 (AUF1). This cellular RNA-binding protein was shown previously to act as a restriction factor during poliovirus, rhinovirus and coxsackievirus infection. During infection by these viruses, AUF1 relocalizes to the cytoplasm and is cleaved by the viral 3C/3CD proteinase...
July 2014: Journal of General Virology
Peter D Burbelo, Kathryn H Ching, Caryn G Morse, Ilias Alevizos, Ahmad Bayat, Jeffrey I Cohen, Mir A Ali, Amit Kapoor, Sarah K Browne, Steven M Holland, Joseph A Kovacs, Michael J Iadarola
Despite the important diagnostic value of evaluating antibody responses to individual human pathogens, antibody profiles against multiple infectious agents have not been used to explore health and disease mainly for technical reasons.  We hypothesized that the interplay between infection and chronic disease might be revealed by profiling antibodies against multiple agents. Here, the levels of antibodies against a panel of 13 common infectious agents were evaluated with the quantitative Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) in patients from three disease cohorts including those with pathogenic anti-interferon-γ autoantibodies (IFN-γ AAB), HIV and Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) to determine if their antibody profiles differed from control subjects...
2013: PloS One
Martijn A Langereis, Qian Feng, Frank H T Nelissen, Richard Virgen-Slane, Gerbrand J van der Heden van Noort, Sonia Maciejewski, Dmitri V Filippov, Bert L Semler, Floris L van Delft, Frank J M van Kuppeveld
Picornaviruses constitute a large group of viruses comprising medically and economically important pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, enterovirus 71 and foot-and-mouth disease virus. A unique characteristic of these viruses is the use of a viral peptide (VPg) as primer for viral RNA synthesis. As a consequence, all newly formed viral RNA molecules possess a covalently linked VPg peptide. It is known that VPg is enzymatically released from the incoming viral RNA by a host protein, called TDP2, but it is still unclear whether the release of VPg is necessary to initiate RNA translation...
February 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Andreas Dotzauer, Leena Kraemer
Picornaviruses, small positive-stranded RNA viruses, cause a wide range of diseases which is based on their differential tissue and cell type tropisms. This diversity is reflected by the immune responses, both innate and adaptive, induced after infection, and the subsequent interactions of the viruses with the immune system. The defense mechanisms of the host and the countermeasures of the virus significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of the infections. Important human pathogens are poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinovirus and hepatitis A virus...
June 12, 2012: World Journal of Virology
François Téoulé, Cynthia Brisac, Isabelle Pelletier, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Sophie Jégouic, Carmen Mirabelli, Maël Bessaud, Nicolas Combelas, Arnaud Autret, Frédéric Tangy, Francis Delpeyroux, Bruno Blondel
We have shown that the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have recombinant genomes composed of sequences encoding capsid proteins derived from poliovaccine Sabin, mostly type 2 (PVS2), and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other human enteroviruses. Interestingly, almost all of these recombinant genomes encode a nonstructural 3A protein related to that of field coxsackievirus A17 (CV-A17) strains. Here, we investigated the repercussions of this exchange, by assessing the role of the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 and their putative cellular partners in viral replication...
October 2013: Journal of Virology
Andrea L Cathcart, Janet M Rozovics, Bert L Semler
To successfully complete their replication cycles, picornaviruses modify several host proteins to alter the cellular environment to favor virus production. One such target of viral proteinase cleavage is AU-rich binding factor 1 (AUF1), a cellular protein that binds to AU-rich elements, or AREs, in the 3' noncoding regions (NCRs) of mRNAs to affect the stability of the RNA. Previous studies found that, during poliovirus or human rhinovirus infection, AUF1 is cleaved by the viral proteinase 3CD and that AUF1 can interact with the long 5' NCR of these viruses in vitro...
October 2013: Journal of Virology
Kerry D Fitzgerald, Amanda J Chase, Andrea L Cathcart, Genevieve P Tran, Bert L Semler
Infection of mammalian cells by picornaviruses results in the nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of certain host cell proteins. These viruses interfere with import-export pathways, allowing for the cytoplasmic accumulation of nuclear proteins that are then available to function in viral processes. We recently described the cytoplasmic relocalization of cellular splicing factor SRp20 during poliovirus infection. SRp20 is an important internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) for poliovirus IRES-mediated translation; however, it is not known whether other picornaviruses utilize SRp20 as an ITAF and direct its cytoplasmic relocalization...
March 2013: Journal of Virology
Matthew G Kortus, Brian J Kempf, Kevin G Haworth, David J Barton, Olve B Peersen
Positive-strand RNA viruses within the Picornaviridae family express an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3D(pol), that is required for viral RNA replication. Structures of 3D(pol) from poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinoviruses, and other picornaviruses reveal a putative template RNA entry channel on the surface of the enzyme fingers domain. Basic amino acids and tyrosine residues along this entry channel are predicted to form ionic and base stacking interactions with the viral RNA template as it enters the polymerase active site...
April 6, 2012: Journal of Molecular Biology
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