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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#1
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346909/bioaugmentaton-in-technosols-created-in-abandoned-pyritic-tailings-can-contribute-to-enhance-soil-c-sequestration-and-plant-colonization
#2
Raúl Zornoza, Melisa Gómez-Garrido, Silvia Martínez-Martínez, María Dolores Gómez-López, Ángel Faz
Creation of Technosols in combination with phytostabilization may be a sustainable strategy to minimize the environmental and human health hazards derived from mine tailings. Bioaugmentation can facilitate plant establishment and growth for efficient phytostabilization. In order to assess if bioaugmentation can increase soil quality and fertility, decrease metal(loid) mobility and accelerate plant colonization, a one-year field experiment was designed with creation of Technosols in two tailings ponds with different pH (acidic (AT) and neutral (NT)), with addition of marble waste (MaW) and two organic materials (pig manure (PM) and sewage sludge (SS), without or with inoculation of effective microorganisms (EM) at three rates...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346724/acclimation-of-bloom-forming-and-perennial-seaweeds-to-elevated-pco2-conserved-across-levels-of-environmental-complexity
#3
Dong Xu, C-Elisa Schaum, Fan Lin, Ke Sun, James R Munroe, Xiao W Zhang, Xiao Fan, Lin H Teng, Yi T Wang, Zhi Z Zhuang, Nai H Ye
Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom-forming/non-bloom-forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an in-door mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO2 levels ranging from 400 μatm to 2000 μatm...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346673/clinical-features-of-bim-deletion-polymorphism-and-its-relation-with-crizotinib-primary-resistance-in-chinese-patients-with-alk-ros1-fusion-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Limin Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xuefei Li, Yan Wang, Chao Zhao, Sha Zhao, Lei Xi, Shijia Zhang, Xiaozhen Liu, Yijun Jia, Hui Yang, Jinpeng Shi, Chunxia Su, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou
BACKGROUND: The authors' previous study demonstrated that the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (Bcl-2)-like 11 (BCL2L11) (Bim) deletion polymorphism was associated with poor clinical response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of the Bim deletion polymorphism among patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive or ROS proto-oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1)-positive NSCLC who were treated with crizotinib...
March 27, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346426/mrl-proteins-cooperate-with-activated-ras-in-glia-to-drive-distinct-oncogenic-outcomes
#5
E Taylor, N Alqadri, L Dodgson, D Mason, E Lyulcheva, G Messina, D Bennett
The Mig10/RIAM/Lpd (MRL) adapter protein Lpd regulates actin dynamics through interactions with Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP proteins to promote the formation of cellular protrusions and to stimulate invasive migration. However, the ability of MRL proteins to interact with multiple actin regulators and to promote serum response factor (SRF) signalling has raised the question of whether MRL proteins employ alternative downstream mechanisms to drive oncogenic processes in a context-dependent manner. Here, using a Drosophila model, we show that overexpression of either human Lpd or its Drosophila orthologue Pico can promote growth and invasion of Ras(V12)-induced cell tumours in the brain...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346421/serpinb2-regulates-stromal-remodelling-and-local-invasion-in-pancreatic-cancer
#6
N L E Harris, C Vennin, J R W Conway, K L Vine, M Pinese, M J Cowley, R F Shearer, M C Lucas, D Herrmann, A H Allam, M Pajic, J P Morton, A V Biankin, M Ranson, P Timpson, D N Saunders
Pancreatic cancer has a devastating prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of ~8%, restricted treatment options and characteristic molecular heterogeneity. SerpinB2 expression, particularly in the stromal compartment, is associated with reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and our genomic analysis revealed that SERPINB2 is frequently deleted in PDAC. We show that SerpinB2 is required by stromal cells for normal collagen remodelling in vitro, regulating fibroblast interaction and engagement with collagen in the contracting matrix...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346221/direct-nucleation-morphology-and-compositional-tuning-of-inas1-x-sb-x-nanowires-on-inas-111-b-substrates
#7
Luna Namazi, Sepideh Gorji Ghalamestani, Sebastian Lehmann, Reza R Zamani, Kimberly A Dick
III-V ternary nanowires are interesting due to the possibility of modulating their physical and material properties by tuning their material composition. Amongst them InAs1-x Sb x nanowires are good candidates for applications such as Infrared detectors. However, this material has not been grown directly from substrates, in a large range of material compositions. Since the properties of ternaries are alterable by tuning their composition, it is beneficial to gain access to a wide range of composition tunability...
