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Growth rate

Maxime Cailleret, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M R Robert, Lucía Desoto, Tuomas Aakala, Joseph A Antos, Barbara Beikircher, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianiga, Vojtěch Čada, J Julio Camarero, Paolo Cherubini, Hervé Cochard, Marie R Coyea, Katarina Čufar, Adrian J Das, Hendrik Davi, Sylvain Delzon, Michael Dorman, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo, Sten Gillner, Laurel J Haavik, Henrik Hartmann, Ana-Maria Hereş, Kevin R Hultine, Pavel Janda, Jeffrey M Kane, Vyacheslav I Kharuk, Thomas Kitzberger, Tamir Klein, Koen Kramer, Frederic Lens, Tom Levanic, Juan Carlos Linares Calderon, Francisco Lloret, Raquel Lobo-Do-Vale, Fabio Lombardi, Rosana López Rodríguez, Harri Mäkinen, Stefan Mayr, Ilona Mészáros, Juha M Metsaranta, Francesco Minunno, Walter Oberhuber, Andreas Papadopoulos, Mikko Peltoniemi, Any Mary Petritan, Brigitte Rohner, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda, Dimitrios Sarris, Jeremy M Smith, Amanda B Stan, Frank Sterck, Dejan B Stojanović, Maria Laura Suarez, Miroslav Svoboda, Roberto Tognetti, José M Torres-Ruiz, Volodymyr Trotsiuk, Ricardo Villalba, Floor Vodde, Alana R Westwood, Peter H Wyckoff, Nikolay Zafirov, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key factor influencing forest functions and dynamics, but our understanding of the mechanisms leading to mortality and the associated changes in tree growth rates are still limited. We compiled a new pan-continental tree-ring width database from sites where both dead and living trees were sampled (2,970 dead and 4,224 living trees from 190 sites, including 36 species), and compared early and recent growth rates between trees that died and those that survived a given mortality event. We observed a decrease in radial growth before death in ca...
October 19, 2016: Global Change Biology
Mohammad-Ali Yazdani Abyaneh, Peter Engel, Andrzej Slominski, Bruce Ragsdale, Richard Agag, Daniel Cramer, J Andrew Carlson
BACKGROUND: Giant basal cell carcinomas (GBCCs), (BCC ≥ 5 cm), are often painless, destructive tumors resulting from poorly understood patient neglect. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate etiopathogenic factors distinguishing GBCC from basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and identify predictors for disease-specific death (DSD). METHODS: Case-control study examining clinicopathologic and neuroactive factors (β-endorphin, met-enkephalin, serotonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and neurofilament expression) in GBCC and BCC...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Lee H Jeon, Eric W Sankey, Jennifer Lu, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Joshua A Crawford, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jiadi Xu, Ari Blitz, Daniel A Herzka, Barbara Crain, Alicia Hulbert, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, James P McAllister, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniele Rigamonti
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of adult chronic hydrocephalus is not fully understood, and the temporal relationship between development of the radiological changes and neurological deterioration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the progression of radiological-histological changes and subsequent clinical manifestations of adult chronic hydrocephalus. METHODS: Kaolin was injected bilaterally into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities in 20 adult rats...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
I-Shiang Tzeng, Su-Hsun Liu, Kuan-Fu Chen, Chin-Chieh Wu, Jih-Chang Chen
To reduce patient boarding time at the emergency department (ED) and to improve the overall quality of the emergent care system in Taiwan, the Minister of Health and Welfare of Taiwan (MOHW) piloted the Grading Responsible Hospitals for Acute Care (GRHAC) audit program in 2007-2009.The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the GRHAC audit program on the identification and management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-associated ED visits by describing and comparing the incidence of AMI-associated ED visits before (2003-2007), during (2007-2009), and after (2009-2012) the initial audit program implementation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking has often been used as a proxy measure of creative thinking, but this practice lacks a foundation in modern cognitive psychological theory. This article addresses several issues with the classic divergent-thinking methodology and presents a new theoretical and methodological framework for cognitive divergent-thinking studies. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of divergent-thinking responses is presented. Latent semantic analysis was used to examine the potential changes in semantic distance between responses and the concept represented by the divergent-thinking prompt across successive response iterations...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Hjalte C R Sass, Rehannah Borup, Mikkel Alanin, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Per Cayé-Thomasen
The objective of this study was to determine global gene expression in relation to Vestibular schwannomas (VS) growth rate and to identify signal transduction pathways and functional molecular networks associated with growth. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery determined tumor growth rate. Following tissue sampling during surgery, mRNA was extracted from 16 sporadic VS. Double stranded cDNA was synthesized from the mRNA and used as template for in vitro transcription reaction to synthesize biotin-labeled antisense cRNA, which was hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133A arrays and analyzed by dChip software...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jeffrey P Stephens, Aaron B Stoler, Jason P Sckrabulis, Aaron J Fetzer, Keith A Berven, Scott D Tiegs, Thomas R Raffel
According to ecological stoichiometry (ES), the growth of a consumer with abundant resources should increase as body and resource stoichiometry become more similar. However, for organisms with complex life cycles involving distinct changes in biology, nutrient demands might change in response to ontogenetic changes in body stoichiometry. Tadpole growth and development has been found to be largely nitrogen (N) limited, as predicted for organisms developing N-rich tissues like muscle. However, tadpole metamorphosis includes periods of rapid development of phosphorus (P)-rich bones in preparation for a terrestrial lifestyle...