April 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346136/environment-determines-evolutionary-trajectory-in-a-constrained-phenotypic-space
#8
David T Fraebel, Harry Mickalide, Diane Schnitkey, Jason Merritt, Thomas E Kuhlman, Seppe Kuehn
Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346107/a-high-throughput-method-for-measuring-drug-residence-time-using-the-transcreener-adp-assay
#9
Meera Kumar, Robert G Lowery
Analysis of drug-target residence times during drug development can result in improved efficacy, increased therapeutic window, and reduced side effects. Residence time can be estimated as the reciprocal of the dissociation rate ( koff) of an inhibitor from its target. The traditional methods for measuring koff require synthesis of labeled ligands or low-throughput label-free methods. To provide an alternative that is better suited to an automated high-throughput screening (HTS) environment, we adapted a classic "jump dilution" catalytic assay method for determination of koff values for kinase inhibitor drugs...
February 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345864/triple-stage-mass-spectrometry-unravels-the-heterogeneity-of-an-endogenous-protein-complex
#10
Gili Ben-Nissan, Mikhail E Belov, David Morgenstern, Yishai Levin, Orly Dym, Galina Arkind, Carni Lipson, Alexander A Makarov, Michal Sharon
The way we perceive protein complexes is changing. What were once thought to be uniform entities may actually represent an ensemble of different assemblies with distinct functions and regulation. This increased complexity is enabled by the variety of protein diversification mechanisms that exist at every step of the protein biosynthesis pathway, such as alternative splicing and post transcriptional and translational modifications. The resulting variation in subunits can generate compositionally distinct protein assemblies...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345862/quantification-of-lipid-metabolism-in-living-cells-through-the-dynamics-of-lipid-droplets-measured-by-stimulated-raman-scattering-imaging
#11
Chi Zhang, Junjie Li, Lu Lan, Ji-Xin Cheng
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases including cancer. Lipid droplet (LD), a ubiquitous organelle in mammalian cells, serves as a hub for lipid metabolism. Conventional assays on the measurement of lipid metabolism rely on the quantification of the lipid composition or amount. Such methods cannot distinguish LDs having different bio-functionalities in living cells, and thus could be inaccurate in measuring the instantaneous lipogenesis of the living cells. We applied label-free stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to quantify the LDs' spatial-temporal dynamics, which showed direct links to cellular lipid metabolisms and can separate LDs involving in different metabolic events...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345813/effect-of-the-interaction-between-mir-200b-3p-and-dnmt3a-on-cartilage-cells-of-osteoarthritis-patients
#12
Jian Wu, Yunjuan Tao, Anquan Shang, Weiwei Wang, Yujie Zhang, Liqing Hu, Jun Wang, Yuan Wang, Naizhou Guo
The aim of this research is to explore the effect of miR-200b-3p targeting DNMT3A on the proliferation and apoptosis of osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to analyse the expression of miR-200b-3p, DNMT3A, MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MMP13 and COL II in normal and OA cartilage tissues. The dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot assay were conducted to confirm the targeting relationship between miR-200b-3p and DNMT3A. We also constructed eukaryotic expression vector to overexpress miR-200b-3p and DNMT3A...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345797/metabolomics-strategy-for-the-mapping-of-volatile-exometabolome-from-saccharomyces-spp-widely-used-in-the-food-industry-based-on-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography
#13
Cátia Martins, Tiago Brandão, Adelaide Almeida, Sílvia M Rocha
Saccharomyces spp. are widely used in the food and beverages industries. Their cellular excreted metabolites are important for products' general quality and can contribute to product differentiation. This exploratory study presents a metabolomics strategy for the comprehensive mapping of cellular metabolites of two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus (both collected in an industrial context) through a multidimensional chromatography platform. Solid-phase microextraction was used as a sample preparation method...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345713/real-time-quantification-of-endothelial-response-to-shear-stress-and-vascular-modulators
#14
Jackson G DeStefano, Ashley Williams, Alexa Wnorowski, Nahom Yimam, Peter C Searson, Andrew D Wong
Quiescence is commonly used to describe the inactive state of endothelial cells (ECs) in monolayers that have reached homeostasis. Experimentally quiescence is usually described in terms of the relative change in cell activity (e.g. turnover, speed, etc.) in response to a perturbation (e.g. solute, shear stress, etc.). The objective of this study is to provide new insight into EC quiescence by quantitatively defining the morphology and activity of confluent cell monolayers in response to shear stress and vascular modulators...