October 17, 2016: Oecologia
Ashley M Stokes, Charles P Hart, C Chad Quarles
High-grade gliomas are often characterized by hypoxia, which is associated with both poor long-term prognosis and therapy resistance. The adverse role hypoxia plays in treatment resistance and disease progression has led to the development of hypoxia imaging methods and hypoxia-targeted treatments. Here, we determined the tumor hypoxia and vascular perfusion characteristics of 2 rat orthotopic glioma models using 18-fluoromisonidozole positron emission tomography. In addition, we determined tumor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in these rat glioma models...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Jung-Soo Pyo, Guhyun Kang, Hyunjin Cho
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and diagnostic accuracy of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for determining the mesenchymal epidermal transition (c-MET) expression in patients with gastric cancer (GC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present meta-analysis investigated the correlation between c-MET expression as determined by IHC and the clinicopathological parameters in 8,395 GC patients from 37 studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Samuel Dery, Frances da-Costa Vroom, Anthony Godi, Seth Afagbedzi, Duah Dwomoh
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that ICT adoption contributes to productivity and economic growth. It is therefore important that health workers have knowledge in ICT to ensure adoption and uptake of ICT tools to enable efficient health delivery. OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge and use of ICT among students of the College of Health Sciences at the University of Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among students in all the five Schools of the College of Health Sciences at the University of Ghana...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
J Hu, X Y Zou, H Zhuang, X J Gao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of three root canal sealers with respect to time on biocompatibility of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs).The sealers included zinc oxide and eugenol based sealers (ZOE), epoxy resin sealers (ERS) and silicone based sealers (SBS). METHODS: hPDLCs were primarily cultured,with the method combining of tissue explant and enzymatic digestion. The cells were then exposed to different extract fluids: (1) ZOE extracted for 24 h group ;(2) ZOE extracted for 1 week group;(3)ZOE extracted for 2 weeks group;(4) ERS extracted after 24 h group; (5) ERS extracted after 1 week group; (6) ERS extracted after 2 weeks group; (7) SBS extracted after 24 h group; (8) SBS extracted after 1 week group; (9) SBS extracted after 2 weeks group; (10) Dulbecco modified Eagle's medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) as negative control group...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, Dafeng Hui, Danfeng Huang
To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yichao Rui, Daniel V Murphy, Xiaoli Wang, Frances C Hoyle
Rebuilding 'lost' soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO2. Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aníbal M Reyes, Diego S Vazquez, Ari Zeida, Martín Hugo, M Dolores Piñeyro, María Inés De Armas, Darío Estrin, Rafael Radi, Javier Santos, Madia Trujillo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is the intracellular bacterium responsible for tuberculosis disease (TD). Inside the phagosomes of activated macrophages, M. tuberculosis is exposed to cytotoxic hydroperoxides such as hydrogen peroxide, fatty acid hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. Thus, the characterization of the bacterial antioxidant systems could facilitate novel drug developments. In this work, we characterized the product of the gene Rv1608c from M. tuberculosis, which according to sequence homology had been annotated as a putative peroxiredoxin of the peroxiredoxin Q subfamily (PrxQ B from M...
October 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
H Calvete-Sogo, I González-Fernández, H García-Gómez, R Alonso, S Elvira, J Sanz, V Bermejo-Bermejo
Ozone (O3) critical levels (CLe) are still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation. They are currently based on single species responses which do not reflect the multi-species nature of semi-natural vegetation communities. Also, the potential effects of other factors like the nitrogen (N) input are not considered in their derivation, making their use uncertain under natural conditions. Exposure- and dose-response relationships were derived from two open-top chamber experiments exposing a mixture of 6 representative annual Mediterranean pasture species growing in natural soil to 4 O3 fumigation levels and 3 N inputs...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Garabed Eknoyan
Diseases of the kidney are old, but the discipline dedicated to their study, nephrology, is barely more than 50 years old. As recounted in this recollection of those events, the rudiments of what would become nephrology emerged in the time between the 2 World Wars from basic studies of normal kidney function and flourished after the integration of their methodologies into clinical medicine thereafter. Although shaped by studies of kidney function in the 1960s, it was the subsequent advent of dialysis that fueled the growth of nephrology well into the 21st century...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Emilie Cauchie, Mathieu Gand, Gilles Kergourlay, Bernard Taminiau, Laurent Delhalle, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In order to control food losses and wastage, monitoring the microbial diversity of food products, during processing and storage is important, as studies have highlighted the metabolic activities of some microorganisms which can lead to spoilage. Knowledge of this diversity can be greatly improved by using a metagenetic approach based on high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which enables a much higher resolution than culture-based methods. Moreover, the Jameson effect, a phenomenon described by Jameson in 1962, is often used to classify bacterial strains within an ecosystem...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Liang Xiao, Xiao-Cheng Yin, Qiang-Qiang Cao
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the diallyl disulfide (DADS)-induced apoptosis of K562 cells. METHODS: K562 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were treated with 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/L DADS for 48 hours, then fixed and stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB), and examined for cellular morphological changes under an inverted microscope. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used for determining the apoptotic rates, and Western blot for measuring the expression of AKT, p-AKT, and Caspase-3...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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