March 27, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345696/interfacially-al-doped-zno-nanowires-greatly-enhanced-near-band-edge-emission-through-suppressed-electron-phonon-coupling-and-confined-optical-field
#15
Yiming Wu, Yanmeng Dai, Shenlong Jiang, Chao Ma, Yue Lin, Dongxue Du, Yukun Wu, Huaiyi Ding, Qun Zhang, Nan Pan, Xiaoping Wang
Aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with a unique core-shell structure and a Δ-doping profile at the interface were successfully grown using a combination of chemical vapor deposition re-growth and few-layer AlxOy atomic layer deposition. Unlike the conventional heavy doping which degrades the near-band-edge (NBE) luminescence and increases the electron-phonon coupling (EPC), it was found that there was an over 20-fold enhanced NBE emission and a notably-weakened EPC in this type of interfacially Al-doped ZnO NWs...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345350/boron-enhanced-growth-of-micron-length-carbon-based-nanowalls-a-route-towards-high-rates-electrochemical-biosensing
#16
Katarzyna Siuzdak, Mateusz Ficek, Michal Sobaszek, Jacek Ryl, Marcin Gnyba, Paweł Niedziałkowski, Natalia Malinowska, Jakub Karczewski, Robert Bogdanowicz
In this study we have demonstrated the fabrication of novel material called boron-doped carbon nanowalls (B:CNW) which is characterized by remarkable electrochemical properties like high standard rate constant k°, low peak to peak separation value (ΔE) for oxidation and reduction processes of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox system and low surface resistivity. The B:CNW samples were deposited by the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a gas mixture of H2:CH4:B2H6 and N2. Growth results in sharp edge, flat and long carbon nanowalls rich in sp2 as well as sp3 hybridized phases...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344904/insect-herbivores-increase-mortality-and-reduce-tree-seedling-growth-of-some-species-in-temperate-forest-canopy-gaps
#17
Nathan P Lemoine, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012-2014) deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344885/pappalysin-1-t-cell-receptor-transgenic-allo-restricted-t-cells-kill-ewing-sarcoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Andreas Kirschner, Melanie Thiede, Thomas G P Grünewald, Rebeca Alba Rubio, Günther H S Richter, Thomas Kirchner, Dirk H Busch, Stefan Burdach, Uwe Thiel
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA), also known as pappalysin, is a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. PAPPA acts as a protease, cleaving IGF inhibitors, i.e., IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), thereby setting free IGFs. The insulin/IGF-axis is involved in cancer in general and in Ewing sarcoma (ES) in particular. ES is a highly malignant bone tumor characterized by early metastatic spread. PAPPA is associated with various cancers. It is overexpressed and required for proliferation in ES...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344881/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-in-mmtv-pymt-induced-mammary-oncogenesis
#19
Emilie T E Gross, Semi Han, Prasantha Vemu, Carlos D Peinado, Martin Marsala, Lesley G Ellies, Jack D Bui
Evidence of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting processes has been primarily demonstrated in mouse models of chemically induced oncogenesis. Although these models are very tractable, they are characterized by high mutational loads that represent a minority of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting could be demonstrated in a more clinically relevant oncogene-induced model of carcinogenesis, the MMTV-PyMT (PyMT) mammary carcinoma model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344871/description-of-the-immune-microenvironment-of-chondrosarcoma-and-contribution-to-progression
#20
François A Simard, Iseulys Richert, Alexandra Vandermoeten, Anne-Valérie Decouvelaere, Jean-Philippe Michot, Christophe Caux, Jean-Yves Blay, Aurélie Dutour
Chondrosarcoma (CHS) is a rare bone malignancy characterized by its resistance to conventional systemic and radiation therapies. Whether immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints may be active in these tumors remains unknown. To explore the role of the immune system in this tumor, we analyzed the immune environment of chondrosarcomas both in human sample, and in a syngeneic rat model, and tested the contribution of T lymphocytes and macrophages in chondrosarcoma progression. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed on human chondrosarcoma samples and on Swarm rat chondrosarcoma (SRC) model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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